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Transcript
Curriculum Guide
Course: __Biology___
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
R
R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
cellular basis of life.
Objective: 2.01 Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the
following organic molecules:
a. Carbohydrates.
b. Proteins.
c. Lipids.
d. Nucleic Acids
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Identify the structure and function of organic compounds
(carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids).
• Compare the structure and function of organic compounds.
• Examine the role and importance of organic molecules to organisms.
• Identify examples of organic compounds, such as starch, cellulose,
insulin, glycogen, glucose, enzymes, hemoglobin, fats, DNA and
RNA.
• Interpret results of tests for starch (iodine), lipids (brown paper),
monosaccharides (Benedict’s solution), and protein (Biuret’s).
• Describe the function(s) and subunit(s) of each organic molecule. For
example, enzymes are proteins composed of long chains of amino
acids that are folded into particular shapes and that shape determines
the specific reaction that the enzyme will catalyze. (The terms
condensation reaction, dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis have been
deliberately excluded.)
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 4
Traditional: 7
The learner will have a basic understanding of bonding (covalent, ionic).
The learner will be able to distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
The learner will be able to identify starches and sugars (carbohydrates).
Essential Vocabulary:
carbohydrate, protein, lipid, nucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), amino acids, fatty
acids, glycerol, nucleotide, enzyme, catalyst, biomolecule, starch, cellulose, insulin, glycogen, glucose, hemoglobin,
fats, monosaccharides, Benedict’s solution, Biuret’s, Iodine, lock and key model, substrate, active site, peptide bond
Instructional Strategies
An inquiry lab should be completed to test for organic compounds.
1. PH Laboratory Manual A “Identifying Organic Compounds” pp. 59-64
2. Glencoe Laboratory Manual “Tests for Organic Compounds “ pp. 27-30
Use graphic organizers to review concepts.
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Enzyme” Graphic p. 18
4. PH Teaching Resources “Organic Compound” Graphic Organizer (Concept Map) p. 22
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology Foldable of Organic Compounds p. 157
6. Teachers may create and use paper models to show examples of organic molecules.
7. Teachers may use toy linking blocks to illustrate polymer building using the monomer blocks.
8. Create a chart to summarize key information on organic compounds. See Below.
Organic
Elements
Subunit (monomer)
Examples
Compound:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Function
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. Which of the following is an example of a carbohydrate?
a. insulin b. cellulose c. glycerol d. DNA
2. An enzyme works best at 37° C; predict that will happen to the enzyme at 4° C and at 50° C.
Answer: The enzyme will denature and will not work at those temperatures.
3.
Food Type
Reagent
1
2
3
4
Added
+
Benedict’s
Solution
+
Iodine
Biuret
-
+
-
Which food type contains amino acids?
a. Food Type 1 b. Food Type 2 c. Food Type 3
-
d. Food Type 4
4. Which type of molecule does the diagram below represent?
a. codon
b. amino acid
c. nucleotide
d. fatty acid
5. Which substances are most commonly used as subunits in the building of some lipids?
a. glycerol and fatty acids
b. sugars and starches
c. amino acids and nucleotides
d. starches and enzymes
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology – pp. 44-53
Glencoe Textbook Biology- pp. 157-166
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course: __Biology____
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I/A R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
cellular basis of life.
Objective: 2.02 Investigate and describe the structure and function of cells
including:
a. Cell organelles.
b. Cell specialization.
c. Communication among cells within an organism.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Identify and describe the structure and function of the nucleus, plasma
membrane, cell wall, mitochondrion, vacuole, chloroplast, and
ribosome.
• Demonstrate the use of microscope techniques.
• Calculate total magnification as well as steps in proper microscope
usage.
• Describe the hierarchy of cell organization:
cells→tissues→organs→organ systems.
• Describe the structure of cells as it relates to their specific functions.
• Distinguish between a variety of cells with particular emphasis on the
differences between plant and animal cells.
