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LIGO-India
An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal
IndIGO Consortium
(Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations)
Tarun Souradeep, IUCAA
(Spokesperson, IndIGO)
www.gw-indigo.org
ICGC-2011
Dec 14-19, 2011
Goa, India
Mini-session:
Astronomy with Intl. GW
network
[email protected]
Multi-Institutional,
Multi-disciplinary
Consortium Nodal Institutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
CMI, Chennai
Delhi University
IISER, Kolkata
IISER, TVM
IISER, Pune
IIT Madras (EE)
IIT Kanpur (EE)
IUCAA, Pune
RRCAT, Indore
IPR, Ahmedabad
Members from
• TIFR Mumbai
• IISc, Bangalore
• RRI, Bangalore
• …
IndIGO: Goals
• Provide a common umbrella to initiate and
expand GW related Experimental activity
and train new technically skilled manpower
• Pan-Indian
consolidated
IndIGOmembership
Note:
in LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for
•IndIGO was admitted to GWIC in July 2011 : Intl.
participation
in Advanced LIGO. Sept 2011
recognition of the growing community in India.
•IndIGO has been accepted into the LIGO Science Collab.
(LSC) : pan-Indian 7 institutes: 15 members: Theory, DA +
EXPERIMENTERS ) : Sept. 2011
• Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for
LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables
and as a LSC Resource
IndIGO Consortium – a brief history
• Dec. 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: Rana Adhikari’s visit & discussions
• 2009:
– Australia-India S&T collaboration (Iyer & Blair)
Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy
–
IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA (Aug 9, 2009)
–
GW Astronomy Roadmap for India;
• 2009-2011:
– Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi
to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies
for setting up the International GW Network.
– Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise;
Individuals & Institutions
• March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia
• May 2011+: LIGO-India..
Global Network of GW Observatories improves…
1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info.
GEO: 0.6km
LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km
VIRGO: 3km
future: LCGT 3 km
TAMA/CLIO
Time delays in milliseconds
India provides the largest
baselines.
(Aus would have been 42ms)
LIGO-LLO: 4km
LIGO-India ?
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Science Gain from Strategic Geographical Relocation
Source localization error
Courtesy:
S. Fairhurst
•
Detection confidence
•
Duty cycle
•
Source localization (4th
detector breaks degeneracy)
•
Polarization info.
LIGO-India: Salient points of the megaproject
• On Indian Soil with International Cooperation (no competition)
• Partner in major science discovery!!! (IndIGO already part of LSC)
• AdvLIGO would be first setup at USA.
– AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by > 3 years. Staggered time-line  dual advantage.
– Indian experimenters would participate in Adv-LIGO-USA
– Significant US expertise will pave way for faster execution of LIGO-India (Already Stan Whitcomb
Chief Sc. LIGO; Rana Adhikari- Caltech-LIGO (+ GEO,EGO,….) have committed to spend a 2+
months/year in India
• US hardware contribution ready : no uncertainty in timeline
– Adv.LIGO is the Largest NSF funded project in USA
– LIGO-India option of LIGO lab USA initially approved by NSF blue ribbon committee on Oct 7, 2011
The panel believes
that
science
for LIGO-India is compelling,
• ' Expenditure
entirely
in the
Indian
labscase
& Industry.
reason
enough
to move capability
forward in the
near term
… DAE labs &
• and
Very
significant
Industrial
upgrade.
Indian
Industry assessed to be in position to carry out phase-I of LIGO-India.
We
note that LIGO-India is the only option actively under consideration
(Senior LIGO team visited Indian labs & facilities in Aug &Oct 2011]
by the LIGO Laboratory.' -- NSF
• Well defined training plan  Generate large number (~100)of highly
trained HRD in areas of wide application in S &T.
•
Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO network. Huge opportunity for
Indian University participation.
Highly MultiSchematic of Advanced LIGOdetectors
disciplinary
+++astro
Statement : Prof. P.K. Kaw, Director IPR
The case for LIGO-India is very compelling. Gravitational astronomy … threshold of its
birth and …. as a totally new window for the exploration of our Universe.
