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Transcript
Viewpoints
Official Publication of the Indiana Council for the Social Studies
September 2013
www.wiltonlibrary.org
Commons.wikimedia.org
Teaching
Social Studies
Through The
http://classicalschoolmusic.weebly.com/uploads/1/5/0/8/15089244/8590526.png?1
Indiana Council for the Social
Studies
2013-14
Susan Tomlinson
President, Term Expires 2014
Franklin Central High School
6215 S. Franklin Rd.
Indianapolis, IN 46259
C: 317 341-1565
[email protected]
Michael Boucher
Past President, Term Expires
2014
416 North New Jersey St. #D
Indianapolis, IN 46204
C: 612 636-1889
[email protected]
Eric Heagy
President-Elect,
Term Expires 2014
Shortridge Law & Public Policy
Magnet H. S.
C: 317 752-4779
[email protected]
Ellie James
Vice President
Term Expires 2014
Franklin Central High School
6215 S. Franklin Road
Indianapolis, IN 46259
W: 317 803-8355
M: 317 696-6087
[email protected]
Mary Nine
Secretary, Term Expires 2014
Thompson Crossing School
Thompson Road
Indianapolis, IN 46239
W: 317 803-5024
C: 317 698-7826
[email protected]
Janet Brown
Treasurer, Term Expires 2015
13937 Nansemond Dr.
Carmel, IN 46032
317-439-6680
[email protected]
Erin Benak
AP USH SIG Coordinator
Terms Expires 2014
17225 Shadoan Way
Westfield, IN 46074
W: 317 867-1990
C: 317 777-2732
[email protected]
Robert Brady
ICSS Director of
Communications
Term Expires 2015
2412 West 17th St.
Indianapolis, IN 46222
W: 317 319-1021
[email protected]
James E. Calabro
Term Expires 2015
West Lafayette Jr.-Sr. H. S.
1105 N. Grant Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906-2400
H: 765-480-3927;
W: 765-746-0400
[email protected]
Matt Durrett
Term Expires 2014
Indiana Historical Society
450 West Ohio St.
Indianapolis, IN 46202
C: (317) 450-6724
W: (317) 233-9559
[email protected]
Don Fortner
Term Expires 2014
Munster High School
8808 Columbia Ave.
Munster, IN 46321
W: 219 972-0262
[email protected]
Jane Henson
Term Expires 2015
Office of Teacher Education
School of Education, Rm. 1057
201 North Rose Ave.
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405
W: 812-856-8035
[email protected]
Glenn P. Lauzon
Terms Expires 2015
Indiana University Northwest,
343 Hawthorn Hall, 3400
Broadway, Gary, IN 46410
H: 219 682-6030
W: 219 981-56877
E-mail address:
[email protected]
Benjamin Lawson
Term Expires 2014
1219 Donington Ct.
Bloomington, IN 47401
C: 812 340-0693
[email protected]
Matt McMichael
Term Expires 2014
Zionsville Middle School
900 N. Ford Rd.
Zionsville, IN 40677
W: 317 873-2426 x130815
H: 317-501-6261
[email protected]
[email protected]
Mark Norris
Term Expires 2015
Grace College
Winona Lake, Indiana 46590
W: 574 372-5011 ext. 6256
C: 574 268-8380
[email protected]
ICSS Office
Indiana Council for the Social
Studies
Center for Social Studies and
International Education
1900 East 10th Street, Room
1038
Bloomington, IN 47406-7512
812 855-0447
Fax: 812 855-0455
[email protected]
June 1, 2013 Liaisons
Bruce Blomberg
Indiana Department of
Education
151 W. Ohio Street
Indianapolis, IN 46204
W 317 232-9167
[email protected]
Karen Burgard
NCSS Board of Directors
Liaison Franklin College
101 Branigin Boulevard
Franklin, IN 46131
W: 317 738-8767
C: 816 820-0708
[email protected]
[email protected]
Kathy Kozenski
Nancy Wolfe
Geography Educators Network
of Indiana (GENI)
IUPUI - CA 121 Geography
425 University Blvd.
Indianapolis IN 46202-5140
Phone: (317)274-8879
Fax: (317) 278-5220
[email protected]
Alexandra Strang
Pre-Service Teacher Liaison
[email protected]
Mary Fortney
The Children’s Museum
of Indianapolis
3000 N. Meridian St.
Indianapolis, IN 46206
W: 317 334-3256
H: 317 283-7249
[email protected]
Robert J. Helfenbein
University Liaison
Indiana University-Indianapolis
902 W. New York St., ES 3126
Indianapolis, IN 46202
W: 317.278.1408
[email protected]
Andrew Homan
We the People/Indiana Bar
Foundation
[email protected]
Michael Hutchison
ICSS Listserv
Lincoln High School
1545 South Hart Street Road
Vincennes, Indiana, 47591
W: 812 882-8480
W: [email protected]
H: [email protected]
June 1, 2013 Thank You
To Pearson Education for providing
the funding for Lee Hamilton as one of
our keynote speakers at the 2013
Conference.
President’s Letter
Greetings, ICSS Members,
I am writing this as I have just finished my
first week of the new school year. The first day
of school is full of “new.” New students, new
ideas, new faculty and staff, new technology, new
clothes, new friends. It also includes new
requirements, new expectations, new evaluation
systems, new opportunities and new horizons.
For me it is always exciting as well as a bit scary.
You are going to walk into your classroom that
first day and meet the individuals with whom
you begin an educational journey. It is never
boring, and I am always learning from my
students. For me it is a great vocation!
This issue of Viewpoints is intended to provide
you with new ideas. It is also a way to make new
connections. The Indiana Council for the Social
Studies is an evolving, thriving organization that
serves as a vehicle to promote the social studies
in Indiana. What that really means is that our
organization wants to help you be a wellinformed, highly effective social studies teacher.
Each issue of Viewpoints provides you with new
ideas and opportunities. Robert Brady is
devoted to putting together a variety of articles
from new sources that you can use to make your
lessons “sing.” I appreciate his hard work on this
publication. I also appreciate his frequent posts
on the ICSS Facebook page. If you have not
“liked” us on Facebook, I exhort you to do so.
Rarely is something posted on our FB page that I
have already seen. It’s a great source of new
information and inspiration.
The ICSS is taking new steps to become a better
advocate for the social studies in Indiana. ICSS
Past President Michael Boucher and ICSS
National Council for the Social Studies Liaison
Karen Burgard attended the NCSS Summer
Leadership Institute in Washington D.C. in July.
Workshops focused on how to work at the state
and national level to promote and support the
social studies. They were able to meet with
Senate and Representative staffers and even met
briefly with Senator Joe Donnelly. They will be
sharing this information in a presentation at our
conference in November. As social studies
teachers we KNOW that our votes and our voices
count. What Michael and Karen have to share
can help us be more effective in promoting the
importance of the social studies.
I encourage you to get involved with the Indiana
Council for the Social Studies, and I hope that
you will join us on November 8th at our
conference in Indianapolis at the Crowne Plaza
at Historic Union Station. You can register online
at www.indianasocialstudies.net or via mail or
email. The registration form is included in this
issue.
I attended my first ICSS conference many years
ago as a relatively new teacher. I am happy to
say that my activities during this summer break
included getting together on several occasions
with friends who I first met through ICSS.
Teaching is hard work. We need to play
together, too. As we connect and share ideas, I
hope you can make new friends through ICSS.
Best wishes for a great start to your school year!
Susan Tomlinson
ICSS President
President Elect’s Letter
Dear ICSS Members and Supporters,
As schools now begin their fall semesters we are
all reminded what kind of great commitment we
make to our profession and just how many
students and families depend on us to provide
guidance and encouragement through a long and
challenging academic year. We know, as social
studies educators, that our subjects are not only
interesting and compelling, but are a great
conduit between other non-social studies
subjects, bringing them together in fresh focus
and context. Hence, I would like to renew my
call for all of you to join us at this year’s ICSS
conference “The Social Studies: Connecting Our
World” at the Crowne Plaza at Historic Union
Station on November 8th.
Presentations have been submitted and are as
diverse as they are original and exciting. In
keeping with our theme, each will touch upon
making connections between the rich content
areas in our discipline and many will highlight
the broader pedagogical approach now
encouraged under Common Core. Individual
presentations and workshops will have
applications for both elementary and secondary
social studies classrooms. And expect to find
some unique and very applicable digital tools to
be showcased. Let’s discover and connect with
colleagues through the ideas and methods that
are working in our classrooms and share how we
engage our communities in what we do.
Another wonderful benefit of attending will be
the opportunity to hear two highly regarded,
insightful speakers all on the same day!
Immediately after our early round of special
interest “breakfast club” sessions, we will kick off
the conference with the venerable statesman,
Lee Hamilton, discussing “The Role of Citizenship
in Representative Democracy.” Then, after lunch,
Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Glenda Ritz, will offer her keynote speech on the
vital role of social studies in Indiana education.
It is surely a conference not to miss! Please be
sure register and join us for this important
occasion. You can now register online at Indiana
Council for the Social Studies under “Conference
Central.”http://www.indianasocialstudies.net
I’ll look forward to seeing you there!
Eric Heagy
President-Elect
ICSS
Director of Communications Letter
A new school year and a new group of students
are now before us. That new group of students
represents a new challenge. In so many ways
they will be unlike their predecessors. They
have lived a large portion of their lives in the
Great Recession and through the ongoing, slow
recovery. They have had a lifetime of experience
with electronics and digital media. They are
living in a time in which social mobility in the
United States is less likely for those in lower
socio-economic status than it is for a similarly
placed Briton. They are living in a United States
with a new ethnic mixture. One might suspect
they are living the famous curse: “many you live
in interesting times.”
As teachers, we are living in equally new times.
We are expected to do more, much more, with
less: less financing, fewer classroom resources,
less time to prepare, less time to give individual
attention to each student, less time to think and
reflect, less personal freedom to instruct in the
classroom. The obvers is that more is demanded
of each of us: more tests for students that
determine how well we are doing, more schoolwide initiatives to prevent bullying and acts of
discrimination, more forms of accountability,
more demands for personal tutoring and after
hour teacher time for students struggling, more
individualized and diversified instruction for
larger class sizes, more outside experts telling us
what to do in our classrooms, more curriculum
mandates telling us what to teach and often
when to teach it, more people telling us they
“personally object” to the “nature of the content”
we teach whether it be the origins of man in
world history, the meaning of secession during
the Civil War, the role of religion in the writing of
the Constitution, the nature or indeed the
existence of separation of church and state, or
what American Exceptionalism means.
Education has always been a politicized
institution. Today, teachers find it more so than
they have ever experienced. The concept of
teacher professionalism is being challenged.
Some in legislatures, political action committees,
“think tanks”, “grass roots movements”, and
associations of dissatisfied citizens are
proposing that teaching is more akin to a skilled
trade like plumbing or tool and die maker than it
is to a profession such as law or medicine. There
is a “Jacksonian” view that anyone with sufficient
life experience can fill the role of teacher.
The result is that we work in an environment
continually in flux, which discounts, even
disparages teachers. There are those who want
to destroy the environment even the institution
of education as part of the market-centered
process of creative destruction. Down and out
with the old so we can make way for the new.
There are also those who want to destroy the
current institution of education because it
conflicts with their libertarian ideas of what the
state’s role in education should be. For them, the
only meaning of public education is that the state
provides the funds for family who use them to
educate as they individually see fit. Those of us
in any school can only hope to meet the needs of
a small group of these independent minded
individuals. Diversity of schools is the only
answer for them.
All of this amounts to one thing for the classroom
teacher: PRESSURE, LOTS AND LOTS OF
PRESSURE. Like a diver at great depth, we may
begin to suffer disorienting narcosis. We
experience too much agenda driven “nitrogen”
swirling in our brains. How does one deal with
all of these pressures?
Some choose to go it alone, to double down on
the American characteristics of rugged frontier
individualism. Others look for institutions that
can help them navigate the turbulent times and
changing profession. The Indiana Council for the
Social Studies is one such institution. ICSS is
THE professional organization for Indiana Social
Studies teachers. ICSS is THE umbrella
organization for the social studies in Indiana.
ICSS is the champion of citizenship education
and promoting the study of democracy in
Indiana’s curriculum. Social studies is the glue
that holds together the humanities, and ICSS is
the glue that holds together social studies in
Indiana.
