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IndIGO
Indian Initiative in Gravitational-wave Observations
Bala Iyer
Chair, IndIGO Consortium Council
Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India
LIGO-India Meeting, HBCSE, 19 August 2011
Gravitational wave legacy in India
• Two decades of Internationally recognized Indian contribution to
the global effort for detecting GW on two significant fronts
• Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [Bala Iyer]
and to GW data analysis at IUCAA [Sanjeev Dhurandhar]
• RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy
waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates used
in LIGO and Virgo are constructed. Cardiff collaboration on improved detection
templates, parameter estimation, implications for Astrophysics and Cosmology
• IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced
mathematical concepts.. Notable contributions include the search for binary inspirals, hierarchical methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and
the radiometric search for stochastic gravitational waves.
• IUCAA: Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data & Planck creates bridge
between CMB and GW data analysis challenges : stochastic GW background
maps
•
IUCAA under Sanjeev Dhurandhar has collaborated with most
international GW detector groups and has been a member of the
LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade.
High precision experimental expertise in India
• TIFR [C.S. Unnikrishnan]
High precision experiments and tests of weak forces
– Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional balances and optical sensors.
– Techniques related to precision laser spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization.
– G.Rajalakshmi (IIA  TIFR, 3m prototype);
– Suresh Doravari (IIA  LIGO, Caltech 40m/Adv LIGO)
• RRCAT
– [S.K. Shukla on INDUS, A.S. Raja Rao (ex RRCAT)] --UHV
– [Sendhil Raja, P.K. Gupta] - Optical system design, laser based
instrumentation, optical metrology, Large aperture optics, diffractive optics,
micro-optic system design.
– [Rijuparna Chakraborty, France  LIGO/EGO pdf?] Adaptive Optics….
• IPR
– [S.B. Bhatt on Aditya and Ajai Kumar] - UHV , Lasers, Control systems,..
• IITM [Anil Prabhakar] and IITK [Pradeep Kumar] (EE depts)
–
–
Photonics, Fiber optics and communications
Characterization and testing of optical components and instruments for use in India..
Large experiment expertise in India
• Groups at BARC and RRCAT : involved in LHC
– providing a variety of components and subsystems like precision magnet positioning stand jacks,
superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater protection supplies and skilled manpower
support for magnetic tests and measurement and help in commissioning LHC subsystems.
• Teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Groups at BARC
(may be interested in large instrumentation projects in XII plan)
• IPR : Involved in ITER
Support role in large volume UHV system, Control systems,….
• Groups at ISRO,…….
Control systems, Clean rooms,......
• Over the last two years contacts have been made with
members of the above groups to familiarize them with
opportunities in a GW experiment and explore their
possible participation in the proposed GW Observatory
initiatives should a national mega project be funded in
India on GW.
IndIGO: The Aspirations
• Set up a major experimental initiative in GW astronomy
 MOU with ACIGA to collaborate on GW Astronomy
Two Alternatives depending on the Australian Funding decision
 Partner in LIGO-Australia
– Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights
LIGO-India
– Letter from LIGO Labs with offer of LIGO-India and Requirement Document

IndIGO Consortium has worked towards getting these
alternatives included in the shortlist of other National
Mega Projects being considered under the forthcoming
Five year plan in India. For the LIGO-India alternative,
seeking a National Flagship Mega Project status to ensure
requirements from the LIGO-Lab can be met in time to
seek the required NSF and US govt approvals.
IndIGO: The goals and means
• Provide a common umbrella to initiate and
expand GW related Experimental activity
and train new technically skilled manpower
• Seek pan-Indian consolidated IndIGO
membership in LIGO Scientific Collaboration
(LSC) for participation in Advanced LIGO.
• Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for
LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables
and as a LSC Resource
• July 2011 IndIGO Consortium Application for
Gravitational Wave International Committee
(GWIC) Accepted.
IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector
Funded by TIFR Mumbai on campus (2010)PI: C. S.Unnikrishnan ( INR 3.5cr ~.7 M$ )
Goals of the TIFR 3-m prototype interferometer (to be operational in 2014):
1) Research and Training platform with all the features of the
advanced LIGO-like detectors, scaled down to displacement
sensitivity around 10-18 m, above 200 Hz.
2) The Indian research platform for features like signal
recycling, DC read-out, and most importantly the use of
squeezed light and noise reduction (last phase).
3) Instrument for studies on short range gravity and QED force,
especially a measurement of the Casimir force in the range
10 -100 microns where no previous measurements exist
(Rajalakshmi and Unnikrishnan, Class, Quant. Grav. 27, 215007 (2010).
LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC)
from India
Aug 2000 - 2010
MOU between IUCAA (Sanjeev Dhurandhar) and
LIGO (LSC) – GW Data Analysis Related
Proposal in preparation by Anand
Sengupta to consolidate IUCAA
participation in LSC to IndIGO
participation in Advanced LIGO including
Experimental aspects and creation of a
GW 2 tier Data Center
Multi-Institutional,
Multi-disciplinary Consortium
(2009)
Nodal Institutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
CMI, Chennai
Delhi University
IISER Kolkata
IISER Trivandrum
IIT Madras (EE)
IIT Kanpur (EE)
IUCAA, Pune
RRCAT, Indore
TIFR, Mumbai
IPR, Bhatt
Others
•
•
•
RRI
Jamia Milia Islamia
Tezpur Univ
IndIGO Consortium – a brief history
• Dec. 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: Rana Adhikari’s visit & discussions
• 2009:
– Australia-India S&T collaboration (Iyer & Blair)
Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy
–
IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA (Aug 9, 2009)
–
GW Astronomy Roadmap for India;
• 2009-2011:
– Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi
to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies
for setting up the International GW Network.
– Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise;
Individuals & Institutions
• March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia
• May 2011+: LIGO-India..
The IndIGO Consortium
IndIGO Council
1.
2.
3.
4.
Bala Iyer
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
C. S. Unnikrishnan
Tarun Souradeep
( Chair)
(Science)
(Experiment)
(Spokesperson)
Data Analysis & Theory
Instrumentation & Experiment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai
G Rajalakshmi
TIFR, Mumbai
P.K. Gupta
RRCAT, Indore
Sendhil Raja
RRCAT, Indore
S.K. Shukla
RRCAT, Indore
Raja Rao
ex RRCAT, Consultant
Anil Prabhakar,
EE, IIT M
Pradeep Kumar,
EE, IIT K
Ajai Kumar
IPR, Bhatt
S.K. Bhatt
IPR, Bhatt
Ranjan Gupta
IUCAA, Pune
Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA, Pune
Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote d’Azur, Grasse
Rana Adhikari
Caltech, USA
Suresh Doravari
Caltech, USA
Biplab Bhawal
(ex LIGO)
RRI, Bangalore
IUCAA, Pune
TIFR, Mumbai
IUCAA, Pune
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Sanjeev Dhurandhar
Bala Iyer
Tarun Souradeep
Anand Sengupta
Archana Pai
Sanjit Mitra
K G Arun
Rajesh Nayak
A. Gopakumar
T R Seshadri
Patrick Dasgupta
Sanjay Jhingan
L. Sriramkumar,
Bhim P. Sarma
Sanjay Sahay
P Ajith
Sukanta Bose,
B. S. Sathyaprakash
Soumya Mohanty
Badri Krishnan
IUCAA
RRI
IUCAA
Delhi University
IISER, Thiruvananthapuram
JPL , IUCAA
Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai
IISER, Kolkata
TIFR, Mumbai
Delhi University
Delhi University
Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi
Phys., IIT M
Tezpur Univ .
BITS, Goa
Caltech , USA
Wash. U., USA
Cardiff University, UK
UTB, Brownsville , USA
Max Planck AEI, Germany
IndIGO Advisory Structure
Committees:
International Advisory Committee
Abhay Ashtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair]
Rana Adhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia)
Adalberto Giazotto (Virgo, Italy)
P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)
James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]
Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)
Harald Lueck (GEO, Germany)
Nary Man (Virgo, France)
Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)
David McClelland (AIGO, ANU, Australia)
Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)
B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)
Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)
Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)
Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA)
National Steering Committee:
Kailash Rustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]
Bala Iyer (RRI) [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]
D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor]
P.K. Kaw (IPR)
Ajit Kembhavi (IUCAA)
P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)
J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)
G. Srinivasan
Program Management Committee:
C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair]
Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator]
Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator]
Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA, Pune)
Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune)
P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore)
P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore)
S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore)
Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]
THANK YOU
LIGO-India: Why is it a good idea?
• Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy
–
–
–
–
–
–
Increased event rates (x2-4) by coherent analysis
Improved duty cycle
Improved Detection confidence
Improved Sky Coverage
Improved Source Location required for multi-messenger astronomy
Improved Determination of the two GW polarizations
• Potentially large Indian science user community in the future
– Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges
– Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students
with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home.
• Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists in India and
Large Data Analysis Center Facilities are being planned under
the next five year plan for consolidated IndIGO participation in
LSC for Advanced LIGO
Means…
• Start collaborative work on joint projects under
the IUSSTF Indo-US IUCAA-Caltech joint Centre at
IUCAA
• Indo-Jap project “Coherent multi-detector
gravitational wave search using LCGT and advanced
interferometers”
• Explore the Roadmap for EGO-IndIGO collaboration
on GW and a possible MOU (Meeting on Nov 1-2
,2011 at IUCAA)
• Explore Indian participation in LISA and space
based GW detectors in the future ( ASTROD 5
meeting on July 14 – 16, 2012 at RRI)
Concluding Remarks..
