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Detecting Einstein’s Elusive Waves
Opening a New Window to the Universe
LIGO-India: An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal
IndIGO Consortium
(Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)
Version: pI_v1 Jun 20, 2011 : TS
Beauty & Precision
Einstein’s General theory of
relativity is the most
beautiful, as well as,
theory of modern physics.
It has matched all experimental tests
of Gravitation remarkably well.
Era of precision tests : GP-B,….
Einstein’s Gravity predicts
• Matter in motion Space-time ripples
fluctuations in space-time curvature that
propagate as waves
Gravitational waves (GW)
In GR, as in EM, GW travel at the speed of light (i.e.,
mass-less) , are transverse and have two states of
• The major qualitatively unique prediction
beyond Newton’s gravity
Begs direct verification !!!
A Century of Waiting
• Almost 100 years since Einstein predicted GW but no
direct experimental confirmation (a la Hertz for
Maxwell EM theory)
• Two Fundamental Difference between GR and EM
- Weakness of Gravitation relative to EM (10^-39)
-Spin two nature of Gravitation vs Spin one of EM that forbids dipole
radiation in GR
• Low efficiency for conversion of mechanical energy
to GW. Feeble effects of GW on a Detector
• GW Hertz experiment ruled out. Only astrophysical systems
involving huge masses and accelerating very strongly are
potential detectable sources of GW signals.
GW  Astronomy link
Astrophysical systems are sources of copious GW emission:
•GW emission efficiency (10% of mass for BH mergers) >>
EM radiation via Nuclear fusion (0.05% of mass)
Energy/mass emitted in GW from binary >> EM radiation in the lifetime
• Universe is buzzing with GW signals from cores of astrophysical events
Bursts (SN, GRB), mergers, accretion, stellar cannibalism ,…
• Extremely Weak interaction, hence, has been difficult to detect directly
But also implies GW carry unscreened & uncontaminated signals
GW from Binary Neutron stars
Indirect evidence for Gravity waves
Binary pulsar systems emit gravitational waves
leads to loss of orbital
period speeds up 14 sec
from 1975-94
measured to ~50 msec
deviation grows
quadratically with time
Nobel prize
in 1993 !!!
Hulse and Taylor
Results for PSR1913+16
Astrophysical Sources for Terrestrial GW Detectors
• Compact binary inspiral:
• Supernovas or GRBs: “bursts”
– GW signals observed in coincidence
with EM or neutrino detectors
• Pulsars in our galaxy: “periodic waves”
– Rapidly rotating neutron stars
– Modes of NS vibration
• Cosmological: “stochastic background” ?
– Probe back to the Planck time (10-43 s)
– Probe phase transitions : window to force unification
– Cosmological distribution of Primordial black holes
Courtesy;: Stan Whitcomb
Gravitational wave Astronomy :
Synergy with other major Astronomy projects
SKA -Radio : Pulsars timing,
X-ray satellite (AstroSat) : High energy physics
Gamma ray observatory:
Thirty Meter Telescope: Resolving multiple AGNs, gamma ray
follow-up after GW trigger,…
• LSST: Astro-transients with GW triggers.
• INO: neutrino signals
GWIC Roadmap Document
Challenge of Direct Detection
Gravitational wave is measured in
terms of strain,
(change in length/original length)
Gravitational waves are very weak!
Expected amplitude of GW
h  10
Measure changes of
 10
one part in thousand-billion-billion!
Principle behind Detection of GW
Effect of GW on a ring of test masses
Interferometer mirrors as test masses
Using GWs to Learn about the Source: an Example
Over two decades,
RRI involved in
computation of
inspiral waveforms
for compact
binaries & their
implications and
IUCAA in its Data
Analysis Aspects.
Can determine
• Distance from the earth r
• Masses of the two bodies
• Orbital eccentricity e and orbital inclination i
Era of Advanced LIGO detectors: 2015
10x sensitivity
10x reach
 1000 volume
>> 1000 event rate
(reach beyond
nearest super-
A Day of Advanced
LIGO Observation >>
A year of Initial LIGO
Expected Annual Coalescence Event Rates
Initial LIGO
(2002 -2006)
Enhanced LIGO
(2X Sensitivity)
Advanced LIGO
(10X sensitivity)
(2014 - …)
In a 95% confidence interval, rates uncertain by 3 orders of magnitude
NS-NS (0.4 - 400); NS-BH (0.2 - 300) ; BH-BH (2 - 4000) yr^-1
Based on Extrapolations from observed Binary Pulsars, Stellar birth rate
estimates, Population Synthesis models. Rates quoted below are mean of the distribution.
