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LIGO-India An Indo-US joint mega-project concept proposal IndIGO Consortium (Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations) www.gw-indigo.org Version: pII_v1 Jun 20, 2011 : TS LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea? … for the World • Strategic geographical relocation for GW astronomy – – – – – – Increased event rates (x4) by coherent analysis Improved duty cycle Detection confidence Improved Sky Coverage Improved Location of Sources required for multi-messenger astronomy Determine the two polarizations of GW • Potentially large science community in future – Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges – excellent UG education system already produces large number of trained in India find frontline research opportunity at home. • Large data analysis trained manpower and facilities exist (and being created). LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea? …for India • Have a 20 year legacy and wide recognition in the Intl. GW community with seminal contributions to Source modeling (RRI)& Data Analysis (IUCAA). High precision measurements (TIFR), Participation in LHC (RRCAT) Would not make it to the GWIC report, otherwise! – LIGO/ACIGA/EGO strong interest in fostering Indian community – GWIC invitation to IndIGO join as member (July 2011) • Provides an exciting challenge at an International forefront of experimental science. Can tap and siphon back the extremely good UG students trained in India. (Sole cause of `brain drain’). – 1st yr summer intern 2010 MIT for PhD – Indian experimental scientist Postdoc at LIGO training for Adv. LIGO subsystem • Indian experimental expertise related to GW observatories will thrive and attain high levels due to LIGO-India. – Sendhil Raja, RRCAT, Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT Madras, Pradeep Kumar, EE, IITK Photonics – Vacuum expertise with RRCAT (S.K. Shukla, A.S. Raja Rao) , IPR (S.K. Bhatt, Ajai Kumar) • Jump start direct participation in GW observations/astronomy going beyond analysis methodology & theoretical prediction --- to full fledged participation in experiment, data acquisition, analysis and astronomy results. • For once, perfect time to a launch into a promising field (GW astronomy) with high end technological spinoffs, well before it has obviously blossomed. “Once in a generation opportunity to host an Unique, path defining, International Experiment in India .” LIGO-India: Salient points of this megaproject • On Indian Soil will draw and retain science & tech. manpower • International Cooperation, not competition LIGO-India success critical to the success of the global GW science effort. Complete Intl support • Shared science risk with International community Shared historical, major science discovery credit !!! • AdvLIGO setup & initial challenge/risks primarily rests with USA. – AdvLIGO-USA precedes LIGO-India by > 2 years. – India sign up for technically demonstrated/established part (>10 yr of operation in initial LIGO ) 2/3 vacuum enclosure + 1/3 detector assembly split (US ‘costing’ : manpower and h/ware costs) – However, allows Indian scientist to collaborate on highly interesting science & technical challenges of Advanced LIGO-USA ( ***opportunity without primary responsibility***) • Expenditure almost completely in Indian labs & Industry huge potential for landmark technical upgrade in all related Indian Industry • Well defined training plan core Indian technical team thru Indian postdoc in related exptal areas participation in advLIGO-USA installation and commissioning phase, cascade to training at Indian expt. centers • Major data analysis centre for the entire LIGO network with huge potential for widespread University sector engagement. • US hardware contribution funded & ready advLIGO largest NSF project, LIGOIndia needs NSF approval but not additional funds Schematic Optical Design of Advanced LIGO detectors Reflects International cooperation Basic nature of GW Astronomy LASER AEI, Hannover Germany Suspension GEO, UK “Quantum measurements” to improve further via squeezed light: • New ground for optical technologists in India • High Potential to draw the best Indian UG students typically interested in theoretical physics into experimental science !!! LIGO-India: unique once-in-a-generation opportunity LIGO labs LIGO-India • 180 W pre-stabilized Nd:YAG laser • 10 interferometer core optics (test masses, folding mirrors, beam splitter, recycling mirrors) • Input condition optics, including electro-optic modulators, Faraday isolators, a