• Explain that chemical signals may be released by one cell to influence
the activity of another cell. For example, a nerve cell can send a
message to a muscle cell or to another nerve cell.
• Describe the role of receptor proteins.
• Describe how hormones are involved in communication among cells
within an organism.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 6
Traditional: 11
PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS OF GOAL 4.01
MAY BE EMBEDDED IN THIS OBJECTIVE.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of the cell theory, the structure and function of cell organelles.
The learner will have a basic understanding of cell processes.
Essential Vocabulary:
organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondrion, vacuole, chloroplast, ribosome, cytoplasm, cell,
tissue, organ, organ system, organism, compound light microscope, total magnification, chemical signals, receptor
proteins, hormones, cell specialization, surface area to volume ratio, prokaryotic, eukaryotic
Instructional Strategies:
Use a concept map to review cell structure/function and have students label pictures of cells.
1. PH Teaching Resources Cell Structure and Function Graphic Organizer (Concept Map) p. 88
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B (Students label diagrams of plant & animal cells) pp. 65-66
Use muscle and nerve cell examples to discuss cell signaling.
3. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Inside Story: Muscle Cell” p. 908
Students need to see visuals to understand surface area to volume ratio. Eggs can be used for a demo.
6. PH Textbook Biology “Quick Lab: What Limits the Sizes of Cells?” p. 242
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Problem Solving Lab: What Happens to the Surface Area of a Cell as It’s Volume
Increases?” p. 203
A microscope lab should be used to demonstrate proficiency.
8. Glencoe Lab Manual “Use of the Light Compound Microscope” pp. 35-38
9. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Can a Microscope Be Used in the Laboratory?” pp. 39-42
In addition to a microscope lab, students should complete a cell lab.
10. Glencoe Biolab “Observing and Comparing Different Cell Types” pp. 188-189
11. PH Lab Manual A “Observing Specialized Cells” pp. 101-105
12. Websites with examples of good cell labs:
http://teachers.henrico.k12.va.us/deeprun/vest_m/plant_animal_lab.rtf
http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/cheekcell.htm
http://people.ucls.uchicago.edu/~mwagner/CW/6th%20grade/Cells%20and%20heredity/microscope%20lab(cells).pdf
13. www.biologycorner.com – see Cell Biology topics under Lessons
14. Parts Wanted: Cell Organelles Activity – www.teachersfirst.com/winners/cellparts.htm - Students will name the
parts of the cell, demonstrate knowledge of the parts of a cell in reference to cell functions and apply their knowledge
of the cell and the cell parts to a real world situation.
Writing:
15. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its surroundings.)
Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected terms on quizzes
and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with markers, colored pencils
or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above.
16. Write a journal entry using the following prompt: You are designing a segment intended to teach cell functions
for a cartoon on a children’s science show. Pretend you are a nerve cell and explain how the chemical signals that you
release can affect the activity of another cell. Be sure to write in complete sentences.
17. Write an essay using the following prompt: Write a paper for your teacher in which you define the differences
between “animal” and “plant”. * Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. A compound light microscope is supplied with 10x and 15x eyepieces, and with 4x, 10x. and 40x objectives.
What is the maximum magnification that can be obtained from this microscope?
a. 150x
b. 440x
c. 59x
d. 600x
2. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain what organelle?
a. ribosome
b. nucleus
c. mitochondrion
d. chloroplast
3. In animal cells, the cell part responsible for aerobic respiration is the
a. lysosome
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondrion
d. nucleus
4. Which is a true statement regarding a difference between plant and animal cells?
a. Animal cells contain a cell wall and plant cells do not.
b. Animal cells contain a nucleus and plant cells do not.
c. Plant cells contain a cell wall and animal cells do not.
d. Plant cells contain a plasma membrane and animal cells do not.