GW Astronomy with Intl. Network of GW Observatories
1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info.
GEO: 0.6km
LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km
VIRGO: 3km
LCGT 3 km
LIGO-India ?
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Source localization error
Original plan
2 +1 LIGO USA+ Virgo
LIGO-India plan
1+1 LIGO USA+ Virgo+ LIGO India
LIGO-Aus plan
1+1 LIGO USA+ Virgo+ LIGO Aus
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Polarization info
Homogeneity of Sky coverage
Courtesy: B. Schutz
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Sky coverage
: Synthesized
(antenna power)
Courtesy: B. Schutz
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Sky coverage: ‘reach’ /sensitivity in different directions
Courtesy: B. Schutz
From the GWIC Strategic Roadmap for GW
Science with thirty year horizon (2007)
• … the first priority for ground-based gravitational
wave detector development is to expand the
network, adding further detectors with
appropriately chosen intercontinental baselines
and orientations to maximize the ability to extract
source information. ….Possibilities for a detector in
India (IndIGO) are being studied..
Indo-Aus.Meeting, Delhi, Feb
Indian Gravitational wave legacy
Two decades of Indian contribution to the international effort for
detecting GW on two significant fronts :
• Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [Bala Iyer] and to GW data
analysis at IUCAA [Sanjeev Dhurandhar] which has been internationally
• RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy
waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates
used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed.
• IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced
mathematical concepts.
• Notable contributions include the search for binary in-spirals, hierarchical
methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and the radiometric
search for stochastic gravitational waves.
• IUCAA has collaborated with most international GW detector groups and has
been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration.
• At IUCAA, Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data and Planck has
worked to create a bridge between CMB and GW data analysis challenges.
Indian Gravitational wave strengths
• Very good students and post-docs produced from these activities.
* Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3)
*Recently returned to faculty positions at premier Indian institutions (6)
[Gopakumar, Archana Pai, Rajesh Nayak, Anand Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit
Mitra, P. Ajith?]
– Gopakumar (?) and Arun (?) : PN modeling, dynamics of CB, Ap and cosmological
implications of parameter estimation
– Rajesh Nayak (UTB  IISER K) , Archana Pai (AEI  IISER T), Anand Sengupta (LIGO,
Caltech Delhi), Sanjit Mitra (JPL  IUCAA ): Extensive experience on single and multidetector detection, hierarchical techniques, noise characterisation schemes, veto
techniques for GW transients, bursts, continuous and stochastic sources, radiometric
methods, …
– P. Ajith (Caltech, LIGO/TAPIR  ? ) ……
– Sukanta Bose (Faculty UW, USA  ?)
Strong Indian presences in GW Astronomy with Global detector network  broad
international collaboration is the norm  relatively easy to get people back.
Close interactions with Rana Adhikari (Caltech), B.S. Sathyaprakash (Cardiff),
Sukanta Bose ( WU, Pullman), Soumya Mohanty (UTB), Badri Krishnan ( AEI) …
Very supportive Intl community reflected in Intl Advisory committee of IndIGO
High precision and Large experiment in India
C.S. Unnikrishnan (TIFR) : involved in high precision experiments and tests
Groups at BARC and RRCAT : involved in LHC
Optical system design
laser based instrumentation, optical metrology
Large aperture optics, diffractive optics, micro-optic system design.
Anil Prabhakar IITM and Pradeep Kumar IITK (EE dept s)
providing a variety of components and subsystems like precision magnet positioning stand jacks,
superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater protection supplies and skilled manpower
support for magnetic tests and measurement and help in commissioning LHC subsystems.
S.K. Shukla at RRCAT on INDUS: UHV experience.
S.B. Bhatt and Ajai Kumar at IPR on Aditya: UHV experience.
A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT) : consultant on UHV
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT) :
Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional balances and optical sensors.
Techniques related to precision laser spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization.
Ex students from this activity G.Rajalakshmi (TIFR, 3m prototype) Suresh Doravari (Caltech 40m)
Photonics, Fiber optics and communications
Characterization and testing of optical components and instruments for use in India..