Discoveries in this new field …. and will lead to many Nobel Prizes.
single
technology
they’re…touching
they’re
pushing,
and….there’s
We“Every
are getting
an opportunity
to leapfrog
and participate
as equal
partners
institutions
likeaCaltech,
Berkeleytechnologies
and Stanford. they’re touching.”
lot of MIT,
different
(Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. )
We already have a community of distinguished gravitational physicists/ astronomers in India …..
We are also lucky in having developed in several of our scientific institutes, the essential
technical expertise required … We are therefore confident that it can be taken up as a
challenge by our young scientists and engineers who can deliver the goods by working
closely with industries in India .
We strongly believe that the quality of scientific output from the LIGO project, if
so high that it is a risk worth taking and
too good an opportunity to be allowed to be lost .
successful, is going to be
Large scale Ultra high Vacuum to be fabricated in India
10 mega -litres at nano-torr!!!
LIGO-India: … the challenges
LIGO-India : Expected
Indian Contribution
Phase 1 (2012-16)
 Site
(L-config: 100 m x 8km), survey, acquisition, site preparation
Ultra-high Vacuum enclosure : design adaptation  industry
 Transfer of Interferometer components from USA
 Training through participation of core team at advanced LIGO-USA
 HPC-Data centre + Expansion of current science user community by 2015
Phase 2 (2017-19)
 Interferometer installation & commissioning
Engineering
run : Rs. 10 Crores (Seed Funding)
Budget:
2011-13
2012-17: Rs. 650 Crores
Phase
(2020-2030)
2017-22: Rs.
3803 Crores
o Science runs
and sustained
operations
2022-27:
Rs. 230
Crores
o Research labs to participate in upgrade lines & 3rd gen.
Time
frame:& Astronomy
Site and
Detector Construction: 2012-2019
o Physics
research
Commissioning and Science Runs: 2019
Network Operation:
2020
LIGO-India: meeting the challenges
Indian contribution in human resources:
 UHV construction supervision [team expertise, experience &
resource identified from RRCAT & IPR within IndIGO (+ BARC?)]
 Site survey working group [with geophysicists and civil engineering
groups in place]. First survey in last weeks of Dec.
 Scientific & Engineering manpower for detector assembly,
installation and commissioning (2012-2014).
To participate in installation and comm. of Adv. LIGO USA
• 2 PDFs in LIGO already; 2 under consideration ,…..
• Returning researchers from intl GW labs (UWAus, Glasgow, B’ham UK),….
 Trained S&E manpower for LIGO-India sustained operations for
around 2018 (7 years from now)
 Parallel developments in technology R&D in national labs
LIGO-India: a good idea for Intl. community !
• Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy
• Potentially larger GW expt & science community in the future
[email protected]
– Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges
– Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students
with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home.
• Present experimental expertise within IndIGO
Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM
+ …?
UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR +….?
In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3
years.
 Major enhancement of Science & Data Analysis team. Consolidated
IndIGO participation in LIGO Science Collab. (Sept 2011)
 Sukanta Bose, senior LSC member, USA applied & offered position at IUCAA
 Sanjit Mitra : Caltech IUCAA, Sengupta  DU
 Expand theory and create numerical relativity simulation.
Expect hiring in premier institutions Ajith P. , TAPIR, Caltech ?
The IndIGO Consortium
Data Analysis &
Theory
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
Bala Iyer
Tarun Souradeep
Anand Sengupta
University
Archana Pai
Sanjit Mitra
K G Arun
Rajesh Nayak
A. Gopakumar
IUCAA
RRI
IUCAA
Delhi
IISER,-TVM
JPL , IUCAA
CMI
IISER-K
IFR
T R Seshadri
Delhi University
Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University
Sanjay Jhingan
Jamila Milia
L. Sriramkumar,
IIT M
Bhim P. Sarma
Tezpur Univ .
Sanjay Sahay
BITS, Goa
P Ajith
Caltech
Sukanta Bose,
Wash. U.