• Over two decades India has been involved in quality GW research
and been a part of the International GW community
• Since 2009 Indian aspirations involve participation in a major GW
experiment eventually leading to a GW detector in India
• The Indian Aspirations in GW research are represented by the
IndIGO Consortium
• With help from the International GW community, IndIGO has
made significant progress to integrate into the GWIC road map
towards the setting up of a Global GW detector network
• IndIGO has concrete plans as outlined in the presentation to
increase participation in GW research in the coming years.
• By becoming a member of GWIC, IndIGO can contribute more
effectively in the future towards the GWIC agenda to detect GW
and leading on to establish Gravitational wave Astronomy..
GW Research in India (Pre IndIGO:1990 -2009)
• Regular International Collaboration with GW groups in
Australia, France, Germany, UK, Japan since 1990
•
September 1990: Interferometric Gravity wave Detector: Phase I: Developmental work and Experiments,
A proposal
by IUCAA, Pune [S.V. Dhurandhar, N.K. Dadhich, J.V. Narlikar, S.N. Tandon] and CAT, Indore [P.K. Gupta, A.S. Raja Rao, D.D. Bhawalkar] 1.25 cr, Staffing
21
•
•
•
Phase II: 100 m Detector : 13 crores, Staffing 51
December 1995: Design of the Vacuum system for AIGO 500 ( CAT/95-16, Indore) [A.S. Raja Rao]
International GW Collaborative Projects
1991, 1993, 1994, 1995 IUCAA- UWA Informal Collaboration
[Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and David Blair (UWA) and David McClelland (ANU)]
•
1995 -1998 Indo-French Project: 1010-1 Modelling of non-linear effects in high power optical cavities of laser
interferometric gravitational wave detectors
[S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Jean-Yves Vinet (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur, Orsay]
•
2000 – 2004 Indo-French Project: 2204-1
Gravitational wave data analysis for laser interferometer space antenna
[S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Jean-Yves Vinet (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice)]
•
2003 – 2007 Indo-French Project: 2904-1 Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binaries,
[Bala Iyer (RRI) and Luc Blanchet (IAP) ]
•
2006 - 2009 Indo-French Project: 3504-1 - Physical and mathematical modeling of LISA mission
[S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Bertrand Chauvineau (Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice)]
•
2006 - 2009 Indo-French Project: 3504-3 - Systematic effects in CMB of ESA’s Satellite “PLANCK”
[Tarun Souradeep (IUCAA) and François R. Bouchet (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris)]
•
2010 - 2013 Indo-French Project: 4204-2 High accuracy gravitational waves from black hole binaries
[Bala Iyer (RRI) with Luc Blanchet (IAP), Guillaume Faye (IAP) ]
•
2006 - 2011 DST-JSPS Indo-Japanese Collaboration Coincident vs Coherent multi-detector strategies for inspiralling
binaries [Sanjeev Dhurandhar (IUCAA), Nobuyuki Kanda (Osaka University) and Hideyuki Tagoshi, (Osaka University)]
IndIGO Consortium – Milestones
• Late 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: Rana Adhikari’s visit & discussions
• 2009:
– Australia-India S&T collaboration
Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy
–
IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA
–
GW Astronomy Roadmap for India;
• 2009-2011:
– Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi
to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies
for setting up the International GW Network.
– Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise;
Individuals & Institutions
• March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia
• May 2011+: LIGO-India..
Indian Gravitational wave community strengths
• Very good students and post-docs produced who have
become..
* Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3)
*New faculty at premier institutions in India (6) [Gopakumar, Archana
Pai, Rajesh Nayak, Anand Sengupta, K.G. Arun, Sanjit Mitra, P. Ajith?]
• Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy in the Global
detector network where broad international collaboration is the norm
 relatively easy to get well trained researchers back
• Close interactions with the very supportive International
community as reflected in the International Advisory
committee of IndIGO – Chair: Abhay Ashtekar
• LIGO-Lab participation in IndIGO schools, commitment to
training and assisting in high end technology tasks related to
GW experiments should LIGO-India come about.
LIGO-India: Indian Requirements
• Indian contribution in infrastructure :
 Site
 Vacuum system
Related Controls
Data centre
 Trained manpower for installation and
commissioning
Trained manpower for LIGO-India operations for 10
years
LIGO-India: … the challenges
Indian Site
Requirements:
• Low seismicity
• Low human generated noise
• Air connectivity
• Proximity to Academic institutions, labs, industry preferred, …
Preliminary exploration:
IISc new campus & adjoining campuses near Chitra Durga
• low seismicity
• Solid rock base
• 1hr from International airport
• Bangalore: science & tech hub
• National science facilities complex plans  power and
other infrastructure availability, ….