suspended mode-cleaner (12-m long mode-defining cavity), and suspended mode-matching telescope optics. • 5 "BSC chamber" seismic isolation systems (two stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads) • 6 "HAM Chamber" seismic isolation systems (one stage, six degree of freedom, active isolation stages capable of ~200 kg payloads) • 11 Hydraulic External Pre-Isolation systems • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems • Triple stage suspensions for remaining suspended optics • Baffles and beam dumps for controlling scattering and stray radiation • Optical distortion monitors and thermal control/compensation system for large optics • Photo-detectors, conditioning electronics, actuation electronics and conditioning • Data conditioning and acquisition system, software for data acquisition • Supervisory control and monitoring system, software for all control systems • Installation tooling and fixturing Advanced LIGO Laser • Designed and contributed by Albert Einstein Institute< Germany • Higher power – 10W -> 180W • Better stability – 10x improvement in intensity and frequency stability Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb 8 Advanced LIGO Mirrors • Larger size – 11 kg -> 40 kg • Smaller figure error – 0.7 nm -> 0.35 nm • Lower absorption – 2 ppm -> 0.5 ppm • Lower coating thermal noise • • • All substrates delivered Polishing underway Reflective Coating process starting up Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb 9 Advanced LIGO Seismic Isolation • Two-stage six-degree-of-freedom active isolation – Low noise sensors, Low noise actuators – Digital control system to blend outputs of multiple sensors, tailor loop for maximum performance – Low frequency cut-off: 40 Hz -> 10 Hz Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb 10 Advanced LIGO Suspensions • UK designed and contributed test mass suspensions • Silicate bonds create quasimonolithic pendulums using ultra-low loss fused silica fibres to suspend interferometer optics – Pendulum Q ~105 -> ~108 four stages Suppression at 10 Hz : ? at 1 Hz : ? 40 kg silica test mass Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb 11 11 LIGO-India: Expected Indian Contribution • Indian contribution in infrastructure: Site (L-configuration: Each 50-100 m x 4.2 km) Vacuum system Related Controls Data centre • Indian contribution in human resources: Trained manpower for installation and commissioning Trained manpower for LIGO-India operations for 10 years Simulation and Data Analysis teams LIGO-India vs. Indian-IGO ? Primary advantage: LIGO-India Provides cutting edge instrumentation & technology to jump start GW detection and astronomy. Would require at least a decade of focused & sustained technology developments in Indian laboratories and industry • 180 W Nd:YAG: 5 years; – Operation and maintenance should benefit further development in narrow line width lasers. – Applications in high resolution spectroscopy, – precision interferometry and metrology. • Input condition optics..Expensive..No Indian manufacturer with such specs • Seismic isolation (BCE,HAM) .. Minimum 2 of years of expt and R&D. – Experience in setting up and maintaining these systems know how for isolation in critical experiments such as in optical metrology, AFM/Microscopy, gravity experiments etc. • 10 interferometer core optics.. manufacturing optics of this quality and develop required metrology facility : At least 5 to 7 years of dedicated R&D work in optical polishing, figuring and metrology. • Five quadruple stage large optics suspensions systems.. 3-4 years of development.. Not trivial to implement. – Benefit other physics experiments working at the quantum limit of noise. LIGO-India: … the challenges Organizational National level DST-DAE Consortium Flagship Mega-project Identify a lead institution and agency Project leader Construction: Substantial Engg project building Indian capability in large vacuum system engg, welding techniques and technology Complex Project must be well-coordinated and effectively carried out in time and meeting the almost zero-tolerance specs Train manpower for installation & commissioning Generate & sustain manpower running for 10 years. Site short lead time International competition (LIGO-Argentina ??) Technical vacuum system Related Controls Data centre LIGO-India: … the challenges Trained Manpower for installation & commissioning LIGO-India Director Project manager Project engineering staff: Civil engineer(s) Vacuum engineer(s) Systems engineer(s), Mechanical engineers Electronics engineers Software engineers