Join us this fall, 8 November 2013 at the Crowne
Plaza Union Station in downtown Indianapolis
for the ICSS state conference. Workshops and
breakout sessions that will meet the needs of the
2013 Indiana social studies teacher will be
available. So will PGPs for your time involved in
this professional development event. Bring
someone new to ICSS into the organization and
with you to the conference. Help build ICSS and
promote social studies education.
And right now, join us for our look at the role of
the humanities, especially the fine arts, in
teaching social studies. The articles that follow
provide a wide introduction to this topic.
H. Robert Brady
Director of Communications
Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Celebrating 75 Years
Indiana Council for the Social
Studies
Annual Conference The Social Studies: Connecting Our
World
Friday, November 8, 2013
Crowne Plaza at Historic Union Station, Indianapolis
www.indianasocialstudies.net
Keynote Speaker The Honorable Lee Hamilton U.S. House of Representatives Director, Center on Congress Luncheon Speaker Glenda Ritz Superintendent of Public Instruction Indiana Department of Education Celebrating 75 Years
Indiana Council for the Social
Studies
Annual Conference Bruce Blomburg, Social Studies Specialist IDOE Updates Vendors and Exhibitors Networking opportunities Performance Growth Points Breakout Sessions to include AP, ISTEP Prep, Common Core State Standards, U.S. History, World History, Government, Economics, Geography and more for elementary, middle school, high school, pre-­‐service teacher training. Awards ceremony will include the recognition of outstanding teachers and pre-­‐service teachers. Grants of $300 will be awarded for special projects. For more information about awards and grants, visit the ICSS website. We have a great line up of
vendors and exhibitors that
include:
Pearson Education
Glencoe-McGraw Hill
Scholastic
Hoosier Chapter of the Japanese American Citizens’
League
National Geographic Learning, Carla Westphal and
Associates
The Center on Congress
Indianapolis Jewish Community Relations Council
Geography Educators’ Network of Indiana
IU Bloomington International Outreach Council
McGraw Hill Education, Elementary K – 6
The DBQ Project
Indianapolis Children’s Museum
Indiana Council for Economic Education
Make time in your conference schedule
to visit the many vendor tables that will
be available. Exciting opportunities, new
materials, and vendor ideas for your
classroom are available from our
vendors.
We join a small break for ale at Ben Franklin's
print shop where some founders are chatting...
Oh! Look guys. It's
the notice for the
annual Indiana Council
for the Social Studies
Conference.
They have great
conventions. Got
any notepad on
sale Ben? I'll
want to take a lot
of notes at the
breakout
sessions.
Sure
do dude.
Aisle 5 of
the outer
shop.
Toss me that envelope.
I want to make a note.
Says here the
convention is on 8
November 2013 at the
Crowne Plaza Union
Station in Indianapolis,
Indiana.
Make sure
you're there by 7:30 am
to get signed in. 8:00 am
is breakfast with the
Special interest groups
my favorite get
together.
Well add to your note the fact
you can register online at the
ICSS website. It's
www.indianasocialstudies.net
Let me use your laptop
Ben.
Our breakout sessions
include:
Global Perspectives
National History Day
Online Geography Tutorials
Indianapolis: A City of Immigrants
Common Core/Reading/Elementary Social
Studies
Literacy Skill Building and Children’s Books
The Japanese American Experience and Insights
into the Sikh- Arab- and Muslim American
experience
Using Technology and Pop Culture Reality Stars
to Bring Historical Figures to Life
Advocating for the Social Studies
DBQs
Elementary and Middle School Economics
Civil Rights
Historical Disasters and the Social and
Geographical Perspectives
Art and the social Studies Curriculum
Using Primary Sources
Center for Civic Education Historical Resources
and Common Core Principles
Go to www.indianasocialstudies.net and
register online for the 2013 ICSS
Conference.
Hello! I'm Vice President Thomas
Hendricks. I wanted to take a
moment and remind all Hoosier
social studies teachers about the
Indiana Council for the Social
Studies Conference on 8 November
2013 at the Crowne Plaza Union
Station in Indianapolis.
V.P. Thomas Hendricks,
famous Hoosier
politician.
The Agenda is packed. The keynotes
are great: former representative
Lee Hamilton from the Center on
Congress and Indiana
Superintendent of Public
Instruction Glenda Ritz.
Sure will be
more exciting
than presiding
over the
Senate!
And the breakout sessions/
workshops. I'm still vacillating
on which one's I'll be attending.
Too many great choices.
Register for the conference
today. Go to
www.indianasocialstudies.net and
do it online. It's quick, effective,
and oh so easy.
Friday, November 8, Crowne Plaza at Union Station, Indianapolis
7:30 Vendors and Registration and Continental Breakfast Open
8:00 - 8:30 Special Interest Groups** Breakfast (An opportunity to meet informally and network with
others in your area of interest)
8:40 - 9:25 Breakout Session 1
9:35 - 10:20 Breakout Session 2
10:30 - 11:15 Lee Hamilton
11:30 - 1:00 Lunch, Awards, Glenda Ritz
1:10 - 1:55 Breakout Session 3
2:05 - 2:50 Breakout Session 4
3:00 – 3:45 General Meeting and Raffle
**University Professors, Pre-service Teachers/University Students, Advanced Placement U.S. History,
Elementary and ISTEP, Update from the IDOE and the Common Core, K – 3& Children’s Literature
AWARDS GUIDELINES AND DESCRIPTIONS, 2013
JANE LOWRIE BACON TEACHER GRANT INFORMATION SHEET
DEADLINE: OCTOBER 1
Jane Lowrie Bacon was the Indiana State Social Studies Consultant from 1976
until 1981, as well as a former ICSS president. During the 1970s she oversaw the
development of one of the first Social Studies Curriculum Guides in Indiana. This guide
was considered by many to be one of the most comprehensive and useful up to that
time. She also worked with James Becker of Indiana University on a groundbreaking
global education project. After marrying geographer and textbook author Phil Bacon,
whom she met at an NCSS conference, they moved to New Mexico and together
continued to be active in their state social studies councils and geography alliance.
In Jane Lowrie Bacon’s honor, the Indiana Council for the Social Studies (ICSS)
funds two grants of $300 each for use as seed money for teacher created or teacher
developed classroom projects or research in the social studies. Grants will be awarded
to individuals on the basis of the program's/research’s potential to improve social
studies education in Indiana. All grant applications are judged by the ICSS Awards and
Grants Committee and submitted for approval to the ICSS Board of Directors.
Half of the grant money is awarded at the ICSS State Convention. The
remainder of the funds are awarded upon completion of the project/research. Proof of
completion must be furnished to the ICSS Awards and Grants Committee.
To be considered for the teacher grants, individuals must:
Be a member of the Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Be present at the ICSS convention to accept the award.
Provide tangible output to the ICSS Awards and Grants committee within one
year of receipt of the grant (e.g. article, conference presentation).
4. Complete the Teacher Grant Application form, and
5. Submit a brief letter of support from the applicant's supervisor, principal, or
department chairperson.
1.
2.
3.
Grant application packets must be received by OCTOBER 1.
Send packets to:
Jane Lowrie Bacon Teacher Grant Applications
Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Center for Social Studies and International Education
1900 East Tenth Street, Room 1038
Bloomington, IN 47406-7512
JANE LOWRIE BACON TEACHER GRANT APPLICATION
DEADLINE: OCTOBER 1
Name_________________________________________________________________
Home
Address____________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip__________________________________________________________
School
Address___________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip__________________________________________________________
Home Tel.______________________
School Tel.__________________________
Email_________________________________________________________________
Subject(s) and grade level(s):_____________________________________________
A.
Please give a brief description of the proposed project/program/research:
B.
Indicate the objectives and rationale of the project/program/research:
C.
Indicate the anticipated tangible results:
D.
List means of dissemination to ICSS membership: an article in Viewpoints or the
International Journal of Social Education, a presentation at the ICSS annual
convention, other.
E.
Additionally, candidates must include a brief letter of support from their supervisor,
principal, or department chairperson.
Use additional sheets if necessary.
STAN HARRIS CITIZEN'S AWARD NOMINATION FORM
DEADLINE: OCTOBER 1
The Stan Harris Citizen's Award is made to groups or individuals in Indiana in
recognition of service promoting social studies principles. Nominees are judged on the
following criteria:
The outstanding service rendered by the nominee must focus on the promotion of
social studies principles in a local community, region, or the state of Indiana. The
spectrum of social studies principles implemented by the nominee can range from
principles pertaining to tradition to principles pertaining to contemporary issues.
There must be some tangible evidence that the efforts of service of the nominee
have had or are having an impact upon, or are effecting a change within, a local
community, region, or the state of Indiana.
There must be evidence that the service rendered by the nominee is distinguished
for its excellence and inherent qualities.
The nominee must have demonstrated consistent outstanding service in the
promotion of social studies principles.
Nomination must:
- include the individual's or group's name, address, occupation, title, and the name,
address and phone number of the person making the nomination.
-describe the outstanding service in promoting social studies education in Indiana (local,
regional, or statewide),
-give tangible evidence of the impact upon the change within the local community,
region, or state (e.g. newspaper accounts, testimonials),
-provide evidence that the service is distinguished for its excellence and its inherent
qualities, and
include examples of the consistency of outstanding service.
Additional supportive data may be included.
Send nomination packets by OCTOBER 1st to:
Awards and Grants Committees
Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Center for Social Studies and International Education
1900 East Tenth Street, Room 1038
Bloomington, IN 47406-7512
SPECIAL SERVICE NOMINATION FORM
DEADLINE: OCTOBER 1
The Special Service Award is presented to ICSS members for service to social
studies education. Nominees are judged by the ICSS Board of Directors on the
following criteria:
There must be tangible evidence that exceptional contribution by the nominee
toward social studies development are characterized by:
a. consistency of contributions,
b. the distinctive excellence and quality of contributions, and
c. the impact and effect that the contributions have had or are having upon
social studies development
2. Nominees must be distinguished by their length of service to ICSS and their
contributions toward the implementation of ICSS goals.
3. Nominations must include:
1.
.
nominee’s name
address,
phone number,
email address,
length of service through ICSS, and
the name, address, phone number, and email address of the person
making the nomination.
4. Nominations must indicate:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
.
a. the exceptional contributions of the nominee toward social studies
development,
b. the consistency of exceptional contributions
c. evidence of distinctive excellence and quality, and
d. evidence of the impact and effect on social studies development.
5. Additional supportive data may also be included.
Send nominations by OCTOBER 1 to:
Awards and Grants Committee Chair
Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Center for Social Studies and International Education
1900 East Tenth Street, Room 1038
Bloomington, IN 47406-7512
The Indiana Council for the Social Studies' Distinguished Teacher Award will
be presented at the State conference. This honor will be given to two educators
who have demonstrated exceptional teaching abilities in the field of social
studies, elementary or secondary. Each honoree will be awarded a plaque and
$100. Anyone may nominate a teacher using the criteria set forth below. This is
an opportunity to show appreciation for the many wonderful people who
influence Indiana’s children.
ICSS DISTINGUISHED TEACHER AWARD
REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLICATION
DEADLINE: OCTOBER 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The nominee must be a full-time teacher in Indiana. The nominee must be a member of
the Indiana Council for the Social Studies.
The nominee must submit the required forms and supporting documents postmarked by
October 1st.
The nominee must have a current teaching license and be teaching that licensure area
In 250 words or less, the nominee must submit a reflective statement about his/her
teaching experience.
Letters of recommendation from colleagues, supervisors, parents, or students should be
submitted with the nominee's application.
In letters of recommendation, evidence should be provided of the teacher's strong
command of the social studies and the ability to communicate this knowledge in ways that
contribute to students' understanding and intellectual skills. The letters may address the
following concerning the nominee:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Exceptional teaching abilities
Contributions and impact of nominee to student learning
Evidence of outstanding teaching and classroom quality
Evidence of contribution and dedication to improvement of social studies learning in the
classroom.
Each letter of recommendation should be limited to two typed pages. In addition to
letters of recommendation, supporting documentation of up to ten pages may be submitted. NO
MATERIALS WILL BE RETURNED.