5. What is the function of structure labeled 4?
a. aerobic respiration
b. control the materials that enter and leave the cell
c. protein synthesis
d. control all cell activities
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology – pp. pp. 169-183, 190-193, 241-243, 1070-1071, (good examples of cell specialization and
communication - 894, 897, 900, 926, 929)
Glencoe Textbook Biology - pp. 171-187, 202-203, 1106, 946
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Unseen Life on Earth Program 2: The Unity of Living Systems
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course: ___Biology___
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
I R/A R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
cellular basis of life.
Objective: 2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including:
a. Maintenance of homeostasis.
b. Movement of materials into and out of cells.
c. Energy use and release in biochemical reactions.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Describe examples of the maintenance of homeostasis, including the
regulation of temperature, pH, blood glucose levels and water balance.
• Discuss the movement of materials into and out of cells, including
active vs. passive transport, diffusion, osmosis, and the porous nature
of the semi-permeable plasma membrane. (Pinocytosis, phagocytosis,
endocytosis, and exocytosis have been deliberately excluded.)
• Predict any changes in osmotic pressure in different types of cells that
may occur as it is placed in solutions of differing concentrations.
(Emphasis is placed on the processes, not terminology such as
hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic, turgor pressure.)
• Identify ATP as the source of energy for cell activities.
• Describe how cells store and use energy with ATP and ADP
molecules.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 3
Traditional: 6
•
NUTRITION PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 MAY BE EMBEDDED IN
THIS OBJECTIVE.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of cell homeostasis, osmosis, diffusion, active and passive transport.
Essential Vocabulary:
homeostasis, active transport, passive transport, osmosis, porous, diffusion, semi-permeable plasma membrane,
osmotic pressure, ATP, ADP, biochemical pathway
Instructional Strategies:
Activating strategy-use lab below to demonstrate permeability.
1. PH Textbook Biology “Quick Lab: How Can You Model Permeability” p. 187
2. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Minilab: Cell Membrane Simulation” p. 198
Investigate homeostasis.
3. Glencoe Laboratory Manual “Normal and Plasmolyzed Cells” pp. 43-44
4. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Osmosis and the Egg Activity” pp. 48-51
5. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating Cell Structure and Processes” pp. 89-92
Use graphics to explain ATP.
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “ATP” (Graphic Model of ATP) p. 75
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Problem Solving Lab: What Happens to the Surface Area of a Cell as Its Volume
Increases?” p. 203
8. Possible demonstrations: a. Make a wet mount slide of red onion tissue. Add distilled water and observe under the
microscope. Then add a salt water solution to the tissue and observe the changes to the tissue under the microscope. b.
Place a freshly cut carnation in a beaker of food coloring/water solution and observe changes to the flower color over
the next few days. Have students explain what is occurring. c. Cut celery into stalks and place a few stalks in
containers with the following solutions: salt water solution, distilled water solution. Have students explain the results
obtained.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. A student diluted a blood sample with distilled water. While observing the sample under a microscope, she
noticed that the red blood cells swelled and burst. The bursting is most likely the result of which process?
a. active transport
b. osmosis
c. facilitated diffusion
d. staining
2. A student was given a large beaker of distilled water and a separate smaller beaker containing red food
coloring. The student carefully lowered the smaller beaker into the larger beaker. He observed that the red
food coloring began to disperse into the distilled water. Which process was most likely responsible for the
observed change?
a. osmosis
b. active transport
c. replication
d. diffusion
3. The net movement of molecules into an animal cell is most dependent upon the
a. number of ribosomes in the cytoplasm
b. presence of a nucleus
c. selectivity of the plasma membrane
d. selectivity of the cell wall
4. Predict what will happen when a freshwater paramecium is placed in salt water?
Answer: Since the paramecium is in hypertonic solution, it will shrink.
5. A cell with an internal solute concentration of .5% was placed in a solution in a beaker with a solute
concentration of .3%. Predict any changes that may occur in the cell.
a. The cell will swell.
b. The cell will shrink.
c. The cell will stay the same.
d. The cell will disappear.
