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Imperialism in Asia Cause Event Effect • China was slow to industrialize and had a weak military; Europeans wanted to sell goods in China. • Britain, France, Germany, and Russia carved out spheres of influence over key ports and land. • Meiji restoration in Japan modernized and industrialized the country. • Japan wanted resources from China and Korea. • British East India Company administered colonial India until 1858. • Over the years, British dominated the political and economic lives of Indians. • The British use of ammunition greased with animal fat (offensive to Muslim and Hindu Indians) triggered a rebellion. Here we see the Japanese army passing the Triumphal Arch erected near Seoul, Korea after their victory at Asan. In 1894, Japan went to war with China over control of Korea. Despite being seen as the underdog, Japan won the Sino-Japanese War. • China recognized Korea’s independence and ceded Taiwan and part of Manchuria to Japan. But Russia, Germany, and France forced Japan to give up Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria. • A few years later, Japan declared war on Russia, defeated the Russian navy, and took back Manchuria. (First victory of an Asian nation over a European nation.) • Japan became an imperialist power. • British crushed Indian Rebellion and then placed India under direct control of the English Parliament. (This era is known as the British Raj.) • British stopped trying to turn Indians into Europeans and no longer allowed Indians to be in policy-making positions. • Britain continued to manage the Indian economy and introduced industrial technology. • China lost much of its traditional influence over Southeast Asia. • Britain and France divided much of the region between them. • French missionaries and traders had been active in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. • French sent troops to secure this area as a colony. Here we see Than Tai, who became emperor of Vietnam when he was ten years old. He reigned from 1889 until 1907. During his leadership, Vietnam lost what power was left for the Nguyen Empire. The French leaders who were controlling the country accused him of treason and had him deported. This area then became known as French Indochina. Here we see the damaged Chattar Manzil, or Umbrella Palace, in Lucknow, India. During the Great Rebellion of 1857, rebel Indian soldiers took control of the surrounding region and laid siege to Lucknow. After surviving for months, the British were able to evacuate the city and then recapture it the following year. • Conquest of Indochina brought France a lot of prestige but only a limited amount of trade. • French governor oversaw the colony and some French troops stayed in Vietnam. • The United States and other nations competed for control of South Pacific islands for their own economic and military benefit. Imperialism in Africa Cause Event Effect • Most European outposts along African Here we see miners assembled around a • Diamond fields attracted prospectors and coasts were for trading of slaves and gold conveyor at a British diamond mine in immigrants from Europe and the United and used as stopovers when sailing to Asia. South Africa in 1888. Diamonds were first States. • But the Dutch created a colony in South discovered in 1867 near the Vaal River • Railway construction, trade, and Africa known as Cape Colony; it had a and changed the history of South Africa employment boomed. large number of white settlers. forever. • Later, South Africans struck gold which • British took control of Cape Colony in brought commercial mining companies and 1814 and had complete control of South new machinery to South Africa and Africa after the Boer war. increased the economy. • To compete with British colonies in Here we see French colonists and native • Native Algerians violently resisted Africa, the French looked to North Africa. Arabs at the Moorish coffee, in Oran, French expansion into their country. • France set up a colony in Algeria that Algeria, about 1890. After the French • To protect its colonists, France had to attracted several thousand French settlers. crushed resistance to their rule, they maintain a large army in Algeria. confiscated traditional grazing lands • Other countries would then rush to (considered “vacant”) and sold the lands establish colonies elsewhere in Africa. to farmers to settle. • Egypt fell into debt in the 1870s, in part Here we see the British warship Malabar • A scramble for Africa occurred with because of the expense of building the sailing through the Suez Canal in Egypt. France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Suez Canal, which linked the The Suez Canal was a critical gateway to Portugal, and Italy Mediterranean and Red seas. India and East Asia. To protect their asserting rights to various territories. • By 1880, France and Britain had taken economic interests, Britain put down the • European powers met at the Berlin West financial control of Egypt. rebellion and controlled Egypt financially Africa Conference in 1884-1885 to • Protests by Egyptian nationalists led to an and militarily. partition Africa and show who “owned” uprising in 1882. which slice of the continent. • Native Africans fiercely resisted but European weaponry prevailed. Imperialism in Latin America Cause • Most Latin American countries had gained political independence by 1830. • Latin American countries failed to industrialize and were dependent on goods from Europe and the United States. • The British wanted access to raw materials in Latin America. • France copied Britain’s informal imperialist approach; businesses and banks invested in Latin America. • Mexico failed to pay its debts to European banks, so Britain and France sent naval forces to Mexico. • France conquered and occupied Mexico in 1862. • The United States copied Britain’s informal imperialist approach by investing in Latin America. • In 1823, U.S. President Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine, which banned the nations of Europe from further colonizing Latin America. • In 1898, the United States went to war with Spain. Event Here we see huge drying racks covered in hides in Argentina. At the time of the photograph about half of the hides exported from Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay were “flint-hides” that were sundried until they became as hard as iron. Here we see the French Emperor Maximilian and Empress Carlota, rulers of Mexico from 1864 to 1867. Maximilian was a naïve liberal who viewed himself as the protector of Indian peasants, but did not understand the complex political situation in Mexico. He was executed three years later. Here we see American soldiers cheering and waving in 1898 after receiving news that the Spanish had surrendered at Santiago, Cuba, ending the SpanishAmerican War. Notice the soldiers are standing in front of a trench dug in preparation for battle. Effect • British capital (money) increased the control Britain had over Latin America. • British business people migrated to Latin America to raise sheep and cattle and build facilities to transport goods. • Bank loans gave British banks further control over the region. • Mexican resistance and pressure from the United States forced France out of Mexico. • United States formal and informal influence over Latin American increased. • The United States defeated Spain. Engaging in formal imperialism, the United States then occupied Cuba and seized Puerto Rico. • The Roosevelt Corollary extended the Monroe Doctrine by saying that the U.S. will use international police power to protect American interests in Latin America. • The United States intervened militarily in many other Latin American countries.