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Ms. Harris
Igneous Rock and Sedimentary Rock Study Guide
Igneous rock:
Molten material –
Sedimentary Rocks
Rock formed from hot molten rock material that has cooled and hardened.
Igneous means “fire-made”.
Many rocks are classified as igneous
Material that exist below the earth’s surface.
A molten materials cool under the earth’s surface is called Magma.
Because it is below the surface, magma cools and hardens slowly.
The slower it cools, the larger the material grains can become= rock with coarse texture such
as granite.
Tends to rise upwards towards the earth’s surface.
Escapes through volcanoes and cracks
Is magma that that reaches the surface?
Cools quickly as it is exposed to air= minerals do not have a chance to form large grains.
Example is Basalt- small grains producing rocks with fine texture.
Some rocks can cool so quickly that mineral grains do not have time to form=volcanic glass.
Rocks that form in environments such as beaches, rivers, the ocean, and anywhere that sand,
mud, and other types of sediment collect.
Shale is made of fine mud particles cemented together
Is deposited rock particles and other materials that settle in liquid over time.
Rocks are broken up into smaller pieces wind, water, and ice and form small pieces. These
small pieces of rock turn into pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay.
Some are made up of substances that were once apart of living things: shells and skeletons of
Dead Sea animals found on the sea floor which become cemented together.