Rijuparna Chakraborty (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur)..Adaptive Optics..
Under consideration for postdoc in LIGO or Virgo….
Multi-disciplinary Consortium
CMI, Chennai
Delhi University
IISER Kolkata
IISER Trivandrum
IIT Madras (EE)
IIT Kanpur (EE)
IPR, Bhatt
Jamia Milia Islamia
Tezpur Univ
The IndIGO Consortium
IndIGO Council
Bala Iyer
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
C. S. Unnikrishnan
Tarun Souradeep
( Chair)
Data Analysis & Theory
Instrumentation & Experiment
C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai
G Rajalakshmi
TIFR, Mumbai
P.K. Gupta
RRCAT, Indore
Sendhil Raja
RRCAT, Indore
S.K. Shukla
RRCAT, Indore
Raja Rao
ex RRCAT, Consultant
Anil Prabhakar,
Pradeep Kumar,
Ajai Kumar
IPR, Bhatt
S.K. Bhatt
IPR, Bhatt
Ranjan Gupta
Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote d’Azur, Grasse
Rana Adhikari
Caltech, USA
Suresh Doravari
Caltech, USA
Biplab Bhawal
(ex LIGO)
RRI, Bangalore
TIFR, Mumbai
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
Bala Iyer
Tarun Souradeep
Anand Sengupta
Archana Pai
Sanjit Mitra
K G Arun
Rajesh Nayak
A. Gopakumar
T R Seshadri
Patrick Dasgupta
Sanjay Jhingan
L. Sriramkumar,
Bhim P. Sarma
P Ajith
Sukanta Bose,
B. S. Sathyaprakash
Soumya Mohanty
Badri Krishnan
Delhi University
IISER, Thiruvananthapuram
Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai
IISER, Kolkata
TIFR, Mumbai
Delhi University
Delhi University
Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi
Phys., IIT M
Tezpur Univ .
Caltech , USA
Wash. U., USA
Cardiff University, UK
UTB, Brownsville , USA
Max Planck AEI, Germany
23 July 2011
Dear Bala:
I am writing to invite you to attend the next meeting of the Gravitational
Wave International Committee (GWIC) to present the GWIC membership
application for IndIGO. This in-person meeting will give you the opportunity
to interact with the members of GWIC and to answer their questions about
the status and plans for IndIGO. Jim Hough (the GWIC Chair) and I have
reviewed your application and believe that you have made a strong case for
IndIGO: the goals & roles
Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related experimental activity and
training new manpower
3m prototype detector in TIFR (funded) - Unnikrishnan
Laser expt. RRCAT, IIT M, IIT K - Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhakar, Pradeep Kumar
Ultra High Vacuum & controls at RRCAT, IPR, BARC, ISRO, …. Shukla, Raja Rao, Bhatt,
UG summer internship at National & International GW labs & observatories.
Postgraduate IndIGO schools, specialized courses,…
Consolidated IndIGO membership of LIGO Scientific Collaboration in Advanced LIGO
Proposal to create a Tier-2 data centre for LIGO Scientific Collaboration in IUCAA
IUSSTF Indo-US joint Centre at IUCAA with Caltech (funded)
Major experimental science initiative in GW astronomy
Earlier Plan: Partner in LIGO-Australia (a diminishing possibility)
Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to Australia at the Gingin site, near Perth. NSF approval
Australia and International partners find funds (equiv to half the detector cost ~$140M and 10 year running cost ~$60M)
within a year.
Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights.
Today: LIGO-India (Letter from LIGO Labs)
Advanced LIGO hardware for 1 detector to be shipped to India.
India provides suitable site and infrastructure to house the GW observatory
Site, two 4km arm length high vacuum tubes in L configuration
Indian cost ~ Rs 1000Cr
The Science & technology benefit of LIGO-India is
IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector
Funded by TIFR Mumbai on compus (2010)
PI: C. S. Unnikrishnan (Cost ~ INR 2.5 crore)
Vibration isolation
Laser table
Sensing &
180 cm
All mirros and beamsplitters
are suspended as in the diagram on right
Power recycling
F-P cavity
3.2 meters
0.8 m
60 cm
IndIGO Data [email protected]
Anand Sengupta, DU, IndIGO
 Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from
binary mergers using data from global detector network
Coherent  5 x event rate (8-> 40 /yrs) [chk numbers]
 Role of IndIGO data centre
 Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of GWdata and analysis
 Bring together data-analysts within the Indian gravity wave community.
 Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO
Science Collab. wide facility. Part of LSC participation from IndIGO
 Large University sector participation via IUCAA
• 200 Tflops peak capability (by 2014)
• Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer.
• Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network
• Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech
• 20 Tf 200 Tb funded IUCAA : ready Mid 2012
Indo-US centre for Gravitational
Physics and Astronomy
APPROVED for funding (Dec 2010)
• Centre of the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF)
• Exchange program to fund mutual visits and facilitate interaction.
• Nodal centres: IUCAA , India & Caltech, US.
• Institutions:
Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep, IUCAA
Caltech, WSU
- PI: Rana Adhikari, Caltech
LIGO-India from LIGO
Dear Prof. Kasturirangan,
1 June 2011
In its road-map with a thirty year horizon, the Gravitational Wave International Committee (a
working unit of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, IUPAP) has identified the
expansion of the global network of gravitational wave interferometer observatories as a high
priority for maximizing the scientific potential of gravitational wave observations. We are writing
to you to put forward a concept proposal on behalf of LIGO Laboratory (USA) and the IndIGO
Consortium, for a Joint Partnership venture to set up an Advanced gravitational wave detector
at a suitable Indian site. In what follows this project is referred to as LIGO-India. The key idea
is to utilize the high technology instrument components already fabricated for one of the three
Advanced LIGO interferometers in an infrastructure provided by India that matches that of the
US Advanced LIGO observatories.
LIGO-India could be operational early in the lifetime of the advanced versions of gravitational wave
observatories now being installed the US (LIGO) and in Europe (Virgo and GEO) and would be of
great value not only to the gravitational wave community, but to broader physics and astronomy
research by launching an era of gravitational wave astronomy, including, the fundamental first direct
detection of gravitational waves. As the southernmost member observatory of the global array of
gravitational wave detectors, India would be unique among nations leading the scientific exploration
of this new window on the universe. The present proposal promises to achieve this at a fraction of
the total cost of independently establishing a fully-equipped and advanced observatory. It also
offers technology that was developed over two decades of highly challenging global R&D effort that
preceded the success of Initial LIGO gravitational wave detectors and the design of their advanced
Thank you !!!
LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea? …for India
• Have a 20 year legacy and wide recognition in the Intl. GW community with
seminal contributions to Source modeling (RRI)& Data Analysis (IUCAA). High
precision measurements (TIFR), Participation in LHC (RRCAT)
Would not make it to the GWIC report, otherwise!
LIGO/ACIGA/EGO strong interest in fostering Indian community
– GWIC invitation to IndIGO join as member (July 2011)
• Provides an exciting challenge at an International forefront of experimental
science. Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG students trained in
India. (Sole cause of `brain drain’).
– 1st yr summer intern 2010  MIT for PhD
– Indian experimental scientist  Postdoc at LIGO training for Adv. LIGO subsystem
• Indian experimental expertise related to GW observatories will thrive and attain
high levels due to LIGO-India.
– Sendhil Raja, RRCAT, Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT Madras, Pradeep Kumar, EE, IITK Photonics
– Vacuum expertise with RRCAT (S.K. Shukla, A.S. Raja Rao) , IPR (S.K. Bhatt, Ajai Kumar)
• Jump start direct participation in GW observations/astronomy
going beyond analysis methodology & theoretical prediction --- to full fledged participation in
experiment, data acquisition, analysis and astronomy results.
• For once, perfect time to a launch into a promising field (GW astronomy)
with high end technological spinoffs, well before it has obviously blossomed.
“Once in a generation opportunity to host an Unique, path defining,
International Experiment in India .”
LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea?
… for the World
• Strategic geographical relocation for GW astronomy
Improved duty cycle
Detection confidence
Improved Sky Coverage
Improved Location of Sources required for multi-messenger astronomy
Determine the two polarizations of GW
• Potentially large science community in future
– Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges
– excellent UG education system already produces large number of trained
in India find frontline research opportunity at home.
• Large data analysis trained manpower and facilities exist (and
being created).
