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LIGO-India An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal IndIGO Consortium (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations) Tarun Souradeep, IUCAA (Spokesperson, IndIGO) www.gw-indigo.org ICGC-2011 Dec 14-19, 2011 Goa, India Mini-session: Astronomy with Intl. GW network [email protected] Multi-Institutional, Multi-disciplinary Consortium Nodal Institutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CMI, Chennai Delhi University IISER, Kolkata IISER, TVM IISER, Pune IIT Madras (EE) IIT Kanpur (EE) IUCAA, Pune RRCAT, Indore IPR, Ahmedabad Members from • TIFR Mumbai • IISc, Bangalore • RRI, Bangalore • … IndIGO: Goals • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related Experimental activity and train new technically skilled manpower • Pan-Indian consolidated IndIGOmembership Note: in LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for •IndIGO was admitted to GWIC in July 2011 : Intl. participation in Advanced LIGO. Sept 2011 recognition of the growing community in India. •IndIGO has been accepted into the LIGO Science Collab. (LSC) : pan-Indian 7 institutes: 15 members: Theory, DA + EXPERIMENTERS ) : Sept. 2011 • Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables and as a LSC Resource IndIGO Consortium – a brief history • Dec. 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: Rana Adhikari’s visit & discussions • 2009: – Australia-India S&T collaboration (Iyer & Blair) Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy – IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA (Aug 9, 2009) – GW Astronomy Roadmap for India; • 2009-2011: – Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies for setting up the International GW Network. – Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise; Individuals & Institutions • March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia • May 2011+: LIGO-India.. Global Network of GW Observatories improves… 1. Detection confidence 2. Duty cycle 3. Source direction 4. Polarization info. GEO: 0.6km LIGO-LHO: 2km+ 4km VIRGO: 3km future: LCGT 3 km TAMA/CLIO Time delays in milliseconds India provides the largest baselines. (Aus would have been 42ms) LIGO-LLO: 4km LIGO-India ? LIGO-India: … the opportunity Science Gain from Strategic Geographical Relocation Source localization error Courtesy: S. Fairhurst • Detection confidence • Duty cycle • Source localization (4th detector breaks degeneracy) • Polarization info. LIGO-India: Salient points of the megaproject • On Indian Soil with International Cooperation (no competition) • Partner in major science discovery!!! (IndIGO already part of LSC) • AdvLIGO would be first setup at USA. – AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by > 3 years. Staggered time-line dual advantage. – Indian experimenters would participate in Adv-LIGO-USA – Significant US expertise will pave way for faster execution of LIGO-India (Already Stan Whitcomb Chief Sc. LIGO; Rana Adhikari- Caltech-LIGO (+ GEO,EGO,….) have committed to spend a 2+ months/year in India • US hardware contribution ready : no uncertainty in timeline – Adv.LIGO is the Largest NSF funded project in USA – LIGO-India option of LIGO lab USA initially approved by NSF blue ribbon committee on Oct 7, 2011 The panel believes that science for LIGO-India is compelling, • ' Expenditure entirely in the Indian labscase & Industry. reason enough to move capability forward in the near term … DAE labs & • and Very significant Industrial upgrade. Indian Industry assessed to be in position to carry out phase-I of LIGO-India. We note that LIGO-India is the only option actively under consideration (Senior LIGO team visited Indian labs & facilities in Aug &Oct 2011] by the LIGO Laboratory.' -- NSF • Well defined training plan Generate large number (~100)of highly trained HRD in areas of wide application in S &T. • Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO network. Huge opportunity for Indian University participation. Highly MultiSchematic of Advanced LIGOdetectors disciplinary +++astro Statement : Prof. P.K. Kaw, Director IPR The case for LIGO-India is very compelling. Gravitational astronomy … threshold of its birth and …. as a totally new window for the exploration of our Universe. Discoveries in this new field …. and will lead to many Nobel Prizes. single technology they’re…touching they’re pushing, and….there’s We“Every are getting an opportunity to leapfrog and participate as equal partners institutions likeaCaltech, Berkeleytechnologies and Stanford. they’re touching.” lot of MIT, different (Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. ) We already have a community of distinguished gravitational physicists/ astronomers in India ….. We are also lucky in having developed in several of our scientific institutes, the essential technical expertise required … We are therefore confident that it can be taken up as a challenge by