B. S. Sathyaprakash
Cardiff University
Soumya Mohanty
UTB, Brownsville
Badri Krishnan
Max Planck AEI
Satyanarayan Mohapatra, UM, Amherst
Instrumentation & Experiment
60
C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR
50
G Rajalakshmi
TIFR,
P.K. Gupta
RRCAT
Sendhil40Raja
RRCAT
S.K. Shukla
RRCAT
Raja Rao
RRCAT exx
30
Anil Prabhakar,
IIT M
Shanti Bhattacharya IIT M
Pradeep
IIT K
20 Kumar,
Ajai Kumar
IPR
S.K. Bhatt
IPR
Vasant10
Natarajan
IISc
Umakant Rapol
IISER Pune
Shiva Patil
IISER Pune
0
Joy Mitra
IISER Tvm
2009
2010
S. Ghosh
IISER Kol
Supriyo Mitra
IISER Kol
Ranjan Gupta
IUCAA
Bhal Chandra Joshi
NCRA,
Rijuparna Chakraborty Cote d’Azur,
Rana Adhikari
Caltech
Suresh Doravari
Caltech
S. Sunil
U. W. Aus.
Expter
Rahul Kumar
U. of Glasgow
DA LIGO ex
Biplab Bhawal
Theory
2011
LIGO-India: a good idea for GW community !
• Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy
–
–
–
–
–
–
Increased event rates (x2-4) by coherent analysis
Improved duty cycle
Improved Detection confidence
Improved Sky Coverage
Improved Source Location required for multi-messenger astronomy
Improved Determination of the two GW polarizations
• Potentially large Indian science user community in the future
– Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges
– Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students
with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home.
• Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists in India and
Large Data Analysis Center Facilities are being planned under
the next five year plan for consolidated IndIGO participation in
LSC for Advanced LIGO
IndIGO Data [email protected]
 Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from
binary mergers using data from global detector network
Coherent  4 x event rate (40  160 /yr for NS-NS)
 Role of IndIGO data centre
 Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of GW data and analysis
 Bring together data-analysts within the Indian science community.
 Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO
Science Collab. wide facility. Part of the LSC participation by IndIGO
 Large University sector participation via IUCAA
• ~200 Tflops peak capability (by 2014)
• Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer.
• Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network
• Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech
• 20 Tf ,200 Tb funded IUCAA : ready Mid 2012
LIGO-India: … what is needed?
National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project
 IUCAA is prepared to be the lead institute and key-science
stake holder
It would have support from National DAE labs such as IPR &
RRCAT (Possibly TIFR & BARC) Explicit statements from
Director, RRCAT & Director, IPR
 Project leader : Search Committee of NSC chair +lead institutes
(Prof. Kaw IPR, Prof. Gupta RRCAT), IndIGO chair – chaired by AKK, IUCAA.
Construction: Substantial Engg project building. Indian
capability in large vacuum system engg, welding techniques
and technology Exists (IPR, RRCAT: LIGO team assessment)
Train manpower for installation & commissioning
 Generate & sustain manpower running for 10 years.
 Site
Concluding remarks on LIGO-India
• Home ground advantage. Unique & unprecedented opportunity.
• Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window
in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global efforts
• Unlike other projects the key crucial components and subsystems have
already been developed and individually tested & validated and are ready to
be taken up for installation. So there are no uncertainties regarding the
technological feasibility.
• No requirement of a incubation period for technology demonstration,
pathfinder mission etc. as the current design and technology for the detector
is based on R&D and development done by the LSC over the past to decades
• Attain high technology gains for Indian labs & industries
Thank you !!!
• India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy:
”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity”
IndIGO Advisory Structure
Committees:
International Advisory Committee
Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair]
Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia)
Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)
P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)
James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]
Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)
Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)
Nary Man (Virgo, France)
Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)
David McClelland (AIGO, ANU, Australia)
Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)
B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)
Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)
Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)
Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
David Reitze (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
National Steering Committee:
Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]
Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]
D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor]
P.K. Kaw (IPR)
Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA)
P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)
J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)
G. Srinivasan
Program Management Committee:
C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair]
Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator]
Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, Pune)
Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune)
P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore)
P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore)
S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore)
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]
LIGO-India: … the challenges
LIGO-India : Vacuum
structure & engineering
Phase 1. Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure
S.K. Shukla (RRCAT), A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT),
S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR)
To be fabricated by Industry with designs from LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3
(10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of nano-torr (10-9 torr ).
Spiral weld UHV beam tubes
1.2 m dia: 20 m sections.