Detector leader Project system engineer Detector subsystem leaders 10 talented scientists or research engineers with interest and knowledge collectively spanning: Lasers and optical devices, Optical metrology, handling and cleaning, Precision mechanical structures, Low noise electronics, Digital control systems and electro-mechanical servo design, Vacuum cleaning and handling) Logistics and Preliminary Plan • Assumption: Project taken up by DAE as a National Mega Flagship Project. All the persons mentioned who are currently working in their centers would be mainly in a supervisory role of working on the project during the installation phase and training manpower recruited under the project who would then transition into the operating staff. • Instrument Engineering: No manpower required for design and development activity. For installation and commissioning phase and subsequent operation • Laser ITF: Unnikrishnan, Sendhil Raja, Anil Prabhaker. TIFR, RRCAT, IITM. 10 Post-doc/Ph.D students. Over 2-3 years. Spend a year at Advanced LIGO. 6 full time engineers and scientists. If project sanctioned, manpower sanctioned, LIGOIndia project hiring at RRCAT, TIFR, other insitututions/Labs. Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure S.K. Shukla (RRCAT),A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT), S. Bhatt (IPR), Ajai Kumar (IPR) •To be fabricated by IndIGO with designs from LIGO. A pumped volume of 10000m3 (10Mega-litres), evacuated to an ultra high vacuum of 10-9 torr (pico-m Hg). o Spiral welded beam tubes 1.2m in diameter and 20m length. o Butt welding of 20m tubes together to 200m length. o Butt welding of expansion bellows between 200m tubes. o Gate valves of 1m aperture at the 4km tube ends and the middle. o Optics tanks, to house the end mirrors and beam splitter/power and signal recycling optics vacuum pumps. o Gate valves and peripheral vacuum components. o Baking and leak checking Large scale ultra-high Vacuum enclosure • 5 Engineers and 5 technicians o Oversee the procurement & fabrication of the vacuum system components and its installation. o If the project is taken up by DAE then participation of RRCAT & IPR is more intense o All vacuum components such as flanges, gate-valves, pumps, residual gas analyzers and leak detectors will be bought. Companies L&T, Fullinger, HindHiVac, Godrej with support from RRCAT, IPR and LIGO Lab. • Preliminary detailed discussions in Feb 2011 : companies like HHV, Fullinger in consultation with Stan Whitcomb (LIGO), D. Blair (ACIGA) since this was a major IndIGO deliverable to LIGO-Australia. • Preliminary Costing for LIGO-India (vacuum component 400 cr) Ultra-high Vacuum enclosure pictures Logistics and Preliminary Plans 42 persons (10 PhD/postdocs, 22 scientists/engineers and 10 technicians) • Mobile Clean rooms: – Movable tent type clean rooms during welding of the beam tubes and assembly of the system. Final building a clean room with AC and pressurization modules. SAC, ISRO. 1 engineer and 2 technicians to draw specs for the clean room equipments & installation. • Vibration isolation system: 2 engineers (precision mechanical) – install and maintain the system. Sourced from BARC. RED (Reactor Engineering Division of BARC) has a group that works on vibration measurement, analysis and control in reactors and turbo machinery. • Electronic Control System: 4 Engineers – install and maintain the electronics control and data acquisition system. Electronics & Instrumentation Group at BARC (G. P. Shrivastava’s group) and RRCAT. – Preliminary training:six months at LIGO. Primary responsibility (installing and running the electronics control and data acquisition system): RRCAT & BARC. Additional activity for LIGO-India can be factored in XII plan if the approvals come in early. … Logistics and Preliminary Plans Teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Groups at BARC may be interested in large instrumentation projects in XII plan. • Control software Interface: 2 Engineers – install and maintain the computer software interface, distributed networking and control system). RRCAT and BARC. Computer software interface (part of the data acquisition system) and is the “Humanmachine-interface” for the interferometer. For seamless implementation man power to be sourced from teams implementing Electronic Control System. • Site Selection & Civil Construction – BARC Seismology Division Data reg. seismic noise at various DAE sites to do initial selection of sites and shortlist based on other considerations such as accessibility and remoteness from road traffic