our young scientists and engineers who can deliver the goods by working closely with industries in India . We strongly believe that the quality of scientific output from the LIGO project, if so high that it is a risk worth taking and too good an opportunity to be allowed to be lost . successful, is going to be Large scale Ultra high Vacuum to be fabricated in India 10 mega -litres at nano-torr!!! LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Expected Indian Contribution Phase 1 (2012-16) Site (L-config: 100 m x 8km), survey, acquisition, site preparation Ultra-high Vacuum enclosure : design adaptation industry Transfer of Interferometer components from USA Training through participation of core team at advanced LIGO-USA HPC-Data centre + Expansion of current science user community by 2015 Phase 2 (2017-19) Interferometer installation & commissioning Engineering run : Rs. 10 Crores (Seed Funding) Budget: 2011-13 2012-17: Rs. 650 Crores Phase (2020-2030) 2017-22: Rs. 3803 Crores o Science runs and sustained operations 2022-27: Rs. 230 Crores o Research labs to participate in upgrade lines & 3rd gen. Time frame:& Astronomy Site and Detector Construction: 2012-2019 o Physics research Commissioning and Science Runs: 2019 Network Operation: 2020 LIGO-India: meeting the challenges Indian contribution in human resources: UHV construction supervision [team expertise, experience & resource identified from RRCAT & IPR within IndIGO (+ BARC?)] Site survey working group [with geophysicists and civil engineering groups in place]. First survey in last weeks of Dec. Scientific & Engineering manpower for detector assembly, installation and commissioning (2012-2014). To participate in installation and comm. of Adv. LIGO USA • 2 PDFs in LIGO already; 2 under consideration ,….. • Returning researchers from intl GW labs (UWAus, Glasgow, B’ham UK),…. Trained S&E manpower for LIGO-India sustained operations for around 2018 (7 years from now) Parallel developments in technology R&D in national labs LIGO-India: a good idea for Intl. community ! • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy • Potentially larger GW expt & science community in the future [email protected] – Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges – Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home. • Present experimental expertise within IndIGO Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM + …? UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR +….? In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3 years. Major enhancement of Science & Data Analysis team. Consolidated IndIGO participation in LIGO Science Collab. (Sept 2011) Sukanta Bose, senior LSC member, USA applied & offered position at IUCAA Sanjit Mitra : Caltech IUCAA, Sengupta DU Expand theory and create numerical relativity simulation. Expect hiring in premier institutions Ajith P. , TAPIR, Caltech ? The IndIGO Consortium Data Analysis & Theory Sanjeev Dhurandhar Bala Iyer Tarun Souradeep Anand Sengupta University Archana Pai Sanjit Mitra K G Arun Rajesh Nayak A. Gopakumar IUCAA RRI IUCAA Delhi IISER,-TVM JPL , IUCAA CMI IISER-K IFR T R Seshadri Delhi University Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University Sanjay Jhingan Jamila Milia L. Sriramkumar, IIT M Bhim P. Sarma Tezpur Univ . Sanjay Sahay BITS, Goa P Ajith Caltech Sukanta Bose, Wash. U. B. S. Sathyaprakash Cardiff University Soumya Mohanty UTB, Brownsville Badri Krishnan Max Planck AEI Satyanarayan Mohapatra, UM, Amherst Instrumentation & Experiment 60 C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR 50 G Rajalakshmi TIFR, P.K. Gupta RRCAT Sendhil40Raja RRCAT S.K. Shukla RRCAT Raja Rao RRCAT exx 30 Anil Prabhakar, IIT M Shanti Bhattacharya IIT M Pradeep IIT K 20 Kumar, Ajai Kumar IPR S.K. Bhatt IPR Vasant10 Natarajan IISc Umakant Rapol IISER Pune Shiva Patil IISER Pune 0 Joy Mitra IISER Tvm 2009 2010 S. Ghosh IISER Kol Supriyo Mitra IISER Kol Ranjan Gupta IUCAA Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA, Rijuparna Chakraborty Cote d’Azur, Rana Adhikari Caltech Suresh Doravari Caltech S. Sunil U. W. Aus. Expter Rahul Kumar U. of Glasgow DA LIGO ex Biplab Bhawal Theory 2011 LIGO-India: a good idea for GW community ! • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy – – – – – – Increased event rates (x2-4) by coherent analysis Improved duty cycle Improved Detection confidence Improved Sky Coverage Improved Source Location required for multi-messenger astronomy Improved Determination of the two GW polarizations • Potentially large Indian science user community in the future – Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges – Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home. • Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists in India and Large Data Analysis Center Facilities are being planned under the next five year plan for consolidated IndIGO participation in LSC for Advanced LIGO IndIGO Data [email protected] Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from binary mergers using data from global detector network Coherent 4 x event rate (40 160 /yr for NS-NS) Role of IndIGO data centre Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of GW data and analysis Bring together data-analysts within the Indian science community. Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO Science Collab. wide facility. Part of the LSC participation by IndIGO Large University sector participation via IUCAA • ~200 Tflops peak capability (by 2014) • Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer. • Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network • Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech • 20 Tf ,200 Tb funded IUCAA : ready Mid 2012 LIGO-India: … what is needed? National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project IUCAA is prepared to be the lead institute and key-science stake holder It would have support from National DAE labs such as IPR & RRCAT (Possibly TIFR & BARC) Explicit statements from Director, RRCAT & Director, IPR Project leader : Search Committee of NSC chair +lead institutes (Prof. Kaw IPR, Prof. Gupta RRCAT), IndIGO chair – chaired by AKK, IUCAA. Construction: Substantial Engg project building. Indian capability in large vacuum system engg, welding techniques and technology Exists (IPR, RRCAT: LIGO team assessment) Train manpower for installation & commissioning Generate & sustain manpower running for 10 years. Site Concluding remarks on LIGO-India • Home ground advantage. Unique & unprecedented opportunity. • Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global efforts • Unlike other projects the key crucial components and subsystems have already been developed and individually tested & validated and are ready to be taken up for installation. So there are no uncertainties regarding the technological feasibility. • No requirement of a incubation period for technology demonstration, pathfinder mission etc. as the current design and technology for the detector is based on R&D and development done by the LSC over the past to decades • Attain high technology gains for Indian labs & industries Thank you !!! • India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy: ”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity” IndIGO Advisory Structure Committees: International Advisory Committee Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair] Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA) David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia) Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy) P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India) James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair] Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan) Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany) Nary Man (Virgo, France) Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA) David McClelland (AIGO, ANU, Australia) Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia) B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK) Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany) Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France) Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA) David Reitze (LIGO, Caltech, USA) National Steering Committee: Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair] Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator] Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator] D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor] P.K. Kaw (IPR) Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA) P.D. Gupta (RRCAT) J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA) G. Srinivasan Program Management Committee: C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair] Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator] Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator] Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, Pune) Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune) P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore) P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore) S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore) Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)] LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Vacuum structure & engineering Phase 1. Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure S.K. Shukla (RRCAT), A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT), S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR) To be fabricated by Industry with designs from LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3 (10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of nano-torr (10-9 torr ). Spiral weld UHV beam tubes 1.2 m dia: 20 m sections. Sections butt welded to 200m UHV Optical tanks to house mirrors : end, beam splitter,… Expansion Bellows btw 200m beam sections, 1 m gate valves Plan : Large scale ultra-high Vacuum • Fabricated and installed by Indian Industry under close monitoring by science & technology team o Oversee the procurement & fabrication of the vacuum system components and its installation by a national multi-institutional team. o DAE commitment to LIGO-India Intense participation of RRCAT & IPR possible. o All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves, pumps, residual gas analyzers and leak detectors will be bought. o Companies L&T, Fullinger, HindHiVac, Godrej, … with close support from RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab. • 1st round of discussions with Industry in Feb 2011 : Companies like HHV, Fullinger, Godrej in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO deliverable to LIGO-Australia. Followed by visit by LIGO expt to industry in Aug 2011. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Detector Assembly & commisionning Phase 2. Detector Assembly & Commissioning For installation and commissioning phase: • Identify 10-15 core experienced Enggs. & scientists who spend a year, or more, at Advanced LIGO-USA during its install. & comm. – 2 post-docs at LIGO Caltech (2010, 2011), 2 more other under consideration in LIGO and EGO – Present experimental expertise within IndIGO Laser ITF: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR,NPL, IITM, IIT K, IISER Pune, IISER, Kol, IISER TVM UH Vacuum: RRCAT, IPR, TIFR, BARC In project mode, each group can scale to 10 Post-doc & PhD students in 2-3 years. • 6-10 full time engineers and scientists in India. LIGO-India: … the challenges LIGO-India : Trained Manpower generation and sustenance LIGO-India: … the challenges Manpower generation for sustenance of LIGO-India : Preliminary Plans & exploration • Advanced LIGO USA will have a lead time over LIGO-India Indian personnel trained in USA bring expertise to LIGO-India and build groups using associated training program. (DST /Academy/… programs, e.g, BOYSCAST, Ramanujan may be helpful, perhaps not sufficient.) • IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway (2nd year). o High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,.. o 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT o Plans to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters • IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging opportunity in GW science o 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA) o Funded ICTS Cosmology & GW school in IUCAA, Dec 2011 • Tech. Training school (initially period offered by IPR, RRCAT) & also Post graduate school specialization course at IUCAA major UG to PhD program (involve Intl community). LIGO-India: … the challenges Indian Site Requirements: • Low seismicity • Low human generated noise • Air connectivity • Proximity to Academic institutions, labs, industry preferred, … • Identify potential sites not too far from existing facilities • Need to carry out seismic survey to get ground noise spectral density at 0.1-10 Hz range • Few interesting possibilities are under investigation Strategic Geographical relocation: science gain Network HHLV HILV AHLV Mean horizon distance 1.74 1.57 1.69 Detection Volume 8.98 8.77 8.93 41.00% 54.00% 44.00% Triple Detection Rate(80%) 4.86 5.95 6.06 Triple Detection Rate(95%) 7.81 8.13 8.28 47.30% 79.00% 53.50% 0.66 2.02 3.01 Volume Filling factor Sky Coverage: 81% Directional Courtesy: Precision Bernard Schutz IUCAA & TIFR • IUCAA: Specialises in astronomy and astrophysics, with frontline work in theory, observation, instrumentation, data analysis and software development. Will host data centre and provide HPC. Can be the lead institute for LIGO-India. • TIFR: Works on fundamental physics, astronomy, molecular biology and mathematics. Expertise in precision gravity experiments, laser technology etc. 29 Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) • IPR works on various basic plasma physics, research on magnetically confined hot plasmas and plasma technologies. IPR is engaged in several major projects including ITER. Will provide expertise in vacuum technology and control systems. • IPR is responsible for delivery of UHV beamline chambers and turbulence control systems. Valued at $ 30M. Project Team consists of 50 scientists and engineers. Timeline for Project is 3 years and is so far in schedule. 30 DAE Institutions • RRCAT: Works on advanced technologies related to lasers, particle accelerators. RRCAT will provide design, expert advise, consultancy and training in the domain of laser/optics technology and vacuum technology. • BARC: Works on nuclear science and engineering and related area. BARC will provide experts in the domain of precision engineering, low noise electronics, servo controls and vibration isolation. 