Sections butt welded to 200m
UHV Optical tanks to house
mirrors : end, beam splitter,…
Expansion Bellows btw 200m
beam sections, 1 m gate valves
Plan : Large scale ultra-high Vacuum
• Fabricated and installed by Indian Industry under close
monitoring by science & technology team
o Oversee the procurement & fabrication of the vacuum system components and its
installation by a national multi-institutional team.
o DAE commitment to LIGO-India  Intense participation of RRCAT & IPR possible.
o All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves, pumps, residual gas
analyzers and leak detectors will be bought.
o Companies L&T, Fullinger, HindHiVac, Godrej, … with close support from RRCAT,
IPR and LIGO Lab.
• 1st round of discussions with Industry in Feb 2011 : Companies like
HHV, Fullinger, Godrej in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair
(ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO deliverable to LIGO-Australia. Followed
by visit by LIGO expt to industry in Aug 2011.
LIGO-India: … the challenges
LIGO-India : Detector
Assembly & commisionning
Phase 2. Detector Assembly & Commissioning
For installation and commissioning phase:
• Identify 10-15 core experienced Enggs. & scientists who spend a
year, or more, at Advanced LIGO-USA during its install. & comm.
– 2 post-docs at LIGO Caltech (2010, 2011), 2 more other under consideration
in LIGO and EGO
– Present experimental expertise within IndIGO
Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR,NPL, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM
UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, BARC
In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3
years.
• 6-10 full time engineers and scientists in India.
LIGO-India: … the challenges
LIGO-India : Trained
Manpower generation and
sustenance
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Manpower generation for sustenance of LIGO-India :
Preliminary Plans & exploration
• Advanced LIGO USA will have a lead time over LIGO-India
Indian personnel trained in USA bring expertise to LIGO-India and build
groups using associated training program. (DST /Academy/… programs, e.g,
BOYSCAST, Ramanujan may be helpful, perhaps not sufficient.)
•
IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway (2nd year).
o High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,..
o 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT
o Plans to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters
• IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging
opportunity in GW science
o 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA)
o Funded ICTS Cosmology & GW school in IUCAA, Dec 2011
• Tech. Training school (initially period offered by IPR, RRCAT) & also Post graduate
school specialization course at IUCAA  major UG to PhD program (involve Intl
community).
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Indian Site
Requirements:
• Low seismicity
• Low human generated noise
• Air connectivity
• Proximity to Academic institutions, labs, industry preferred, …
• Identify potential sites not too far from existing facilities
• Need to carry out seismic survey to get ground noise
spectral density at 0.1-10 Hz range
• Few interesting possibilities are under investigation
Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain
Network
HHLV
HILV
AHLV
Mean horizon
distance
1.74
1.57
1.69
Detection
Volume
8.98
8.77
8.93
41.00%
54.00%
44.00%
Triple
Detection
Rate(80%)
4.86
5.95
6.06
Triple
Detection
Rate(95%)
7.81
8.13
8.28
47.30%
79.00%
53.50%
0.66
2.02
3.01
Volume Filling
factor
Sky Coverage:
81%
Directional
Courtesy:
Precision
Bernard Schutz
IUCAA & TIFR
• IUCAA: Specialises in astronomy and astrophysics,
with frontline work in theory, observation,
instrumentation, data analysis and software
development. Will host data centre and provide
HPC. Can be the lead institute for LIGO-India.
• TIFR: Works on fundamental physics, astronomy,
molecular biology and mathematics. Expertise in
precision gravity experiments, laser technology etc.
29
Institute for Plasma Research (IPR)
• IPR works on various basic plasma physics, research
on magnetically confined hot plasmas and plasma
technologies. IPR is engaged in several major
projects including ITER. Will provide expertise in
vacuum technology and control systems.
• IPR is responsible for delivery of UHV beamline
chambers and turbulence control systems. Valued at
$ 30M. Project Team consists of 50 scientists and
engineers. Timeline for Project is 3 years and is so far
in schedule.
30
DAE Institutions
• RRCAT: Works on advanced technologies related to
lasers, particle accelerators. RRCAT will provide
design, expert advise, consultancy and training in
the domain of laser/optics technology and vacuum
technology.
• BARC: Works on nuclear science and engineering
and related area. BARC will provide experts in the
domain of precision engineering, low noise
electronics, servo controls and vibration isolation.
