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Imperialism in Asia
• China was slow to industrialize and had
a weak military; Europeans wanted to sell
goods in China.
• Britain, France, Germany, and Russia carved
out spheres of influence over key ports and
• Meiji restoration in Japan modernized and
industrialized the country.
• Japan wanted resources from China and
• British East India Company administered
colonial India until 1858.
• Over the years, British dominated the
political and economic lives of Indians.
• The British use of ammunition greased with
animal fat (offensive to Muslim and Hindu
Indians) triggered a rebellion.
Here we see the Japanese army passing the
Triumphal Arch erected near Seoul, Korea
after their victory at Asan. In 1894, Japan went
to war with China over control of Korea.
Despite being seen as the underdog, Japan
won the Sino-Japanese War.
• China recognized Korea’s independence and
ceded Taiwan and part of Manchuria to Japan.
But Russia, Germany, and France forced
Japan to give up Liaodong Peninsula in
• A few years later, Japan declared war on
Russia, defeated the Russian navy, and took
back Manchuria. (First victory of an
Asian nation over a European nation.)
• Japan became an imperialist power.
• British crushed Indian Rebellion and then
placed India under direct control of the
English Parliament. (This era is known as the
British Raj.)
• British stopped trying to turn Indians into
Europeans and no longer allowed Indians to be
in policy-making positions.
• Britain continued to manage the Indian
and introduced industrial technology.
• China lost much of its traditional
over Southeast Asia.
• Britain and France divided much of the
region between them.
• French missionaries and traders had been
active in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
• French sent troops to secure this area as
a colony.
Here we see Than Tai, who became
emperor of Vietnam when he was
ten years old. He reigned from 1889
until 1907. During his leadership,
Vietnam lost what power was left
for the Nguyen Empire. The French
leaders who were controlling the
country accused him of treason and
had him deported. This area then
became known as French Indochina.
Here we see the damaged Chattar
Manzil, or Umbrella Palace, in
Lucknow, India. During the Great
Rebellion of 1857, rebel Indian
soldiers took control of the
surrounding region and laid siege to
Lucknow. After surviving for months,
the British were able to evacuate
the city and then recapture it the
following year.
• Conquest of Indochina brought France a lot
of prestige but only a limited amount of trade.
• French governor oversaw the colony and
some French troops stayed in Vietnam.
• The United States and other nations
for control of South Pacific islands for
their own economic and military benefit.
Imperialism in Africa
• Most European outposts along African
Here we see miners assembled around a
• Diamond fields attracted prospectors and
coasts were for trading of slaves and gold
conveyor at a British diamond mine in
immigrants from Europe and the United
and used as stopovers when sailing to Asia. South Africa in 1888. Diamonds were first
• But the Dutch created a colony in South
discovered in 1867 near the Vaal River
• Railway construction, trade, and
Africa known as Cape Colony; it had a
and changed the history of South Africa
employment boomed.
large number of white settlers.
• Later, South Africans struck gold which
• British took control of Cape Colony in
brought commercial mining companies and
1814 and had complete control of South
new machinery to South Africa and
Africa after the Boer war.
increased the economy.
• To compete with British colonies in
Here we see French colonists and native
• Native Algerians violently resisted
Africa, the French looked to North Africa.
Arabs at the Moorish coffee, in Oran,
French expansion into their country.
• France set up a colony in Algeria that
Algeria, about 1890. After the French
• To protect its colonists, France had to
attracted several thousand French settlers.
crushed resistance to their rule, they
maintain a large army in Algeria.
confiscated traditional grazing lands
• Other countries would then rush to
(considered “vacant”) and sold the lands
establish colonies elsewhere in Africa.
to farmers to settle.
• Egypt fell into debt in the 1870s, in part
Here we see the British warship Malabar
• A scramble for Africa occurred with
because of the expense of building the
sailing through the Suez Canal in Egypt.
France, Germany, Belgium, Spain,
Suez Canal, which linked the
The Suez Canal was a critical gateway to
Portugal, and Italy
Mediterranean and Red seas.
India and East Asia. To protect their
asserting rights to various territories.
• By 1880, France and Britain had taken
economic interests, Britain put down the
• European powers met at the Berlin West
financial control of Egypt.
rebellion and controlled Egypt financially
Africa Conference in 1884-1885 to
• Protests by Egyptian nationalists led to an
and militarily.
partition Africa and show who “owned”
uprising in 1882.
which slice of the
• Native Africans fiercely resisted but
European weaponry prevailed.
Imperialism in Latin America
• Most Latin American countries had
political independence by 1830.
• Latin American countries failed to
industrialize and were dependent on goods
from Europe and the United States.
• The British wanted access to raw
in Latin America.
• France copied Britain’s informal
approach; businesses and banks invested in
Latin America.
• Mexico failed to pay its debts to
banks, so Britain and France sent naval
forces to Mexico.
• France conquered and occupied Mexico
• The United States copied Britain’s informal
imperialist approach by investing in Latin
• In 1823, U.S. President Monroe issue the
Monroe Doctrine, which banned the nations
of Europe from further colonizing Latin
• In 1898, the United States went to war
with Spain.
Here we see huge drying racks
covered in hides in Argentina.
At the time of the photograph
about half of the hides exported
from Argentina, Paraguay, and
Uruguay were “flint-hides” that
were sundried until they became
as hard as iron.
Here we see the French Emperor
Maximilian and Empress Carlota,
rulers of Mexico from 1864 to
1867. Maximilian was a naïve
liberal who viewed himself as the
protector of Indian peasants, but
did not understand the complex
political situation in Mexico. He
was executed three years later.
Here we see American soldiers
cheering and waving in 1898 after
receiving news that the Spanish
had surrendered at Santiago,
Cuba, ending the SpanishAmerican War. Notice the soldiers
are standing in front of a trench
dug in preparation for battle.
• British capital (money) increased the
Britain had over Latin America.
• British business people migrated to Latin
America to raise sheep and cattle and build
facilities to transport goods.
• Bank loans gave British banks further
over the region.
• Mexican resistance and pressure from the
United States forced France out of Mexico.
• United States formal and informal
over Latin American increased.
• The United States defeated Spain.
Engaging in formal imperialism, the United
States then occupied Cuba and seized Puerto
• The Roosevelt Corollary extended the Monroe
Doctrine by saying that the U.S. will use
international police power to protect American
interests in Latin America.
• The United States intervened militarily in many
other Latin American countries.