Send an application by OCTOBER 1 to:
ICSS Distinguished Teacher Award
Indiana Council for the Social Studies
Center for Social Studies and International Education
1900 East Tenth Street, Room 1038
Bloomington, IN 47406-7512
Telephone: 812-855-3838, Fax: 812-855-0455
INDIANA COUNCIL FOR THE SOCIAL STUDIES
DISTINGUISHED TEACHER AWARD
Name of Nominator (optional) _____________________________________________
NAME________________________________________________________________
HOME
ADDRESS____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
TELEPHONE Home_____________________ Work _________________________
E-mail_________________________________________________________________
POSITION____________________________________________________________
YEARS OF TEACHING
EXPERIENCE__________________________________________________________
SCHOOL
CORPORATION________________________________________________________
School at which you are currently teaching:
Name_________________________________________________________________
Street_________________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip___________________________________________________________
Type of School:
____elementary
____high school
_____middle/junior high
_____college/university
Please include:
Colleges/Universities Attended
Teaching License(s):
Teaching Experience:
Location
Dates
Field of Degree
The Heart of the
Matter
By H. Robert Brady
Ozymandias
I met a traveller from an antique land
Who said: `Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed.
And on the pedestal these words appear -"My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.'
Percy Bysshe Shelley
When I first read the 12 plus volume A Study of
History by Arnold Joseph Toynbee, the British
historian/historiographer, I suddenly
understood the importance of the fine arts in
history. The German, Spangler and the Briton,
Toynbee made very clear why I, as a historian,
should be concerned with the arts and
humanities. They are artifacts for historians.
They are the artifacts that lead the historian to
understand the heart and soul of a civilization or
a culture. At times, we see cultures that have
demonstrated stagnation in their arts. Those
times almost inevitably coincide with the times
that these cultures have become sterile,
unimaginative, and non-innovative. They are
soulless cultures in which people stagger from
one activity to another all in the name of survival
or the accumulation of more and more goods and
wealth.
I think it is safe to say in many ways our teaching
of social studies has become one of those
soulless, sterile, activities. No wonder students
persistently say social studies is their least
tolerable subject, the one they would trash first if
they had any control of the curriculum. Why do
we fear something with heart and soul so much
today? Why do we concentrate on the mechanics
of democracy while exorcising the spirit of
democracy like a poltergeist? Why do we
sterilize everything social of philosophy,
emotion, and aesthetic qualities? Why do we
ignore these important historical artifacts? Why
do we ignore the need of humans to
communicate to others of their time and beyond?
The Shelly poem, “Ozymandais”, tells us much
about the need to incorporate the fine arts into
our teaching of social studies. In deed, it tells us
that we cannot really teach the Enduring
Understanding of social studies without often
doing it through the arts. What would have
remained of Ozymandais’ culture were it not for
the arts? What do we know about Ozymandais
from the art that survived? What great and
enduring understanding do we gain from the
inscription on the art? What cultural sin do we
learn about from the scene and it’s ironic
inscription? What do we learn about the
Romantic Movement and its view of mankind
from the poem? What is Shelly saying is the
rhythm of history? Is his view sustained by the
facts we know about mega-history? What about
Egyptian history? Chinese history? What does
that mean for American history?
How did the Romantic view of mankind and
history influence life and policy in Britain, the
most powerful nation on the Earth at that time?
Did the Romantic Revolution fuel the British
political revolution of the 1800s through positive
or negative ways? What does it mean that a
Romantic Revolution in the arts, music, and
literature could be underway in the heart of
world industrialization, yet we see a dearth of
art, fine music, and literature in the “new
postindustrial America?”
Anyone who has watched Ken Burn’s Civil War
series has forever tied the woeful sound of a
single violin and its tune to the heartbreakingly
tragic nature of that fratricidal conflict. The
music is the “soul” of the presentation. It
communicates the tragedy in a way even Mathew
Brady’s civil war photographs of carnage cannot.
primary lens through which individuals see and
experience their world.
Children, students, cannot connect to something
that is heartless. They cannot engage with
something that is soulless. Our techno-society
has forgotten this need to communicate and be
communicated to in an endless search forever
increasing profits and a more materially
abundant style of living. Yet every time we look
at a Michelangelo sculpture or painting we
cannot help but feel our heart move and our
minds wander to life as it was in his time. We
cannot help but feel the inexplicable wonder of
creation Christians of the Renaissance felt and
the perdition of hell that sinners faced. We
cannot help but experience the single-handed
heroism of David or know the wonder of nature
as expressed in the physique of a powerful horse
in motion.
By neglecting the arts in our social studies
instruction we are dramatically shortchanging
our students. Western Christian civilization is
both a derivative of and stands in opposition to
Hellenistic Civilization and many other
civilizations around the world. We really don’t
understand ourselves if we do not know what we
stand in opposition to and what we are a
derivative of. We do not know ourselves if we do
not know how Hellenistic people thought and
acted and how that thought and action has been
modified as it was filtered through centuries of
Western Christian civilization. We do not know
ourselves if we do not know the influence of the
Silk Road on Western Christian civilization.
These feeling and perceptions flow into and out
of our core concept of religion, life, society, the
individual and his place in the universe. They
constitute the worldview that we like to call the
Ensuring an important role for the fine arts in
social studies instruction is not just the “right
thing to do”, it is a necessity if we are to pursue
the concept of knowing ourselves. Teaching
many of the core concepts of social studies
through the arts is essential to achieving the
disciplinary goals of teaching social studies. We
must embrace the fine arts as part of our domain
for they are the purest expression of our human
and our civic natures.
The mathematician Jacob Bronowski pioneered
the TV genre of the BBC intellectual series with
his Ascent of Man. While it followed the scientific
history of the human race, it was nevertheless
infused with the fine arts. When Bronowski
writes about science and the Enlightenment, he
references the Frenchman Beaumachais’ play,
The Marriage of Figaro drawn for Mozart’s
famous opera of the same name. Describing the
change in society writ by the Enlightenment,
Bronowski quotes: “Count, little count. You may
go dancing, but I’ll call the tune.”
Nothing catches the shift for an aristocratic
dominated society to an emerging society of
professionalism, science, and the middle class as
what Bronowski quotes.
E.D. Hirsch, of core knowledge fame may have
simplified much, but he is right about one thing,
cultural literacy is the key to inclusion in high
functioning society. Cultural allusions are used
as shortcuts for whole stories in conversations:
she has the blood stained hands of Lady
Macbeth, the equivocation of Hamlet, the
rejection of “get thee to a nunnery,” the
complicated experience seen again and again
and symbolized by Romeo and Juliet.
Likewise the scenes of creation and damnation
seen on the ceiling and walls of the Sistine
Chapel encapsulated the word view of the
Christian West in that era, while David’s The
Oath of the Horatii captures the last moments of
the Renaissance as it evolves into the era of
Romanticism seen in later works by David such
as his French revolutionary paintings like
Napoleon Crossing the Alps. Then we see
Romanticism in full bloom in Delacroix. The
same change is true of Beethoven’s music which
transitions from the classical to the romantic
during his career. These artifacts help us see and
understand the conversion of the Renaissance
mind through the romanticism of the French
Revolution and the Romantic Era of early British
Industrialization into the Liberal Western mind
of the nineteenth century.
It helps students understand the difference
between the American Revolution a postRenaissance endeavor dominated by the classical
mind, where the Classical World is the engine of
thought and the French Revolution dominated by
the Romantic Movement that saw in nature
antidotes to the evils and failures of
aristocratically structured societies. (Think
Locke vs. Rousseau.) These different minds are
why the American Founders saw the American
Republic as a never ending great task to achieve
a Republic of liberty while the French
Revolutionaries saw their revolution as the
pursuit of a dream, a dream of Republican
Perfection.
We owe it to our students to help them
understand the minds behind the Ascent of Man.
As Bronowski demonstrated, we cannot do that
without the fine arts. They are a critical part of
our ascent.
Shakespeare was a
Great Historian, Too!:
Reflections on CoTeaching a World
Studies Course
By Eric Heagy
My students seem to enjoy my world history
class the most when I am telling them a story. I
often ask them to do the same: take on a role
from the past and create their own informed
historical account. The artistic license sometimes
means some off-the-wall historical fiction, but
we would always have fun clearing up
inaccuracies and considering “what ifs…?”
Approaching history as a story is also a great
way to talk about “who” really writes history and
the multiple voices behind even a single
historical event. Students are engaged and like
the notion of more than one history – it took
pressure off of having to be “right.”
Hence, when I was asked to help create a
cross-curricular course, blending literature and
world history, I jumped at the chance! The
course was named World Studies, and it
combined ninth-grade English with World
History.
But where did the history end and the English
literature begin? Students were often so
socialized into compartmentalizing information
and ideas that they were truly puzzled when two
teachers were co-teaching one subject. How
could that happen? (Yes, I believe I taught them
specialization is a hallmark of complex society in
the unit on river civilizations!) However, making
knowledge holistic in the classroom also made
learning qualitatively different. Wasn’t this way
the world revealed itself to us? Mood is
intertwined with historical cause and effect.
Suspense is a function of historical action and
intent. And the author and her text is certainly a
part of the flow of history that we think on.
Literature was placed in deeper context, and
history with greater feeling, imagination and
agency.
Perhaps the most rewarding thing about this
was the experience of working closely with
talented colleagues. We can learn so much about
our craft by co-teaching. In this case, Jon
Burroughs, a veteran English teacher of many
years in the Indianapolis Public School system,
showed me the ropes. We developed much of our
own content – something that is often a necessity
to make lessons authentic and effective in this
kind of course – through an online curriculum
mapping program. Jon never failed to bring
together readings of high interest and historical
insight – his deep experience in his field was an
advantage. But Jon’s wonderful sense of humor
pervaded his material and entertained students,
too. One of his excellent activities (repeated
multiple times throughout the year) was a
“Meeting of the Minds.” These were
performance-based assessments that asked
students to choose their favorite writer or
historical figure they had read and in through
that persona’s ideas and worldview engage in a
round table discussion on several big issues. Jon
at first scripted these out, then gradually
released students to write more and more of
their parts (questions provided ahead of time).
Enlightenment thinkers, Confucius, Peter the
Great, and Attila can make amicable dinner
guests if you can find the right topic! I felt I was
best as the stage manager in these activities,
making sure our historical design and backdrop
were authentic as possible (we often asked
students to write an essay or take a unit test on
the world history side to keep them honest).
From a practical standpoint, the history content
anchored the overall framework for the course.
But the selections of literature was more than
supplemental material to a history textbook or
primary document, they were the bridge to
students -- connecting them with the past
characters and places. As a proponent of reading
apprenticeship and teaching students to think
about their reading by making it visible, I felt the
carefully selected literary selections from certain
periods of world history always sparked more
enthusiasm for comments than a “conventional”
textbook. A textbook may help students know
basic historical fact, but well matched literature
helped them imagine how the history unfolded.
I look back on that partnership and I feel lucky
to have had the colleagues and administrative
support that made it work. It is still possible to
return to that design, and many school programs
do embrace this approach. Courses like world
studies lend themselves naturally to the
Common Core framework, now being adopted by
more and more states. With its emphasis on
integrating skills and knowledge, versus
separating and segmenting understanding,
students will be taught and assessed on their
ability to create connections and understand
relationships that are reflected in the world
around us. What can be more authentic than
that?
Perhaps with the will for schools and teaching
professionals to look at the skills and ideas that
bind us together, we can create a learning
experience that is a whole lot more than just the
sum of its parts.
Exploring World
Heritage Sites:
Researching Sites,
Making Proposals
Several years ago I attended a conference at
Ohrid, a World Heritage Site in Macedonia.
Ohrid is recognized as one of the earliest human
settlements in Europe and also as an educational
and cultural hub of Slavonic culture from the 7th
through 19th centuries. It is home to the oldest
Slav monastery and has one the most important
collections of icons in the world. Rich in culture
and history, our Macedonian hosts were very
proud of the designation of this region as a
World Heritage Site. This was my introduction
to the World Heritage Site program. Further
examination of this United Nations-sponsored
program provided rich resources for classroom
use.
The Convention concerning the protection of
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage,
adopted by the United Nations Education,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in
1972 “seeks to encourage the identification,
protection and preservation of cultural and
natural heritage around the world considered to
be of outstanding value to humanity.” Since then
981 sites have received World Heritage Site
designation. Of these, 193 are natural sites (e.g.
The Dolomites, Mammoth Cave, and Kilimanjaro
National Park). The remaining cultural or mixed
cultural and natural sites provide an extensive
global list for student research. (For the
complete list visit:
http://whc.unesco.org/en/interactive-map/)
Examples of these include Taos Pueblo Culture,
Monticello and the University of Virginia in
Charlottesville, Virginia, Independence Hall and
the Statue of Liberty in the United States.