31
Other Premier institutes:
• Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT): Highly reputed
institutions for teaching and research in technology
as well as basic sciences. Can contribute to
engineering requirements as well as to specific high
technology areas including lasers, photonics,
diffractive optics etc.
• Indian Institutes for Science Education and Research
(IISER): Recently set up institutes for teaching and
research in basic sciences. Can contribute to data
analysis, source modelling etc.
• IISC, CMI, RRI, IUAC…
32
Universities
India has a large number of Universities with
excellent physics departments, with an astronomy
component. Several of these have faculty and
students with active interest in gravitation theory
and gravitation waves, and will be able to bring
significant human resources to the project.
Important universities in this respect are Delhi
University, Jamia Milia Islamia and Tezpur University.
IUCAA has strong formal bonding with the University
system.
33
RRCAT (Next Plan period): Advanced Interferometry
(Narrow line width Frequency Stabilised laser development)
The laser will be an injection seeded Nd;YAG or Yb:Silica fiber laser locked to a stabilized reference
cavity. The target would be to demonstrate a laser with 1W output and sub-kHz line width and few Hz
stability. Scaling up of the power to 10W will be done as the next step.
RRCAT: Advanced Interferometry
(Ultraflat Components development)
Development of Ultraflat Optical
components such as mirrors for GWD will
require augmenting the existing facility with
an ion beam figuring system for final
correction of the polished optics to /500
or better.
Photonics @ IIT-Madras (& IIT- Kanpur)
11 faculty members (8 in EE, 3 in Physics)
10 M. Tech scholars in EE (Photonics)
20+ research scholars (M.S. and Ph.D.)
Research specializations
➲ Optical communications
➲ Fiber lasers
➲ Diffractive optical elements
➲ Silicon photonics, plasmonics
➲ Nonlinear and quantum optics
➲ Metrology and instrumentation
Strong industry partnerships
Gravitational wave legacy in India
• Two decades of Internationally recognized Indian contribution to
the global effort for detecting GW on two significant fronts
• Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [Bala Iyer]
and to GW data analysis at IUCAA [Sanjeev Dhurandhar]
• RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy
waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates used
in LIGO and Virgo are constructed. Cardiff collaboration on improved detection
templates, parameter estimation, implications for Astrophysics and Cosmology
• IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced
mathematical concepts.. Notable contributions include the search for binary inspirals, hierarchical methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and
the radiometric search for stochastic gravitational waves.
• IUCAA: Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data & Planck creates bridge
between CMB and GW data analysis challenges : stochastic GW background
maps
•
IUCAA under Sanjeev Dhurandhar has collaborated with most
international GW detector groups and has been a member of the
LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade.
Participation in LSC during Advanced LIGO
Proposed Data Analysis activities of the IndIGO Consortium
•Principal Leads: K.G. Arun, R.Nayak, A. Pai, A. Sengupta, S. Mitra
• Participants: S. Dhurandhar, T. Souradeep, B. R. Iyer, C.K. Mishra,
M.K. Harris,….
• Institutions: CMI, IUCAA, IISER (Kolkata), IISER (Tvm), Univ Delhi
•Projects
• Multi-detector Coherent veto
•Tests of GR and alternative theories of gravity
•Stochastic Gravitational wave background analysis
• IndIGO Data Center
Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and
Astronomy @ IUCAA
APPROVED (Dec 2010). Funds received Jul 6, 2011
• Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF)
• Exchange program to fund mutual visits and facilitate
interactions leading to collaborations
• Nodal centres: IUCAA , Pune, India & Caltech, Pasadena, USA.
• Institutions:
Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep
USA: Caltech, WSU
- PI: Rana Adhikari
LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ?
Primary advantage: LIGO-India Provides cutting edge instrumentation &
technology to jump start GW detection and astronomy.
Would require at least a decade of focused & sustained technology developments
in Indian laboratories and industry
•
180 W Nd:YAG: 5 years;
– Operation and maintenance should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers.
– Applications in high resolution spectroscopy,
– precision interferometry and metrology.
• Input conditioning optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs
• Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years of expt and R&D.
– Experience in setting up and maintaining these systems  know how for
isolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology,
AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc.
• 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and
develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years of
dedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology.
• Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of
development.. Not trivial to implement.
– Benefit other physics experiments working at the quantum limit of noise.