31 Other Premier institutes: • Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT): Highly reputed institutions for teaching and research in technology as well as basic sciences. Can contribute to engineering requirements as well as to specific high technology areas including lasers, photonics, diffractive optics etc. • Indian Institutes for Science Education and Research (IISER): Recently set up institutes for teaching and research in basic sciences. Can contribute to data analysis, source modelling etc. • IISC, CMI, RRI, IUAC… 32 Universities India has a large number of Universities with excellent physics departments, with an astronomy component. Several of these have faculty and students with active interest in gravitation theory and gravitation waves, and will be able to bring significant human resources to the project. Important universities in this respect are Delhi University, Jamia Milia Islamia and Tezpur University. IUCAA has strong formal bonding with the University system. 33 RRCAT (Next Plan period): Advanced Interferometry (Narrow line width Frequency Stabilised laser development) The laser will be an injection seeded Nd;YAG or Yb:Silica fiber laser locked to a stabilized reference cavity. The target would be to demonstrate a laser with 1W output and sub-kHz line width and few Hz stability. Scaling up of the power to 10W will be done as the next step. RRCAT: Advanced Interferometry (Ultraflat Components development) Development of Ultraflat Optical components such as mirrors for GWD will require augmenting the existing facility with an ion beam figuring system for final correction of the polished optics to /500 or better. Photonics @ IIT-Madras (& IIT- Kanpur) 11 faculty members (8 in EE, 3 in Physics) 10 M. Tech scholars in EE (Photonics) 20+ research scholars (M.S. and Ph.D.) Research specializations ➲ Optical communications ➲ Fiber lasers ➲ Diffractive optical elements ➲ Silicon photonics, plasmonics ➲ Nonlinear and quantum optics ➲ Metrology and instrumentation Strong industry partnerships Gravitational wave legacy in India • Two decades of Internationally recognized Indian contribution to the global effort for detecting GW on two significant fronts • Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [Bala Iyer] and to GW data analysis at IUCAA [Sanjeev Dhurandhar] • RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed. Cardiff collaboration on improved detection templates, parameter estimation, implications for Astrophysics and Cosmology • IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced mathematical concepts.. Notable contributions include the search for binary inspirals, hierarchical methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and the radiometric search for stochastic gravitational waves. • IUCAA: Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data & Planck creates bridge between CMB and GW data analysis challenges : stochastic GW background maps • IUCAA under Sanjeev Dhurandhar has collaborated with most international GW detector groups and has been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade. Participation in LSC during Advanced LIGO Proposed Data Analysis activities of the IndIGO Consortium •Principal Leads: K.G. Arun, R.Nayak, A. Pai, A. Sengupta, S. Mitra • Participants: S. Dhurandhar, T. Souradeep, B. R. Iyer, C.K. Mishra, M.K. Harris,…. • Institutions: CMI, IUCAA, IISER (Kolkata), IISER (Tvm), Univ Delhi •Projects • Multi-detector Coherent veto •Tests of GR and alternative theories of gravity •Stochastic Gravitational wave background analysis • IndIGO Data Center Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and Astronomy @ IUCAA APPROVED (Dec 2010). Funds received Jul 6, 2011 • Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) • Exchange program to fund mutual visits and facilitate interactions leading to collaborations • Nodal centres: IUCAA , Pune, India & Caltech, Pasadena, USA. • Institutions: Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep USA: Caltech, WSU - PI: Rana Adhikari LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ? Primary advantage: LIGO-India Provides cutting edge instrumentation & technology to jump start GW detection and astronomy. Would require at least a decade of focused & sustained technology developments in Indian laboratories and industry • 180 W Nd:YAG: 5 years; – Operation and maintenance should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers. – Applications in high resolution spectroscopy, – precision interferometry and metrology. • Input conditioning optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs • Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years of expt and R&D. – Experience in setting up and maintaining these systems know how for isolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology, AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc. • 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years of dedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology. • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of development.. Not trivial to implement. – Benefit other physics experiments working at the quantum limit of noise.