International sites include the Cologne
Cathedral, the Great Zimbabwe National
Monument, Alhambra, and Historic Areas of
Istanbul. Many of these sites are directly related
to World History and Geography and History of
the World Academic Standards. However, there
can be many connections in other courses as
well.
In addition to using the World Heritage Site
list as a resource for potential research topics,
the criteria for WHS designation can itself guide
the development of student activities. One
activity for the teachers at the Ohrid conference I
attended tasked small groups to identify and
propose areas from their home state or home
country for consideration as a World Heritage
Site. The criteria are listed below. Student
objectives could include the identification of
local or state sites that meet one or more of the
criteria and crafting an oral and visual defense of
their choice.
World Heritage Site Selection Criteria
i.
to represent a masterpiece of human
creative genius;
ii.
to exhibit an important interchange of
human values, over a span of time or within a
cultural area of the world, on developments in
architecture or technology, monumental arts,
town-planning or landscape design;
iii.
to bear a unique or at least exceptional
testimony to a cultural tradition or to a
civilization which is living or which has
disappeared;
iv.
to be an outstanding example of a type of
building, architectural or technological ensemble
or landscape which illustrates (a) significant
stage(s) in human history;
v.
to be an outstanding example of a
traditional human settlement, land-use, or seause which is representative of a culture (or
cultures), or human interaction with the
environment especially when it has become
vulnerable under the impact of irreversible
change;
vi.
to be directly or tangibly associated with
events or living traditions, with ideas, or with
beliefs, with artistic and literary works of
outstanding universal significance. (The
Committee considers that this criterion should
preferably be used in conjunction with other
criteria);
vii.
to contain superlative natural phenomena
or areas of exceptional natural beauty and
aesthetic importance;
viii. to be outstanding examples representing
major stages of earth's history, including the
record of life, significant on-going geological
processes in the development of landforms, or
significant geomorphic or physiographic
features;
ix.
to be outstanding examples representing
significant on-going ecological and biological
processes in the evolution and development of
terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine
ecosystems and communities of plants and
animals;
x.
to contain the most important and
significant natural habitats for in-situ
conservation of biological diversity, including
those containing threatened species of
outstanding universal value from the point of
view of science or conservation.
http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/
The list below provides a few examples for
students to research and defend. Students could
also be challenged to identify and propose sites
within their own city or county.
•Amish Acres (former Old Order Amish
farm)
•Angel Mounds State Historic Site,
Evansville (Mississippian Indian town)
•Columbus, Indiana (ranked 6th in the
nation for architectural innovation and
design)
•George Rogers Clark National Historical
Park, Vincennes
•Indiana War Memorials Museums
(second only to Washington D.C. in terms
of number of
memorials)
•New Harmony (utopian communities)
•West Baden Springs and French Lick
Springs Resort (National Historic
Landmark)
The World Heritage Site list is a valuable
resource for teachers and students for
broadening knowledge of culturally significant
sites on a global scale. Proposing and defending
a local or new site requires the further
development of synthesis and evaluation skills
we strive to hone in our students.
Resources:
http://whc.unesco.org
http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/
www.indianalandmarks.org
www.indianamuseum.org
Susan Tomlinson
Franklin Central High School
Indianapolis, Indiana
The Eye of Napoleon
The Frazier History Museum in Louisville,
Kentucky is proud to present a new and
magnificent exhibition. The Eye of Napoleon,
featuring the personal art collection of Napoleon
Bonaparte, opens at the Frazier on October 19,
2013 and runs through February 9, 2013. It is
both fitting and ironic that The Eye of Napoleon
will be showcased in Louisville, the city named
after King Louis XVI. It was his younger brother,
King Louis XVIII, hardly a chip off the old block,
who possessed enough ambition to begin
unraveling Napoleon’s reign, both as a conqueror
and a connoisseur.
With over 200 works of Napoleon Bonaparte’s
paintings, sculpture, jewels, books, furniture and
vintage clothing, The Eye of Napoleon is living
proof the infamous and ruthless Emperor of
France was a complex man. With royal palaces
to furnish, and lavish gifts to amass for multiple
wives, lovers and family members, Napoleon’s
great taste was a powerful asset personally and
politically.
The French Revolution sowed the seeds that
brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power in March
of 1804. In an effort to boost national morale,
the Emperor made it clear early on that French
artists were underrated and under his rule, they
would receive the deserved glory granted to
artists out of the classical civilizations of Rome
and Athens. With that declaration, Napoleon
pledged he would set an example as the nation’s
art patron, par excellence. And the Emperor
delivered.
Napoleon led the expansion of the worldrenowned Louvre Museum (briefly renamed
Musee Napoleon) and donated hundreds pieces
plundered during his brutal conquests in Italy.
But it was the French artists of the period whose
masterpieces received preferential placement.
Napoleon’s favorite paintings and drawings were
done by Gerard, Prud’hon, David and Percier et.
Fontaine. His A-list of sculptors included
Houdon, Canova and Chaudet. All had a place in
Napoleon’s private collection as well.
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, 1807, Jean-Baptiste
Mauzaisse with or after Jacques-Louis David
For students, there will be a guided program,
Sculpture
Colossal Bust of Napoleon, ca. 1810, Antonio
Canova
Bust of Napoleon, 1809, Antoine Mouton
Clothing
The Emperor’s Hat, summer model, ca. 1805, worn
by Napoleon in the 1809 Battle of Essling
Ceremonial Dress Coat, 1804, worn to Napoleon’s
coronation by his Minister of the Interior
All visitors to The Eye of Napoleon, produced by Exhibits
Development Group in Washington, D.C., will see many
fascinating and famous works of art and craft. These
include the following and a few hundred more:
Paintings
First Consul Bonaparte, ca. 1802, Baron AntoineJean Gros
Military Artifacts
Napoleon’s Collapsible Campaign Bed and
Traveling Box, ca. 1808
Napoleon’s Map of the French Empire in 1812
Sword of the Chief of Heralds, proclaiming
Napoleon Emperor, 1804
ABOUT THE FRAZIER HISTORY MUSEUM
The Frazier History Museum, located AT 829
West Main Street, on Louisville, Kentucky’s
downtown “Museum Row,” has the distinction of
being the only place in the world outside Great
Britain to permanently house and display Royal
Armouries artifacts. This world-class museum
provides a journey through more than 1,000
years of world and American history with everchanging and interactive special exhibitions,
daily performances by costumed interpreters
and engaging special events and programs. The
Frazier History Museum is open MondaySaturday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and Sunday
Noon to 5:00 p.m. For more information, visit
www.fraziermuseum.org.
ABOUT EXHIBITS DEVELOPMENT GROUP EDG
EDG was established to assist national and
international museums and exhibition
organizers with the placement of traveling
exhibitions and the enhancement of their
exhibition programs. In 2008, EDG expanded its
development activities when it opened offices in
the historic Georgetown district of Washington,
D.C., where the firm creates, develops, and
coordinates traveling exhibitions. For more
information, visit
www.exhibitsdevelopment.com.
Read more about
social studies
New Program Helps Teachers Bring History
of World War I to Life
http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/curriculum/2
013/09/new_collaboration_helps_teache.html
Introducing AHA Communities: An Online
Hub for Historians
http://blog.historians.org/2013/09/introducing
-aha-communities-online-hub-for-historians/
John Thompson: Why Did Race to the Top
Ignore Social Science?
http://dianeravitch.net/2013/09/25/johnthompson-why-did-race-to-the-top-ignoresocial-science/
Bring Back Social Studies
http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive
/2013/09/bring-back-social-studies/279891/
“American History Handbook” Is A Useful
Resource
http://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2013/09/25/
american-history-handbook-is-a-usefulresource/
Changing the Classroom Curriculum in
History: Recapturing How I Taught a HalfCentury Ago (Part 2)
http://larrycuban.wordpress.com/2013/09/23/
changing-the-classroom-curriculum-in-historyrecapturing-how-i-taught-a-half-century-agopart-2/
The 5 Best Free Tools for Publishing Student
Work
http://elearningindustry.com/the-5-best-freetools-for-publishing-student-work
Transition from Thomas.gov to Congress.gov
http://blogs.loc.gov/law/2013/09/thetransition-from-thomas-gov-to-congressgov/
British Museum and Ancient Egyptian
WebQuest
http://worldhistoryeducatorsblog.blogspot.c
om/2013/09/ancient-egypt-web-quest.html
A True Map of Africa
http://www.collectiveevolution.com/2013/07/01/the-true-size-ofafrica-have-our-maps-been-misleading-forover-500-years/#_
CourseWorld Curates Repository of Free Arts
and Humanities Media
http://thejournal.com/articles/2013/09/24/co
urseworld-launches-free-liberal-arts-videoplatform.aspx
Revealed: the violent, thuggish world of the
young JS Bach
http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/sep/
21/secret-bach-teenagethug?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487
The Flipped Classroom Guide for Teachers
http://elearningindustry.com/the-flippedclassroom-guide-for-teachers
Ben Franklin's Thoughts About the
Constitution on the Day It Was Signed
http://mentalfloss.com/article/12551/benfranklins-thoughts-about-constitution-day-itwas-signed
Ths is How to Create Maps Using Google Maps
Engine
http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2013/09
/ths-is-how-to-create-maps-using-google.html
Fulbright Awards
The Fulbright Distinguished Awards in Teaching provides elementary and secondary educators with an
opportunity for a semester of independent study and professional development in Chile, Finland, India,
Israel, Mexico, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories, Singapore and the United Kingdom (additional
countries may be added in the near future-watch the program
website<http://www.fulbrightteacherexchange.org/> for updates). Based at university schools of
education in the host country, participants take course, complete a capstone project focused on Global
Best Practices or Developing Global Competence, and lead master classes and seminars for teachers and
students at the university and local schools. Please visit the website
http://www.fulbrightteacherexchange.org/ for more information and to access the online application.
Please share this with your colleagues and networks.
Thank you,
-- Betsy Devlin-Foltz
Elizabeth (Betsy) Devlin-Foltz * Program Officer * Teacher Exchange Branch * Bureau of Educational and
Cultural Affairs
2200 C Street NW - 4th Fl| Washington, DC 20522-0504 | U.S. Department of State | Washington, DC | *:
202.632.6334| 7: 202.632.9479| *: [email protected]
Congratulations to our 2013 Dennis Beadles
Pre-Service Teacher Award Winners!
Their professors nominated these students as
exceptional pre-service teachers. We look forward to
seeing excel as they transition into their own classrooms. These individuals
will be recognized at our annual
conference awards program on Friday, November 8th at the
Kevin Banich
Ball State University
Crowne Plaza Hotel at Union Station in Indianapolis.
Asuncion Casillas
IU Northwest
Jacob C. Cauhorn
University of St. Francis
Amanda Hall
Taylor University
Kimberley A. Kovacic
IU Northwest
Benjamin Rogge Merriman Grace College
N o m in a t e
T ea c h er s fo r
IC SS A w ar d s.
Now is the time to consider making
nominations for ICSS awards which include the
Outstanding Teacher Award, Stan Harris Citizens
Award or the Special Service Award. Jane Lowrie
Bacon grants provide awardees with $300 of
seed money for a social studies
project. Information and applications for these
awards and grants are available on the ICSS
website.
G eo -Fest
Geo-Fest - Geography Educators Network of Indiana
(GENI)
October 18th - 19th Spring Mill State Park
Oct. 1st registration deadline
Sessions this year include:
> interacting with Kelsey Timmerman, author of
Where Am I Wearing? and Where Am I Eating?
(just released). Kelsey wants to discuss possible classroom
applications from the books, and he wants to share a
book (autographed) with each participant!
> 2013 National Geography Awareness Week theme:
Geography and The New Age of Exploration
> Geography of racing: automotive and equine
> Insects
> Chinese culture and your school
> an Indiana Supreme Court slavery case
> social activities
> out-of-door activities
You will receive:
•educational materials
•new ideas
•fresh perspectives
•sharing with colleagues
•Friday night lodging
•Saturday breakfast, lunch, and snacks
•Professional Growth Points (if needed)
Cost to participate in GeoFest:
existing GENI paid Members = $50.00
new to GENI = $65.00 (which includes a membership)
Local educators no lodging/breakfast = $20.00 (GENI
members)
Local educators no lodging/breakfast = $30.00 (new to
GENI)
Preservice students = $40.00 (which includes a
membership)
Preservice students no lodging/breakfast = $15.00
Guests = $65.00
Check room availableity for Saturday night. IF you are
interested in staying Saturday night -- at your own
expense, please, let us know.
http://www.iupui.edu/~geni
2013 GIS Day
for Grades 6-12
by Bruce Blomberg
Geospatial Data is Everywhere!