Science Payoffs
New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology, New Physics
” A New Window ushers a New Era of Exploration in Physics & Astronomy”
Testing Einstein’s GR in strong and time-varying fields
Testing Black Hole phenomena
Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS
Neutron star coalescence events
Understanding most energetic cosmic events ..Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts,
LMXB’s, Magnetars
New cosmology..SMBHB’s as standard sirens..EOS of Dark Energy
Phase transition related to fundamental unification of forces
Multi-messenger astronomy
The Unexpected !!!!!
Rewards and spinoffs
Detection of GW is the epitome of breakthrough science!!!
• LIGO-India  India could become a partner in international
science of Nobel Prize significance
• GW detection is an instrument technology intensive field pushing
frontiers simultaneously in a number of fields like lasers and
photonics. Impact allied areas and smart industries.
• The imperative need to work closely with industry and other end
users will lead to spinoffs as GW scientists further develop optical
sensor technology.
• Presence of LIGO-India will lead to pushing technologies and greater
innovation in the future.
• The largest UHV system will provide industry a challenge and
… rewards and spinoffs
• LIGO-India will raise public/citizen profile of science since it
will be making ongoing discoveries fascinating the young.
GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction and a pioneering facility in India
participating in important discoveries will provide science & technology role
models with high visibility and media interest.
• LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and LIGO-India will
provide a platform to increase it and synergetically benefit.
• Increase number of research groups performing at world
class levels and produce skilled researchers.
• Increase international collaborations in Indian research &
establishing Science Leadership in the Asia-Pacific region.
IndIGO Advisory Structure
International Advisory Committee
Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair]
Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
David Blair (ACIGA &UWA, Australia)
Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)
P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)
James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]
Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)
Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)
Nary Man (Virgo, France)
Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)
David McClelland (ACIGA&ANU, Australia)
Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)
B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)
Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)
Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)
Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
National Steering Committee:
Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]
Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]
D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor]
P.K. Kaw (IPR)
Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA)
P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)
J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)
G. Srinivasan
Program Management Committee:
C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair]
Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator]
Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, Pune)
Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune)
P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore)
P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore)
S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore)
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Mean horizon
Volume Filling
Sky Coverage:
Space Time as a fabric
Special Relativity (SR) replaced Absolute space and Absolute Time by flat 4dimensional space-time (the normal three dimensions of space, plus a fourth
dimension of time).
In 1916, Albert Einstein published his famous Theory of General Relativity, his
theory of gravitation consistent with SR, where gravity manifests as a curved
4-diml space-time
Theory describes how space-time is affected by mass and also how
energy, momentum and stresses affects space-time.
Matter tells space-time how to curve, and
Space-time tells matter how to move.
Space Time as a fabric
Earth follows a “straight path” in the curved
space-time caused by sun’s mass !!!
What happens when
matter is in motion?
Concluding remarks
• A century after Einstein’s prediction, we are on the threshold of a new
era of GW astronomy following GW detection. Involved four decades of
very innovative and Herculean struggle at the edge of science & technology
• First generation detectors like Initial LIGO and Virgo have achieved design
sensitivity  Experimental field is mature
Broken new ground in optical sensitivity, pushed technology and proved technique.
• Second generation detectors are starting installation and expected
to expand the “Science reach” by factor of 1000
• Cooperative science model: A worldwide network is starting to come on line and
the ground work has been laid for operation as a integrated system.
• Low project risk : A compelling Science case with shared science risk, a proven
design for India’s share of task (other part : opportunity w/o responsibility)
• National mega-science initiative: Need strong multi-institutional support
to bring together capable scientists & technologist in India
• An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for India. India could
play a key role in Intl. Science by hosting LIGO-India.
… Concluding remarks
• A GREAT opportunity but a very sharp deadline of 31 Mar 2012. If we cannot act
quickly the possibility will close. Conditions laid out in the Request Doc of LIGOLab will need to be ready for LIGO-Lab examination latest by Dec 2011 so that in
turn LIGO-Lab can make a case with NSF by Jan 2012.
• Of all the large scientific projects out there, this one is pushing the
greatest number of technologies the hardest.
“Every single technology they’re touching they’re pushing, and there’s a lot
of different technologies they’re touching.”
(Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. )
• One is left speculating if by the centenary of General
Relativity in 2015, the first discovery of Gravitational
waves would be from a Binary Black Hole system, and
Chandrasekhar would be doubly right about
Astronomy being the natural home of general relativity.
Thank you !!!
Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer
Path A
Path B
Difference in distance of Path A & B  Interference of laser
light at the detector (Photodiode)