etc. DAE: Directorate of Construction, services and Estate Management (DCSEM): Co-ordinate design and construction of the required civil structures required for the ITF. 2 engineers + 3 technicians (design & supervision of constructions at site). Construction contracted to private construction firm under supervision of DCSEM. LIGO-India: … the challenges Manpower generation for sustenance of the LIGO-India observatory : Preliminary Plans & exploration • Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time, participants will be identified who will be deputed to take part in the commissioning of Advanced LIGO and later bring in the experience to LIGO-India • Successful IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway o High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,.. o 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT o Plan to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters • IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging opportunity in GW science o 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA) • Post graduate school specialization courses , or more Jayant Narlikar: “Since sophisticated technology is involved IndIGO should like ISRO or BARC training school set up a program where after successful completion of the training, jobs are assured.” Indian Site LIGO-India: … the challenges Requirements: • Low seismicity • Low human generated noise • Air connectivity, • Proximity to Academic institution, labs, industry Preliminary exploration: IISc new campus & adjoining campuses near Chitra Durga • low seismicity • 1hr from Intl airport • Bangalore: science & tech hub • National science facilities complex plans • • LIGO-India: Action points If accepted as a National Flagship Mega Project under the 12th plan then… • • • • • • • Seed Money Identification of 3-6 project leaders Detailed Project Proposal Site identification 1st Staffing Requirement meeting Aug 1-15 2nd Joint Staffing Meeting with LIGO-Lab Vacuum Task related team and plans Concluding remarks on LIGO India • Home ground advantage !!! Once in a generation opportunity • Threshold of discovery and launch of a new observational window in human history!! Century after Einstein GR, 40 yrs of Herculean global effort • Cooperative, not competitive science • India at the forefront of GW science with 2nd generation of detectors: Intl. shared science risks and credit • Low project risk: commit to established tech. yet are able to take on challenges of advLIGO (opportunity without primary responsibility) “Every high singletechnology technology gains they’refor touching pushing, and there’s • Attain Indian they’re labs & industries Thank you !!! a lot of different technologies they’re touching.” (Beverly Berger, National Science Foundation Program director for gravitational physics. ) • India pays true tribute to fulfilling Chandrasekhar’s legacy: ”Astronomy is the natural home of general relativity” An unique once-in-a-generation opportunity for India. India could play a key role in Intl. Science by hosting LIGO-India. Deserves a National mega-science initiative Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer B A Path A Path B Difference in distance of Path A & B Interference of laser light at the detector (Photodiode) Interferometry Path difference of light phase difference Equal arms: Dark fringe The effects of gravitational waves appear as a fluctuation in the phase differences between two orthogonal light paths of an interferometer. Unequal arm: Signal in PD Tailoring the frequency response • Signal Recycling : New idea in interferometry Additional cavity formed with mirror at output Can be made resonant, or anti-resonant, for gravitational wave frequencies Allows redesigning the noise curve to create optimal band sensitive to specific astrophysical signatures Detecting GW with Laser Interferometer LIGO Optical Configuration Power Recycled Michelson Interferometer end test mass Light bounces back and forth along arms about 100 times with Fabry-Perot Arm Cavities Light is “recycled” about 50 times input test mass Laser signal beam splitter Difference in distance of Paths Interference of laser light at the detector (Photodiode) Courtesy: Stan Whitcomb Initial LIGO Sensitivity Goal • Strain sensitivity <3x10-23 1/Hz1/2 at 200 Hz l Sensor Noise » Photon Shot Noise » Residual Gas l Displacement Noise » Seismic motion » Thermal Noise » Radiation Pressure 30 LIGO and Virgo TODAY Milestone: Decades-old plans to build and operate large interferometric GW detectors now realized at several locations worldwide Experimental prowess: LIGO, VIRGO operating at predicted sensitivity!!!! Pre-dawn GW astronomy : Unprecedented sensitivity already allows • Upper Limits on GW from a variety of Astrophysical sources. Refining theoretical modelling • Improve on Spin down of Crab, Vela pulsars, • Exptally surpass Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound on Stochastic GW.. Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) IndIGO - ACIGA meeting 32 Advanced LIGO •Take advantage of new technologies and on-going R&D >> Active anti-seismic system operating to lower frequencies: (Stanford, LIGO) >> Lower thermal noise suspensions and optics : (GEO ) >> Higher laser power 10 W 180 W (Hannover group, Germany) >> More sensitive and more flexible optical configuration: Signal recycling • Design: 1999 – 2010 : 10 years of high end R & D internationally. • Construction: Start 2008; Installation 2011; Completion 2015 Scientific Payoffs Advanced GW network sensitivity needed to observe GW signals at monthly or even weekly rates. • Direct detection of GW probes strong field regime of gravitation Information about systems in which strong-field and time dependent gravitation dominates, an untested regime including non-linear self-interactions • GW detectors will uncover NEW aspects of the physics Sources at extreme physical conditions (eg., super nuclear density physics), relativistic motions, extreme high density, temperature and magnetic fields. • GW signals propagate un-attenuated weak but clean signal from cores of astrophysical event where EM signal is screened by ionized matter. • Wide range of frequencies Sensitivity over a range of astrophysical scales To capitalize one needs a global array of GW antennas separated by continental distances to pinpoint sources in the sky and extract all the source information encoded in the GW signals Science Payoffs New Astronomy, New Astrophysics, New Cosmology, New Physics ” A New Window ushers a New Era of Exploration in Physics & Astronomy” – – – – – Testing Einstein’s GR in strong and time-varying fields Testing Black Hole phenomena Understanding nuclear matter by Neutron star EOS Neutron star coalescence events Understanding most energetic cosmic events ..Supernovae, Gamma-ray bursts, LMXB’s, Magnetars – – – – New cosmology..SMBHB’s as standard sirens..EOS of Dark Energy Phase transition related to fundamental unification of forces Multi-messenger astronomy The Unexpected !!!!! Technology Payoffs • Lasers and optics..Purest laser light..Low phase noise, excellent beam quality, high single frequency power • Applications in precision metrology, medicine, micro-machining • Coherent laser radar and strain sensors for earthquake prediction and other precision metrology • Surface accuracy of mirrors 100 times better than telescope mirrors..Ultra-high reflective coatings : New technology for other fields • Vibration Isolation and suspension..Applications for mineral prospecting • Squeezing and challenging “quantum limits” in measurements. • Ultra-high vacuum system 10^-9 tor (1picomHg). Beyond best in the region • Computation Challenges: Cloud computing, Grid computing, new hardware and software tools for computational innovation. Rewards and spinoffs Detection of GW is the epitome of breakthrough science!!! • LIGO-India India could become a partner in international science of Nobel Prize significance • GW detection is an instrument technology intensive field pushing frontiers simultaneously in a number of fields like lasers and photonics. Impact allied areas and smart industries. • The imperative need to work closely with industry and other end users will lead to spinoffs as GW scientists further develop optical sensor technology. • Presence of LIGO-India will lead to pushing technologies and greater innovation in the future. • The largest UHV system will provide industry a challenge and experience. … rewards and spinoffs • LIGO-India will raise public/citizen profile of science since it will be making ongoing discoveries fascinating the young. GR, BH, EU and Einstein have a special attraction and a pioneering facility in India participating in important discoveries will provide science & technology role models with high visibility and media interest. • LIGO has a strong outreach tradition and LIGO-India will provide a platform to increase it and synergetically benefit. • Increase number of research groups performing at world class levels and produce skilled researchers. • Increase international collaborations in Indian research & establishing Science Leadership in the Asia-Pacific region.