2013 Purdue GIS Day for Grades 6-12
Thursday, November 7
Discovery Learning Research Center
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
This annual event promotes an educational
framework that works to enrich spatial learning
and data engagement between post-secondary
education and grades 6-12. New this year, we
will offer Educator professional development
(Professional Growth Points available) AND an
introduction to a variety of spatial data
resources -within learning activities -- for middle school and
high school students by faculty researchers, staff
and students at Purdue University. This year’s
program will be hosted at the Purdue’s
Discovery Learning Research Center at its
building with information available at
http://stemedhub.org/groups/2013gisday.
November 7, 2013 - 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. - Educator
Professional Development
November 7, 2013 - 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. – Grades 612 Student Engagement
A Five-ton, 26-foot Tall
Statue of Ancient
Egyptian God Will
Soon Stand Guard over
Cars at The Children’s
Museum of Indianapolis
Monday, September 9, 2013
You won’t believe what just rolled in to the
world’s largest children’s museum – it has no
head and no feet (yet) and it is still huge!
The jackal-headed god Anubis, believed to be the
guide and protector of the dead in ancient Egypt,
is being lowered into its new home in the Illinois
Street parking garage adjacent to The Children’s
Museum today (Monday, September 9, 2013).
The world’s largest children’s museum is wellknown for its larger-than-life icons such as North
America’s Largest Water Clock, Chihuly’s
Fireworks of Glass, Bumblebee from the original
Transformer movie. And now the five-ton, 26-ft.
tall Anubis statue will greet families and children
who park in the garage before they go to visit the
museum.
“Iconic objects have a memorable quality that
inspires those who see them,” said Dr. Jeffrey H.
Patchen, president and CEO, The Children’s
Museum of Indianapolis. “We hope these icons
initiate interesting conversation and learning
moments between parents and their children
and serve as wonderful family photo
opportunities for years to come.”
You may recall seeing a giant statue of Anubis
here before, when The Children’s Museum
opened Take Me There: Egypt® and hosted King
Tut in 2009. Anubis statues have traveled the
world and served as the protector of King Tut’s
treasures in Dallas, Atlanta, Vienna and London.
He has traded in his passport and will make his
permanent home right here in Indianapolis.
Anubis is associated with
mummification and the
protection of the dead for
their journey into the
afterlife in ancient Egyptian
religion. His name is based
on his funerary role, such
as He who is upon his
mountain, which
underscores his
importance as a protector
of the deceased and their
tombs.
Take Me There: Egypt® will close September 15,
2013 as The Children’s Museum prepares a new
exhibit, Take Me There: China®, which will open
May 10, 2014.
The Children's Museum of Indianapolis is a
nonprofit institution committed to creating
extraordinary learning experiences across the
arts, sciences, and humanities that have the
power to transform the lives of children and
families. For more information about The
Children's Museum, visit
www.childrensmuseum.org, follow us on Twitter
@TCMIndy, Facebook.com/childrensmuseum
and YouTube.
Geography Awareness
Week
Celebrate Geography and The New Age of
Exploration this year from November 17th
through the 23rd in 2013. Celebrated in
conjunction with the National Geographic
Society’s 125th Birthday the week's theme
focuses on how geography enables us all to be
intrepid explorers in our own way. Check out the
newly created archive of past Geography
Awareness Week materials, a new suite of
resources all about Geography as a field and
discipline, and even more tips and tools to plan
your own GeoWeek celebrations!
Use the follow
resources to help set
up your at home
Congressional Visits!



Steps to follow when setting up an at
home visit:*
http://www.ncssleaders.org/Main/A
Example of a meeting request letter:*
http://www.ncssleaders.org/Main/Meeti
ngRequest-SampleLetter
Example of at home meeting talking
points:*
http://www.ncssleaders.org/Main/Congr
essionalVisitTalkingPoints-Example
Useful Links:



To determine who your Representative is,
enter your zip code at the prompts
provided at:* http://www.house.gov
A listing of all Representatives can be
found at:*
http://www.house.gov/house/MemberW
WW_by_State.shtml
To determine who your Senators are,
follow the database prompts available at:*
http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_
information/senators_cfm.cfm
District and State Work Period Calendars:


To determine current year “District Work
Periods” when your Representative will
be available at the District Office see the
calendar at:
http://www.house.gov/house/House_Cal
endar.shtml.
To determine current year “State Work
Periods” when your Senator will be at the
home state office see the calendar at:
http://www.senate.gov/pagelayout/legis
lative/one_item_and_teasers/2010_s...
Korea Teaching
Resources Offered
Carol Kirsch, Westview Jr.-Sr. High social studies
teacher, recently attended the Korea Academy
for Educators (KAFE) summer seminar in Los
Angeles. Topics included the history and culture
of Korea as well as the Korean-American
experience. The weeklong teacher workshop is
funded in part by the Korea Foundation, the
Korean Studies Institute of USC, and the Korean
Cultural Center. KAFE produced a CD with many
PowerPoints and readings on a diverse array of
subjects about Korea. If you would like to have a
free copy of the CD, contact Carol at
[email protected] Better yet, check out
KAFE’s website at www.koreaacademy.org to see
what they have available and apply for next
summer’s KAFE program.
http://b.vimeocdn.com/ts/911/119/91111910_295.jpg
Next Viewpoint
Theme
Global Learning/Education will be the theme for
the next issue of Viewpoints. If you have a lesson
plan, an article, or web resources you would like
to have included in the upcoming edition, please
send it to Robert Brady at
[email protected] and we will add
it to the materials accumulated to construction
the new issue.
The U.S. Department
of State announces
scholarships for
American high school
students to study
abroad
The National Security Language Initiative for
Youth (NSLI-Y) offers merit-based scholarships
to U. S. high-school aged students for overseas
study of seven critical foreign languages: Arabic,
Chinese (Mandarin), Hindi, Korean, Persian
(Tajiki), Russian and Turkish. The NSLI-Y
program is designed to immerse participants in
the cultural life of the host country, giving them
invaluable formal and informal language practice
and sparking a lifetime interest in foreign
languages and cultures. Applications for
summer 2014 and academic year 2014-2015
programs are due November 5, 2013. Visit
www.nsliforyouth.org for more information.
The Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and
Study (YES) Abroad Program offers
scholarships to American high school students to
spend the 2014-15 academic year in countries
that may include Bosnia & Herzegovina, Egypt,
Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mali
(semester), Morocco, Oman, South Africa,
Thailand, Tunisia, and Turkey. This post 9/11
program focuses on increasing understanding
between people in the U.S. and countries with
significant Muslim populations. Visit
http://www.yesprograms.org/yesabroad for
more information.
The Congress-Bundestag Youth Exchange
Program (CBYX) was established in 1983 to
celebrate German-American friendship based on
common values of democracy. Secondary school
students, ages 15-18, live with host families,
attend local schools, and participate in
community life in Germany. Young professionals
(undergraduates) and high school graduates of
vocational studies, ages 18-24, study and
participate in practical training. Scholarships are
now available for academic year 2014-15. For
more information and application deadlines,
visit the organization in charge of recruitment
for your state at
http://www.usagermanyscholarship.org/
The American Youth Leadership Program
offers opportunities for American high students
and educators to travel abroad on a three- to
four-week-long exchange program to gain firsthand knowledge of foreign cultures and to
collaborate on solving global issues. Several
different organizations implement this program,
and each has organized an academic and
experiential educational exchange focused on
dialogue and debate, leadership development,
and community service. Recruitment areas and
application deadlines vary, so please check the
http://exchanges.state.gov/us/program/youthleadership-programs website for more
information.
For more information on exchanges
sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and
Cultural Affairs, please visit
www.exchanges.state.gov
View news and
information from ICSS
online. Visit our
website for the latest
from ICSS including
resources for the
classroom created by
ICSS.
www.indianasocialstu
dies.net
We use our Facebook
group to post links to
resources. We also
post notices of PD and
other social studies
opportunities here,
much of it time
sensitive information.
https://www.faceboo
k.com/groups/24165
379843/1015187964
2804844/?notif_t=gro
up_activity
Mini Read 6-­‐101: Greek City-­‐States The geography of Greece is rugged. It makes it hard to get from one part of Greece to another. People live in localized communities. These local communities are called city-­‐
states. Each city-­‐state has a major city. It also has a lot of farmland around it. It might also have many fishing villages as part of the city-­‐state. The farming and the fishing help supply the city with food. The city has artisans. Artisans make things. They might make tools. They might make armor. They might make pottery. They might make jewelry. Farmers exchanged part of what they grow for tools and pots. Some also have to buy armor. They need it to serve as foot soldiers. They are the men on the front line of the city-­‐state’s army. The city also has merchants. These are the men who buy and sell goods. They buy from locals and sell to locals sometimes. They also buy from foreigners and sell to locals. Finally, merchants take things made in their city and sell them to other merchants in other cities. Merchants are an important part of each city’s economy. The city was also the safe haven for the people. In times of war, the villagers are taken into the city. There they will be safe behind the city’s huge, thick walls. The invading armies might destroy their village homes. They might steal their crops. But the farmers and villagers of the city-­‐state can stay safe behind the city walls. Food they grew is stockpiled within the city. As long as the food holds out, everyone is usually safe. Being a Greek means you speak the Greek language. It means you believe in the Greek gods and goddesses. It means you follow a set of rules for living: a type of joint good manners. All Greeks held the same type of funerals. All Greeks were required to provide hospitality to guests. That is what being Greek means to the ancient Greeks. If you ask one of them who they were, they would name their city-­‐state. I am an Athenian, a citizen of Athens. I am a Spartan, a citizen of Sparta. I am a Theban, a citizen of Thebes. I am a Corinthian, a citizen of Corinth. Those are how Greeks would answer you question about who were they. Ancient Greeks identify with their city-­‐state. It is the city-­‐state that shape much of their everyday lives. In Athens, citizens all take part in making government decisions. In Sparta, a small group of Spartan citizens make the government decisions. Some city-­‐states have kings. The rich of the city rule some city-­‐states. Some city-­‐states eat fish and some farm crops. Other city-­‐states have only what they can raise on their farms. The city-­‐state works well for the Greeks most of the time. However, there are times it is a problem. When the Persians invade Greece, all the armies of all the city-­‐states are needed to defeat the Persians. The Greeks have trouble working together. Even when it is most important, they often bickered. This would be their downfall. The Macedonians will eventually conquer Greece. They will conquer it one city-­‐state at a time. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐102: Athens and democracy Athens is one of the most important city-­‐states of ancient Greece. It has a wonderful harbor. Athenians take to the seas. They also try to become an important power in Greece. Athens has a special life of its own. The Athenians become tired of kings. They become tired of one man telling everyone what to do. They become tired of one-­‐man rulers being cruel and corrupt. Athenians decide every man who is a citizen should have a say in government. Not everyone in Athens is a citizen. Women are not citizens. Slaves are not citizens. Foreigners are not citizens. Men without some real wealth are not citizens. Only about one out of every three men in Athens is a citizen. Being a citizen is important. It gives you the right to say what Athens’ government should do. It also gives you a vote in what the Athenian government should do. Citizens meet in an important, public location in Athens. It is called the Acropolis. There they heard speeches. Any citizen can give a speech. The speeches describe what the speaker thought the Athenian government should do. Perhaps the government should make a law. Perhaps the government should treat another city-­‐