Manpower generation for sustenance of LIGO-India :
Preliminary Plans & exploration
• Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time, participants will be identified
who will be deputed to take part in the commissioning of Advanced LIGO
and later bring in the experience to LIGO-India. They will start building
groups with associated training program.
• Successful IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway
o High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,..
o 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT
o Plan to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters
• IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging opportunity in
GW science
o 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA)
• Post graduate school specialization courses , or more
Jayant Narlikar: “Since sophisticated technology is involved IndIGO should like
ISRO or BARC training school set up a program where after successful
completion of the training, jobs are assured.”
Courtesy: Steven Fairhurst
Courtesy: S. Klimenko and G. Vedovato
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
Polarization info
Uniformity of Sky coverage
Courtesy: S. Klimenko and G. Vedovato
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
Source localization error
5-15 degrees to
~degree !!!
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
- the science gain
Sky coverage
: Synthesized
Network
beam
(antenna power)
Courtesy: Bernard Schutz
LIGO-India: … the opportunity
Strategic Geographical relocation
- the science gain
Sky coverage: ‘reach’ /sensitivity in different directions
Courtesy: Bernard Schutz
Strategic geographical relocation comparison
Network
HHLV
HILV
AHLV
Mean horizon
distance
1.74
1.57
1.69
Detection
Volume
8.98
8.77
8.93
41.00%
54.00%
44.00%
Triple
Detection
Rate(80%)
4.86
5.95
6.06
Triple
Detection
Rate(95%)
7.81
8.13
8.28
Sky
Coverage:
81%
47.30%
79.00%
53.50%
Directional
Precision
0.66
2.02
3.01
Volume
Filling factor
Courtesy Bernard Schutz
The TIFR 3-m prototype detector
Vibration isolation
schematic
Laser table
Sensing &
Control
180 cm
All mirros and beamsplitters
are suspended from 4-stage vib. isolators
Power recycling
Detector
Vacuum
tanks
F-P cavity
3.5 meters
6m
0.8 m
Mirror
60 cm
6m
15 cm dia. mirrors (3 kg), 1 W NPRO laser, 2 stage passive pre-isolation, 10-9 mbar UHV
RRCAT (Next Plan period): Advanced Interferometry
(Narrow line width Frequency Stabilised laser development)
The laser will be an injection seeded Nd;YAG or Yb:Silica fiber laser locked to a stabilized reference
cavity. The target would be to demonstrate a laser with 1W output and sub-kHz line width and few Hz
stability. Scaling up of the power to 10W will be done as the next step.
RRCAT: Advanced Interferometry
(Ultraflat Components development)
Development of Ultraflat Optical
components such as mirrors for GWD will
require augmenting the existing facility with
an ion beam figuring system for final
correction of the polished optics to /500
or better.
Photonics @ IIT-Madras
11 faculty members (8 in EE, 3 in Physics)
10 M. Tech scholars in EE (Photonics)
20+ research scholars (M.S. and Ph.D.)
Research specializations
➲ Optical communications
➲ Fiber lasers
➲ Diffractive optical elements
➲ Silicon photonics, plasmonics
➲ Nonlinear and quantum optics
➲ Metrology and instrumentation
Strong industry partnerships
IIT-M, IIT-K participation in LIGO
Photonics research
➲
➲
➲
➲
Squeezed state detection
High power lasers
Diffractive optics
Silicon photonics
Manpower training
➲ 2-3 research fellows each year
➲ Sabbatical, or on lien, with LIGO-India
➲ Up to 20% of regular faculty time
Possible IndIGO Contributions
to 3G Detectors (ET)
•Development of the lasers systems, investigate emerging laser
technologies such as fiber lasers for developing a suitable laser
for 3rd generation detector.
•Develop squeezed light sources suitable for use in GWD.
•Design and development of diffractive optical components for
generating higher order Laguerre-Gauss mode laser beams.
•Investigate instabilities due to quantum back action on cavity
mirrors.
•Development of high flatness fused silica/silicon optics and
develop fabrication and metrology techniques.
Possible IndIGO Contributions
to 3G Detectors (ET)
•Design and development of high power optical coating for the
detector optics.
•Develop techniques for absorption measurement of high purity
Si as a possible optical substrate at 1.5 micron laser wavelength.
•Develop high accuracy wavefront sensing and laser scanning
based thermal compensation of cavity mirrors.
•Investigate possible techniques to cool the detector mirrors in a
non contact way (laser cooling of Yb doped glasses have been
demonstrated)