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Unit 13 notes: Endocrine System
Name: ____________________________
The endocrine system regulates many of the body’s activities by producing & secreting hormones that
affect the body’s functions
Hormone: A chemical messenger produced by glands
The Glands & Their Hormones
Hypothalamus: Located in mid-brain
• Releases multiple hormones that control the pituitary gland.
Pituitary: Located mid-brain
• Thyroid stimulating hormone: stimulates the thyroid
• Adrenocorticotropic: stimulates the adrenal glands
• Follicle stimulating & Luteinizing: stimulate other endocrine glands to produce & secrete their
• Growth hormone: Stimulates growth
• Melanocyte stimulating hormone: Stimulates pigment
• Antidiuretic hormone: Stimulates kidney to absorb H2O
• Prolactin: Stimulates milk production
• Oxytocin: Stimulates uterine contractions during child birth
Pineal: Located in the mid-brain
– Melatonin: Regulates sleep patterns
– Seratonin: Controls feelings of well-being
Thyroid: Located in the neck
– Thyroxine: regulates the metabolic rate of cells
– Calcitonin: ↓ blood calcium levels
Parathyroid: Located in the neck
– Parathyroid hormone: ↑ blood calcium levels by releasing
calcium from bone.
• Goiter: An enlarged thyroid
Adrenal cortex: Located on the kidneys
• Aldosterone & corticosteroids: Affects H2O & NaCl (salt) balance and metabolism of
carbohydrates, fats & proteins
Adrenal medulla: Located on the kidneys
• Adrenaline & noradrenaline: Prepares the body for “fight or flight” by ↑ heart rate, blood pressure,
respiration etc.
Unit 13 notes: Endocrine System
Name: ____________________________
Ovaries: Females; located in the pelvic area
• Estrogen: Develops eggs & female physical characteristics
• Progesterone: Prepares uterus for a developing embryo
Testis: Males; located outside the body at the front of the lower pelvis
• Testosterone: Sperm production and development of male physical characteristics
Pancreas: Located in the mid-abdomen
• Insulin: ↓ blood glucose
• Glucagon: ↑ blood glucose