state as an enemy or a friend. Perhaps more money should be gathered in taxes. Perhaps more money should be spent on the Athenian navy. At some moment in time, the talking stops. Citizens are asked to vote. They put a black rock into a pot if they vote no. They put a white rock into that same pot if they vote yes. Then the votes are counted. The side with the largest number of votes is the winner. Citizens are also chosen for juries. These citizens listen to trials. Each side is given an amount of time to tell its side of the case. Then the citizens vote. Black rock means guilty while a white rock means innocent. This system of government was called democracy. Demo means people in ancient Greek. Cracy means rule in ancient Greek. Rule by the people is the Athenian idea of government. Countries in Europe and the Americas still think about the Athenian idea of democracy. The idea that the people as a whole should make decisions is important to the European and American forms of government. The Athenians find it hard to keep democracy going. There is always someone who wants to be the one-­‐man ruler. Europeans and Americans have learned from Athenian history. They know democracy must be protected all the time. People must be involved in their government. They must learn about issues. They must listen to others and speak their minds. They must show up when it is time to vote. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐103: Sparta and Its Military The Spartans are one group of Greeks. They invade the area that becomes the Spartan city-­‐state. There are people living at that location when the Spartans arrive. They defeat these people. They do not kill off the locals. Instead, they keep them as enslaved workers. These people, the hoplites, will be required to do all the hard, dirty work. They grow the food on the farms. They build the walls of Sparta. They dig the wells and carry the water. They even cook the Spartans food most of the time. What do the Spartans do? Do they lay back and enjoy the “good life”? No. The Spartans are scared of their hoplites. They fear the hoplites may rebel. Late some night the hoplites might rise up and try to slit the throats of the Spartan citizens. They need to keep the hoplites in check. The Spartans decide they must one and all become soldiers. They must spend all their time training. They train for combat. They train to be tough. They must be the strongest, smartest, most skilled soldiers in Greece. They decide that is the only way Sparta can survive. It is the only way they can scare and control the hoplites. When a boy is old enough to leave his mother, his military training begins. He spends his time running, wrestling, throwing, swimming, and learning to live from the land. To make sure he does his best, he is beaten. Too slow; you get a beating. Do not throw the javelin far enough; you get a beating. And sometimes you are just beaten to make you tough and resistant. Your final exam involves you being taken blindfolded out into the country. It is often land owned by another city-­‐state. You are given nothing. You must find your way home to Sparta. You must steal what you need. You must hide from others. You must sneak your way home with out being caught. Spartans do not have homes. They do not have much beyond their clothes, their armor, their weapons, and their cloak. The men all house together in a dormitory. They eat together in a mess hall. The women do the same. Boys lived with their mothers until they are six years old. Then, they are off to military training. Girls live with their mothers until they are married. Women like men live in dormitories. The Spartan armies are always very successful for hundreds of years. Their success makes Sparta’s name in Greece. Three hundred Spartans hold off the entire Persian Army of thousands in a narrow pass. They fight until the last of the 300 is killed. This gives the rest of Greece enough time to march, meet, and defeat the Persians. The Spartans and their allies defeat the Athenians and their allies in the Peloponnesian War. It is the height of Spartan power. They become proud and arrogant. Soon the army of Thebes roundly defeats the great Spartan Army. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐104: The Persian Wars The Greeks are at the southern end of the Greek peninsula. It is a small amount of territory. The Greek people are small in number. In Asia, the Medes and the Persians create a huge empire: The Persian Empire is also called the Archimedean Empire. The empire covers a large amount of land. It includes a large number of people. The Persian Army is huge. The Persian king, Cyrus the Great, uses his massive army to conquer the cities of the Ionian Greeks in Anatolia. Cyrus places Persian nobles in charge of the Greek Ionian cities. The Ionian Greeks are connected to Athens. The Ionians do not take well to Persian tyrants as rulers. Put off by their cruelty, the Ionians revolt. They free their cities. They attack and burn nearby Persian cities. Cyrus is determined to punish them. The huge Persian Army returns and defeats the Ionians who are being helped by the Athenians. Athens’ involvement angers the Persian king. Before anything further can be done, Cyrus dies. His son, Darius the Great, decides to invade Greece. He will teach the pesky Athenians a lesson. Athens is small. The Archimedean Empire is large. The Persians are sure they will quickly crush Athens. They will not even need the entire Persian Army to do the job. The Persians invade Greece. They march toward Athens. The Athenians send their Army to meet the Persians. They come together on the plains of Marathon. The armies do battle. The Athenians out flank the Persians and roundly defeat them. What is left of the Persian force withdraws to Anatolia. A runner is sent the 26 miles to Athens to announce the Athenian victory. Modern marathon races recreate this 26-­‐mile run. Darius the Great’s son, Xerxes I, decides on a full invasion of Greece. He will bring the entire Persian army and navy. The Persians cross into Europe and down into Greece. The Spartans rush forward to try and slow them down. Three hundred Spartan warriors block the Persian advance. They stop it at a narrow pass called Thermopylae. The Persians cannot advance until they learn of a pathway around the pass. Using it, they attack The Three Hundred from the front and rear. The Spartans fight to the last man. The Persians continue south. They reach Athens and burn it. But the Athenians still have their powerful navy. It stayed at sea. At Salamis, the Persian and Athenian navies meet. The Athenians are great sailors. Their ships are smaller than the Persian ships. They move more quickly. They are easier to control. Using these advantages, the Athenian destroy the Persian fleet. The Spartan Army that is watching from the shoreline kills any Persian sailors that survive and swim to shore. Without ships to supply it, the Persian Army must withdraw. The great Persian invasion is a failure. The Persians and Greeks will fight on for years, but in Anatolia. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐105: The Peloponnesian War The Greek city-­‐states prosper. Life becomes better in each of them. Athens does especially well. Its port allows for foreign trade. Its democracy allows for the growth of the city. Athens begins to create new cities around the Mediterranean. Athens also begins to do deals with many city-­‐states around the Mediterranean. Athens is building an empire. The Athenian Empire makes the city-­‐state of Athens rich and powerful. The Athenians enjoy their wealth and power. They become arrogant. They become pushy. They begin to try and boss the other city-­‐states. Greek city-­‐states prize their independence. They resent the actions of the Athenians. The irritated city-­‐states band together under the leadership of Sparta. Sparta is the great rival of Athens. The Spartans want to take the Athenians down several pegs. They open warfare against Athens. The wars started as skirmishes in Southern Italy. Greek city-­‐states had colonies in Italy. The Athenians try to control Southern Italy. They suffer a great military defeat there at Syracuse. Now, the Spartans bring the war home to Greece. The Spartans and their allies attack the city-­‐state of Athens. Year after year armies invade Athenian lands. The Athenians are forced to retreat behind the walls of Athens. The port of Athens ensures the city’s survival. Athenians can use their ships and their navy to supply the city with much needed food. The Spartans are stalled at the Athenian city walls. The war lasts almost 30 years. It is slowly destroying the economy of Athens. Then something unexpected happens. A deadly disease breaks out in Athens. It kills many Athenians. It kills the leader of Athens, Pericles. It also kills important Athenian military leaders. Many of the most important Athenian soldiers die from the disease. Athens is weakened. Athens is shaken. Eventually, Athenians realize they have no choice but to surrender to the Spartans. The Spartans occupy Athens. They tear down the city walls. They want to have Athens defenseless in the future. The Spartans are proud of their victory over Athens. They quickly become like the Athenians had been: pushy, arrogant, demanding. Sparta’s allies didn’t spend 30 years of war to replace the pushy Athenians with pushy Spartans. Sparta’s allies join Athens’ old allies and make war on Sparta. An army from Thebes roundly defeats the Spartans. Spartan military power is crushed. The city-­‐state of Sparta slips into decline. The Greek city-­‐state still cannot live in peace with each other. Little wars between city-­‐
states plague Greece. This constant fighting makes it possible for the King of Macedonia to invade and conqueror all of Greece. Athens turns away from military power. It does not try to rebuild a powerful army and navy. It does not try to create a new Athenian Empire. Instead, it puts its energy into becoming the center of learning in the Mediterranean. Some historians say today that Athens built an Empire of the Mind. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐106: Athens and Learning Athens is a center for learning in Ancient Greece. Athens is named for Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and battle. The Athenians follow the lead of their patroness goddess. Athenian boys are schooled. At first schooling is totally oral learning. They learn to recite the Iliad and the Odyssey. They learn basic Greek ideas. When the Greek’s create an alphabet, they have a written language. Athenian boys learn to read and write. They learn to debate. They become skilled arguing one side or another of an issue. Soon, Athenians are asking questions. They are asking all types of questions. Some have to do with philosophy. What is the good life, they ask. Why are people here? Where did we come from? What rules should guide how people treat each other? How do we know what is true? Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the three most famous Athenian philosophers. There were many more. Each philosopher had his own answers to the many questions of life that arose in Athens. Other Athenians become interested in math. That interest soon leads to an interest in science. Aristotle writes a whole “book” about biology. In fact, Aristotle invents the science of biology. Writing leads to another type of learning. Athenians begin writing plays. They develop the theater. Actors perform the plays of Athens’ leading playwrights. The plays have political and philosophical themes. Today we still read Athenian plays like The Clouds or The Frogs. Plays like Oedipus Rex have moral themes. They tell a story that helps people determine right from wrong. Learning in Athens becomes even more important after the Peloponnesian War. Sparta and its allies defeat Athens. Athenians put their energy into learning. They stay away from another attempt to be the major power of Greece. Giving up their military ventures for learning is profitable for Athens. The city prospers. People across the Mediterranean world come to Athens to learn. They bring money. They also bring together the best brains in the Mediterranean world. Athens regains it stature as the most important Greek city. This time it is because of Athenian knowledge rather than Athenian armies and navies. Athenian philosopher Aristotle is hired by the King of Macedonia to teach his young son Alexander. This is the Alexander who will later finish the invasion of Greece his father begins. He will then invade Anatolia, defeat the Persians, and create the great Macedonian Empire. This is the Alexander the world will call Alexander the Great. Athenian learning became the core thinking in Alexander’s far-­‐flung empire. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐107: Macedonia Invades Greece Macedonia is the mountainous land north of Greece. A tribal Macedonian people live there. They are not Greeks. They do not consider themselves Greeks. They live a much more rough and tumble life than the Greeks. However, the Macedonians do adopt some of the Greek customs. They worship the same gods as the Greeks. Nobles in Macedonia often speak Greek in addition to Macedonian. The Macedonians are war-­‐
like. They develop a new military strategy. They create the long-­‐spear phalanx. In this formation, soldiers stand side-­‐by-­‐side. They lock their shields together. This makes one big mobile, metal wall. They thrust long spears out over the locked shields. Now they are like a huge armored porcupine. The long spears keep other warriors too far away to use their swords on the Macedonian soldiers. The Macedonian phalanx is the key to Macedonian military success. The Macedonian King, Philip II, uses his new military strategy to undertake an invasion of Greece. He has decided to intervene. He, the Macedonian King, will put an end to the constant Greek bickering and fighting. The invasion goes well. His armies are successful. However, Philip is assassinated in his capital city. Murder and assassination are part of Macedonian politics. Philip’s son, Alexander, inherits a strong kingdom. He inherits a powerful army. Alexander and Philip never got along well. Alexander is determined to outshine his father. It is his form of retribution against Philip for how he treated Alexander. Alexander takes the Macedonian army back into the field. He finishes the conquest of Greece. The young Alexander has qualities his father lacked. Alexander makes a great impression on everyone he meets. People naturally like Alexander. His soldiers love him. After defeating the Greeks, Alexander charms them. He pays careful attention to each of the local customs of each city-­‐state. He’s eager to unify the Greeks rather than create anti-­‐Macedonian hatred among them. Alexander has plans, big plans. He wants to invade Anatolia, confront the Persian Empire and destroy it. For this, he will need the assistance of all the Greeks. He sells it as a Greek undertaking for which all Greeks must pull together. In this way, Alexander brings unity to Greece at last. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐108: Alexander the Great Alexander is the son of Macedonian King Philip II. His mother, Olympia, is the daughter of a powerful noble. Her father marries Olympia to Phillip. It is a political marriage. Neither Philip nor Olympia has any say in the marriage. Both Philip and Olympia hate each other. This hatred is the first of Alexander’s problems as a boy. He is caught in the middle. Before long, King Philip has taken to treating his son cruelly. Eventually, he comes to despise the boy. However, he is stuck with Alexander as his heir. Alexander bonds with his half-­‐brothers and some sons of the most important nobles. Philip decides Alexander will have the best education in the world. He hires the Athenian, Aristotle, to be Alexander’s tutor. Alexander needs companions so the sons of the major nobles get to go to school with him. Alexander learns a great deal from Aristotle. However, Alexander believes he has a special destiny. He sees himself as the heir to Hercules. He believes that because of the date of his birthday. This belief gives Alexander great self-­‐confidence during his entire life. Alexander is also impatient. Once he tells Aristotle he can end an argument they are having. “How,” asks Aristotle? “I can pull my sword and kill you,” Alexander replies. Just before he is to invade Anatolia, Alexander is said to have confronted the Gordian Knot. It was said; he who undoes the Gordian Knot will conquer the world. Alexander struggles with the knot, but it will not come undone. Then Alexander pulls his sword and slashes through the knot. Now he knows he is destined to conqueror the world. Confidence is something Alexander always has in abundance. Alexander also knows how to deal with people. When Alexander conquers the Persian Empire, he appears in Persia dressed as a Persian. The people love it. His Macedonian generals hate it. Unlike them, Alexander understands the importance of respecting people’s culture and their customs if you wish to gain their cooperation. Each time he conquered a new people such as the Egyptians or Afghans, he adopts their dress and customs while with them. In this way, Alexander is as much a political genius and a cultural genius as he is a military genius. He is genuinely a likeable person. He is loyal to his friends. He respects his generals. He treats his half-­‐brothers well and trusts them not to rebel. He spreads the spoils of conquest among his followers including his foot soldiers. He takes care to see that the needs of his foot soldiers are taken care of. A great general, he plans battles to spare his own soldiers as many deaths as possible. And very importantly, Alexander rides into battle on his great horse fighting right along side his foot soldiers. The Macedonian soldiers adore him. Alexander’s ambitions are unlimited. He constantly presses eastward with his army. Beloved as he is, he goes so far his army becomes fearful. A vast Indian army in upper India eventually defeats him. The local Indian ruler allows him to depart when the Indian could have destroyed Alexander’s army. Alexander is also severely injured in that battle. It marks the end of Alexander’s conquests. He returns to Babylon. There he becomes ill. It is now believed Alexander drank contaminated water. It leads to cholera, and that leads to Alexander’s death. When he died, his child by his Afghan wife Roxanne had not been born. The generals debate what to do with his empire. Eventually, it is divided among the senior generals. Alexander’s half-­‐brother, Ptolemy, becomes the ruler of Egypt. Alexander’s baby, a son, Alexander IV, becomes king of Macedonia with a group of generals ruling in his name. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐110: Hellenistic Civilization Alexander the Great decides to respect the cultures of the people in his Empire. He dresses like the locals of each place he was. He follows many of their customs. He acts according to their set of manners and etiquette. He tries to be as much one of the locals as possible while still being Alexander. Alexander’s example becomes policy in the Macedonian Empire. It has a great impact throughout the empire. Under Macedonian leadership, the Hellenic Greek civilization begins to blend with Egyptian, Persian, and other civilizations. Important people become bilingual – they speak two languages in daily life. They speak their local language when in the family, with friends, and socially in the community. They speak Greek for government, business, and much of education. Greek becomes the universal language of the empire. It allows those in many different cultures to speak with one another. Because Greek is the universal language of the empire, learning is changed. Greek knowledge is mixed with Persian knowledge and Egyptian knowledge. Greek-­‐
speaking Hellenistic scholars make new discoveries in science and math by combining the knowledge of various prior civilizations. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies The new Hellenistic Civilization unites the Mediterranean world and the Ancient Middle East. Alexander’s tolerance of cultures allows many religions to flourish. At the same time the Hellenistic Civilization creates a common cultural strand. This allows the many people to work, live, and learn together and from one another. The Hellenistic Civilization is responsible for much of the unity of the Roman Empire that follows the Macedonian Empire. Much of what we know about the Greeks comes from this time period. Most, but not all, of Ancient Greek writing comes from the Hellenistic Period. It made its way to us because it was spread across the Hellenistic world. When Rome falls, the Hellenistic texts become translated into local languages. Scholars of later civilizations also preserve the ancient Greek texts. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐111: Ptolemaic Egypt Alexander the Great’s empire is divided up after his death. The major generals each take a part of the empire. Alexander’s half brother Ptolemy gets Egypt. Under Ptolemy and his descendants, Egypt has its last dynasty. The Hellenistic Ptolemy dynasty adopts Egyptian culture. Greek civilization blends with Egyptian civilization. Hellenistic Egypt is the last stand of ancient Egypt. Egypt is prosperous under Ptolemy rule. Egypt is a prize site in the ancient world. There are the wonders of Ancient Egypt. More important, Egypt because of the gift of the Nile produces more food than other regions. The Ptolemy dynasty goes to great expense to preserve Greek literature and learning. It also enriches Greek learning by contributing to the Hellenistic version of science. Egyptian math and geometry are important foundations for the development of the Greek’s systems of geometry. The Ptolemy dynasty will rule Egypt for a long time. It maintains peace in Egypt and peace with Egypt’s increasingly aggressive neighbors. By the time of Julius Caesar, Egypt is being controlled from outside by the Romans. A Ptolemy still rules, but is forced to follow Roman policy to prevent a full on invasion. The Ptolemy ruler, Cleopatra VII, decides to join with Roman Marcus Antonius in a Roman civil war. It is a dangerous move. If Marcus Antonius wins, Egypt will increase its independence. If Cleopatra and Marcus Antonius loose, Egypt will fall under direct Roman control. The military forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra are defeated at the Battle of Actium. Marcus Antonius commits suicide in Egypt. Invading Roman armies capture Cleopatra VII. She dies while being detained by conquering Octavian. Her death ends the Ptolemy rule of Egypt. Egypt now becomes a province of the Roman Empire. It is under the direct control of the Roman Emperor. For centuries to come, Roman emperors use Egypt to provide the food needed for the large population of Rome. The Hellenistic Civilization continued in Egypt after the Ptolemy Dynasty collapses. The Romans are part of the Hellenistic Civilization. Roman culture has merged with ancient Greek civilization. Romans share the same gods and goddesses with the Ancient Greeks. They share some of the same customs. People in Egypt under the Romans are tri-­‐lingual – they spoke, and possibly write three languages. The Roman officials controlling the province use Latin. Greek is spoken when conducting business or involved in education. Egyptian is spoken in homes, socially, and to preform Egyptian religious ceremonies. When the Roman Empire divides in two, the Eastern Empire speaks Greek. Egypt remains part of the Eastern Empire for centuries. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐201: The Latin People The Romans come from a tribe of people in Italy. It is a small tribe called the Latins. The Latins have their own language, Latin. Some Latins build a city on a bend in the Tiber River. They call it Rome. Geography plays a role in Rome’s success. It is place just right to control trade between North Italy and South Italy. Their more neighbors to the north rule the Latins, including those in Rome. These people are called the Etruscans. They are powerful. They are rich. They can also be a little cruel to other peoples. The Romans in the city of Rome resent their Etruscan kings. Fed up with Etruscan rule, the Romans stage a rebellion. They chase the Etruscans out of Rome. They establish their own Roman government. It is called the Roman Republic. The republic does not have a king. During its early years, the Roman Republic is in danger. Its neighbors would like to conquer Rome. Like the Etruscans, others would like to rule Rome. Rome depends on it hearty farmers to create a strong army. When war comes, Roman farmers left their fields. They collected together. They become the foot soldiers of the Roman legions. These hard working Roman farmers were hearty guys. They were used to a lot of hard work. As soldiers, they could march long distances and then go on and fight a battle right after arriving. This made them very effective. Usually, they could out fight armies of other tribes in Italy. Slowly, the Roman’s defeat one after another of their neighbors. When war comes, the Romans offer enemies a chance. They can refuse to fight. Then they will become Roman citizens. If they do decide to fight, they will pay dearly for defying Rome. In this way, the Romans peacefully incorporated many other Italian tribes into their expanding Roman lands. The Romans use this strategy to avoid many wars. They punish all who resist as a lesson to others in the future. The Romans move north. They fight and defeat the Etruscans. Since the Etruscans will not give in to the rising power of Rome, their civilization is destroyed. We do not know that much about the Etruscans. Much of what we know comes from the Romans. The Romans did not like the Etruscans. Romans had little good to say about Etruscans as a people. However, they did have a lot of bad things to say about Etruscans. The Romans also move south. At first, they battle other local tribes. Eventually, they start to move into Southern Italy. It has some Greek colonial cities. It also has colonies of another very powerful city-­‐state, Carthage. Soon the Romans are engaged in wars with Carthage. These are different from all previous Roman wars. Carthage is immensely powerful. It controls about one-­‐third of the Mediterranean World. The Carthaginians see the Romans as a military threat. Carthage sets out to destroy Rome. Carthage wants to add all of Italy to the lands it controls. Rome soon finds itself in a set of wars where it is fighting for its survival. Eventually, Rome defeats Carthage. Like it did with the Etruscans, the Romans burn the City of Carthage and destroy the Carthaginian people and their culture. With Carthage gone, there is only the Macedonians left to challenge Roman military power. The Romans invade Greece. They defeat the Macedonian army. Now Rome has control of the entire Mediterranean world. The Romans have established their vast Roman Empire. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies Mini Read 6-­‐208: Constantine the Great Establishes Christianity as the Religion of the Roman Empire During the time Augustus rules the Roman Empire, a young boy is born in Judea. Augustus orders a census to see how many people live in the empire. He will use the census to assign and gather taxes. Joseph and Mary go to Bethlehem, Joseph’s ancestral home, to register for the census. There the boy Jesus is born. As a young man, Jesus is a carpenter by trade. He joins a segment of the Jewish religion that criticizes the current religious establishment. Jesus proclaims himself the Jewish messiah the one God will send to save the Jewish people. This is viewed a religious rebellion by Jewish authorities. It is viewed as a political problem by the Roman authorities. Jesus is executed. He is crucified the standard method of Roman execution. According to Christian teaching, Jesus returns from the dead on the third day after his execution. His crucifixion and resurrection complete his Godly mission. He has created a route for salvation. All humans are sinners. If any human accepts that Jesus is the Son of God, that he died for their sins, that he rose from the dead and that he returned to God the Father in heaven, that person is saved. Jesus teaches a form of equality. Socially people may be forced to accept differences. God sees no difference between one human and another. All are equally important to him. Jesus’ teachings mildly criticize the wealthy, aristocratic establishment. He tells people it will be harder for a rich man to enter heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. He tells another man to go give away all his wealth gained through tax collection. These ideas make his teachings appealing to the slaves and the poor in places across the Roman Empire. These ideas also make his teaching treason during the days of the early Imperial government. Christians will only acknowledge the Trinity as God. They will not worship a deified person such as the Divine Augustus nor any of the Roman gods. As the Roman Empire continues, the number of Christians grows. Problems in the empire also increase. Each time an emperor dies a war erupts. The generals fight one another to see who will become emperor. In one such case, a general named Constantine is fighting to become emperor. Before a major battle, he believes he sees a sign in the sky. It is a cross and the words “in this conqueror.” He believes he will win if he becomes a Christian. He converts. Constantine becomes emperor. He makes many changes. He creates a new imperial capital, Constantinople. That city is today called Istanbul. Constantine also makes Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. He holds the Conference of Nicaea. It formalizes the idea of the Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit as an official core belief of Christianity. Jesus is God who has taken the form of a man to be crucified and rise again from the dead to abolish sin. Those who do not accept this decision are heretics. They are hunted down and killed by the emperor’s forces. The nature of Roman Imperial Christianity is thus formed. Robert Brady for the Indiana Council for the Social Studies IBOOKS TEXT
ROMAN
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Social
Studies
This is a teacher-made ibook text using
teacher created text and audio
combined with assets from the
Internet.
Written and assembled by H. Robert Brady
Director of Communication
Indiana Council for the social Studies
C HAP-
Engineering
The Romans are
very skilled
engineers. They
know how to build.
Many of the things
they built still exist.
We can study them.
We can see just how
they built them.
Today we use many
of the techniques of
Roman construction
to build.
S ECTION 1
Concrete
How do you make
you own rock?
That is an
important question
for Roman
engineers. It is at
Mt. Etna they find
the answer. The
Romans learn how
to make concrete
and they put it to
good use.
2
Roman engineer Quintius explains how Romans made concrete.
opus caementicium
Formula: binder + water = concrete
+
The best binder is volcanic ash. It makes concrete
more resistant to sea water.
Today’s Portland cement is like Roman concrete
make from volcanic ash.
S ECTION 2
Roads
One of the great
achievements of
the Romans was
their roads. They
created a huge
network of roads.
The roads
connected the
various parts of
the empire with
Rome.
Messengers,
legions, and goods
could travel quickly
along these wellbuilt roads.
5
The Romans are different from the
Greeks. The Greeks are always asking
why. The Romans are always asking
how. The Greeks concentrate on
philosophy, science, and math. The
Romans concentrate on engineering.
The Romans are practical.
Their question is how do you build a
road that will last for centuries? Their
answer was to build it in layers.
Look at the diagram above
left. Then look at the crosssection of a Roman road
directly above. See if you
can understand the way the
Romans built the road.
Roman engineer Quintius explains how to build a road.
Type to enter text
Now, here is a way to investigate the
roads and travel in the Roman Empire.
We will use Stanford University’s ORBIS.
It will allow you to plan you trip effectively using our wonderful road system.
Open ORBIS
S ECTION 3
Structures
Buildings and
monuments are a
big part of Roman
life. Some
buildings are
practical like those
that store grain.
Others are to
display the power
and glory of Rome.
Roman building
depend on a new
idea: the arch.
9
No doubt, the Romans see the
arch in nature. It looks nice. It
has possibilities. To the
Romans, the first question that
comes to mind is: How do you
build an arch?
Roman engineer Quintius explains how to build an arch.
Visit V. Ryan’s site on how
to build an arch.
The Arch as Monument
A free-standing decorated arch is often
built. There are many of these in Rome.
Each arch is build to celebrate some
commander’s military victory
Constantine’s Arch built by
Emperor Constantine to
celebrate his great victory in
312 CE.
Romans know what people
eat will eventually come out.
It is a problem that must be
taken care of in a tightly
packed city. The Romans
engineer a sewage system to
handle this problem. Again
they use the arch .
Ancient Rome is a very large city. It
has many buildings. It has a
huge population for the time. It
has many urban problems.
Feeding all the people of the city
is a major task. Much of Rome’s
food is grain grown in Egypt.
The farms around Rome have
become giant pig farms. Romans
eat a lot of pork.
Public restrooms are provided
across the city. The government
did the work. Why? To prevent
the spread of disease. People
packed together like those in Rome
can quickly spread disease.
Unfortunately, the sewage water
has to go somewhere. Downhill
means into the Tiber. If the local
water supply is polluted, Rome has
another major need: safe, fresh
water. Roman engineers work to
solve that problem. They must
bring clean water from miles north
of Rome into the city. Again, they
use the arch to create a solution.
The system uses the inverted syphon
to “pump” water and an inclined
bridge system to channel the water
across the landscape. Arches on
arches on arches on arches make up
the aqueduct channel bridges. Water
flows “downhill” along these long
channels and into Rome.
The engineering questions is: How
do you create an artificial river over
all types of land? The solution is the
aqueduct system.
Rome is dotted
with fountains that
show the success of
the water system
and make water
available to the
public.
Augustus starts a project to rebuild
the center of Rome. All new stone
buildings, many marble.
The arch is at the center of the new Roman
public buildings. Using it, they get bigger
building and new designs. The strength of
this type of construction makes sure the building will last for thousands of years.
The Colosseum is Rome’s major sporting
center. It is a huge building, the mega
sports stadium of its day. The games
include the gladiator fights, fights
between animals, and the Colosseum
could be flooded for naval battles. On
“sporting days” the crowds pours in and
the emperor usually attends officiating
the games. The Colosseum has arches
everywhere.
Below, take a quick walking tour of
the Colosseum today.
Above, watch how the layered
structures of the Colosseum
were put in place.
Roman engineer Quintius explains how Romans create a dome.
Domes are arches placed right next
to each other until they create a
circular room with a
half-ball roof.
Roman engineer Quintius explains the wonders of the Pantheon.
C HAP-
Government
The Romans put a
great deal of effort
into their
government. When
they chase out the
Etruscans, the
Romans develop the
Republic. Roman
citizens elect the
officials of the
government. These
elected
representatives
make the laws, do
the budgets, set the
taxes, declare war,
and make peace.
The Roman Senate
is tasked with
making public
policy. Its elected
senators debate and
vote on what will be
public policy
S ECTION 1
For the Senate and the People of Rome
Representative
government and
the Republic are
major Roman
political ideas. The
United States is a
republic. The
Founders looked to
the Roman
Republic for
guidance in
designing
American
government under
the Constitution.
24
Senator Marcus Plutonius talks Senate politics
Early in the Republic, the Senate is
where most of the political action
takes place. Senators come from the
rich families of Rome. The Senate is
first make up of those who lead the
rebellion against the Etruscans. It is
now a group of elected
representatives who are to voice the
ideas and concerns of citizens.
View the insides of the Roman Senate
House as it is today.
The First General Strike
Secessio plebis
Between 495 and 493
BCE, the plebeians
leave Rome and live on
the Sacred Hill. They
are angry at the
Senate. Only the rich
patricians vote for
senators and only the
rich patricians are
senators. In addition,
the debt of plebeians
has become crushing.
The rich soon find
themselves trying to
live their “good life”
without any local
workers. The Senate
has to concede.
The Senate creates the new
office of Tribune. Tribunes
are plebeians elected by the
plebeians. Each tribune
has the power to block any
law passed by the Senate. This
is the tribune’s power of veto.
This gives the plebeians some
protection. Attacking a tribune
means death.
Tribunes or no, the Senate remains the major power in the Roman government. But the government is complex.
The Republic operates in this way for
centuries. In time, the super-rich begin
to dominate the government. Crassus,
Pompey, and Caesar form a triumvirate
of the most super-rich to control Rome.
Caesar eventually eliminates the other
two. Senators are fearful he will
become a permeant dictator. Some
members of the Senate take action.
They assassinate Caesar on the steps of
the Senate in 44 BCE
The assassination of
Caesar is intended to
save the Senate and the
Republic. It does the
opposite. It spells the
end of the Republic.
The Senate becomes a
rubber stamp in the
new imperial
government. Caesar’s
nephew and adopted
son, Octavian, takes
control of Rome. He is
emperor in everything
but name. His
successor, Tiberius will
take the title of
emperor.
S ECTION 2
Roman Law
Another great
achievement of the
Romans is in the
law. The Roman
law system
becomes the most
advanced of its era.
Roman law is the
basis for the system
of law in many
European countries
today.
30
The plebeians have another fight with the
patricians. The plebeians, AKA plebes, feel
they are being cheated in the law courts. They
know they never win cases in the law courts.
Today the law is this. Tomorrow the law is
that. It seems to change. It never changes in
their favor. They know the judges are
changing the law to ensure the plebes loose
their law cases.
The plebs demand changes. They demand the
laws be written out. They want the written
laws posted so all Romans can see and read
them. Judges will be required to apply the
written laws in court. This will ensure the law
is the same for everyone: patrician and
plebeian.
Themis the Roman Goddess of Justice.
The patricians reject the idea. The plebes stage
the second sucessio plebes. For the second
time the plebes go on strike. They more out of
Rome again. The patricians are now forced to
written laws everyone can see and read.
Senator Marcus Plutonius discusses the 12
tablets of the law
The basic laws of Rome are written
on twelve brass tablets. The tablets
are posted in the middle of the
Roman forum, the public center of
Rome.
The Romans create more
and more laws. There were
many more than those on
the twelve tablets. The
Romans continue to write
down their laws. But the
whole thing becomes messy
when the number of laws
means searching through
scroll after scroll to find the
required law.
The Romans devise a way
to organize their law. This
organization is called
codification. The entire
collection of laws is the
Roman Law Code.
The French and
Indian War
Eight Grade
American
History
Mr. Bruce MacAllister, Mr. Eric Heagy, & Robert Brady
C HAP-
The French and Indian
War
The French and Indian War is the last in a series of colonial wars. The British government
fights the French and Spanish in the Americas.
The object: control the large areas of land, especially in North America.
It is just one part of a greater war. In Europe it
was called the Seven Years War. Britain and
Prussia fight France, Spain and the Austria.
The British fight the French in India. Both
countries are struggling to gain control over
the riches of the Indian subcontinent. The winner will become a wealthy nation.
Image Credit:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/The_Vic
tory_of_Montcalms_Troops_at_Carillon_by_Henry_Alexander_
Ogden.JPG
S ECTION 1
The colonies, Britain and the
French and Indian War
Empires are expensive. They can also bring great
profits. Competition between countries is intense.
Between 1689 and 1763, the European powers fight.
They fight over colonial possessions. Each of the
wars in Europe has a companion war in the
colonies.
These are world wars. They are fought across the
globe. The Seven Years War in Europe, called the
French and Indian War in the Americas, is the last
of these wars. Britain and France go at each other.
They fight over control of all the possessions in
their two empires.
Image Credit:
http://hotchkissfamily.lbbhost.com/images/French-Indian-War.jpg
2
Colonist have their own problems
For the European countries,
these wars are wars for
wealth and profit. Britain
was fighting to build up its
economy.
For the British colonists in
America, things are very
different. Since 1650, they
have been supplying
England with materials to
carry on its wars: lumber,
pine tar, copper, and iron
among other things. These
items MUST be shipped to
London. There they are
taxed to raise more money.
Then they are resold around
the world. This process also
make sure the French do
not get their hands on these
supplies.
The map shows the greatest concern of the British
colonists in North America. They felt surrounded.
They were surrounded. They were surrounded by
colonial lands belonging to other European powers.
These powers were no friends of Britain. These
powers were also Roman Catholic countries. Britain
was a Protestant country. The British colonists outside
of those in Maryland, are Protestant.
The northern frontier, western frontier, and southern
frontier offer opportunities for the Roman Catholic
powers. They can invade the British colonies from
three sides. Only the coastline is secure. The British
navy is powerful. It controls the seas. There are few
chances the coastline will be attacked.
The frontiers also have large numbers of Native
American Indians. The Native American Indians and
the British settlers frequently clash. The British are
here to OWN land. The Native American Indians do
not believe in the idea of a human owning the land.
The Native American Indians believe humans are just
allowed to use the land, not own it.
British colonists want one thing: PROTECTION.
They want total protection from the French and the
Spanish, and they want it now!
Britain has an empire spread across the world. It
has the home isles to protect. It has colonies in India
to protect. It has sugar islands in the Caribbean to
protect. It has colonies in Africa to protect. The
North American colonists are only one of its far flung
concerns.
Image credit:
http://missarevolution.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/9/3/1093890
6/7815319_orig.jpg?197http://missarevolution.weebly.com/upl
For the British, the wars in
America are a part of a clash with
other powerful European powers.
For the British colonialists, the
wars in America are about the
national security of British
colonies: the safety of their homes
and businesses.
Being just a part of a grand British policy is not
satisfactory with the American colonists. They
suggest that they be allowed to create their own
military to protect the colonies. King George II looks
at the proposal and says a quick NO! George II does
not trust his British colonists in North America.
They go their own way too often.
George tells the colonists Britain will provide the
protection. It will provide the troops. The colonist
will provide their lodgings, their food, their clothing,
their drink, their gun powder. “We’ll protect you,”
says George II, “you just fork over the cash and the
goods.”
Colonists are insulted. Their men who volunteer for
military service are told they are incompetent and
useless. They are often dressed down by British
offices and sent home.
People on the frontier felt the did not
receive the amount of protection they
deserved. British colonist had the right to
protection from the Indians and the French.
Their government had the obligation to
provide that protection. The British in
London were to focused on profits. They
wanted to make money off the work of their
colonist. They did not want to pay the
expenses to provide the protection their
colonists needed.
Colonial merchants saw the lack of
protection as a violation of Locke’s social
contract. Frontiersmen saw the lack of
protection as just plain unfair. The greedy
people in London had treated them unfairly
before they came to the colonies. Now they
were trying to do the same to them as
colonists. Coming to the colonies was
supposed to give a person a new start. It
was looking like it might be more of the
same ill treatment at the hands of the rich
and powerful.
Colonists would have settled for being
allowed to deal with the problem
themselves, but London would not allow
that.
The French fortress of Louisbourg was a
great irritant to the British colonists. It
was designed to provide protection from an
assault from the sea. Its existence
prevented total British control of the
Atlantic coast of North America down to
Spanish Florida.
In 1745, the British colonists in America
captured the fort. The colonists thought
that would be the end of the French at
Louisbourg.
To their horror, the British government
gave it back to the French at the end of the
war. The British exchanged it for several
sugar islands owned by the French in the
Caribbean. “What,” demanded the New
England colonists, “did we fight and die for
at Louisbourg? So some wealthy British
could have additional sugar plantations
and become even wealthier? Don’t think
so. We were sold out by London
merchants.”
Now the British colonists want only one
result: the French gone for good.
Question 1 of 3
Colonists’ frontier problems were
A. lack of boundary lines
B. lack of protection from the French
C. Lack of protection from Indians
D. All of the above
Check Answer