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology pp. 183-189
Glencoe Textbook Biology pp. 195-200
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Course: ___Biology___
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
cellular basis of life.
Objective: 2.04 Investigate and describe the structure and function of
enzymes and explain their importance in biological systems.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Describe the structure and function of enzymes and include that
enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions (catalyst).
Enzymes are re-usable and specific and are affected by such factors as
pH and temperature.
• Explain that enzymes are necessary for all biochemical reactions.
• Describe and model how enzymes work.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 2
Traditional: 4
The learner will have a clear understanding of protein structure.
Essential Vocabulary:
enzyme, active site, substrate, protein, catalyst, pH, temperature, chemical reaction, biochemical pathway, reusable,
specific, lock and key model, activation energy
Instructional Strategies:
Laboratory investigation should be done to look at the effect of pH and/or temperature on enzymes.
1. “Toothpickase” (Enzyme simulation lab) http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/toothpickase.htm
2. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Properties of Enzymes” pp. 59-70
3. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating the Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity” pp. 23-26
4. PH Textbook Biology “How Does pH Affect an Enzyme” p. 51
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Does Temperature Affect an Enzyme Reaction” p. 164
6. Pineapple Activity – investigation that shows the affect of environmental factors (heat) on enzyme activity – google
“pineapple enzyme activity” for several examples of this activity.
Use a web-based simulation to demonstrate enzyme activity.
7. SAS in Schools – “Enzyme InterActivity”
Sample Formative Assessment:
Use the graph below to answer questions #1 and #2. The graph represents the rate of enzyme action when
different concentrations of enzyme are added to a system with a fixed amount of substrate.
Rate
4Of
3Enzyme 2Action
10 .2 .4 .6 .8 .10 .12 .14 .16
Enzyme Concentration (mg/ml)
1. If more substrate is added at a concentration of .6 mg/mL, the rate of the reaction would most likely
a. decrease
b. increase and then decrease
c. increase
d. remain the same
2. At which enzyme concentration does ALL of the available substrate react with the enzyme?
a. .1 mg/mL
b. .2 mg/mL
c. .7 mg/mL
d..5mg/mL
Use the diagram below to answer questions #3 - #5. The diagram below represents enzyme activity.
1
2
5
4
3
3. The catalyst is represented by number
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
4. If structure 3 contains a peptide bond, structures 1 and 2 must represent
a. nucleotides
b. amino acids
c. fatty acids
d. simple sugars
5. The figure labeled 5 represents
a. an enzyme-substrate complex
b. the formation of RNA
c. the formation of ATP bonds
d. an end-product
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology pp. 51-53
Glencoe Textbook Biology pp. 161-164
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course: __Biology____
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I I
R
I/A R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and
cellular basis of life.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 2.05 Investigate and analyze the bioenergetic reactions:
a. Aerobic respiration.
b. Anaerobic respiration (include lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation).
c. Photosynthesis.
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 4
Traditional: 7
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Analyze the overall equations including reactants and products (not
memorizing intermediate steps of these processes).
• Investigate and describe the factors which affect rate of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
• Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration with regard to
efficiency of ATP formation.
• Investigate and describe the types of organisms and organelles that
utilize these processes. (Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, and Electron
Transport Chain have been deliberately excluded and students are not
required to distinguish between light dependent and light independent
parts of photosynthesis.)
• Compare anaerobic and aerobic organisms.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of chemical reactions.
The learner will be able to identify the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
The learner will have a basic understanding of the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Essential Vocabulary:
photosynthesis, cellular respiration, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, ATP, ADP, autotroph, heterotroph,
producer, consumer, lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, reactants, products, mitochondria, chloroplasts,
yeast, muscle cell, cytoplasm, glucose, carbohydrate
Instructional Strategies:
Complete a laboratory investigation for respiration/fermentation.
1. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Rate of Fermentation” pp. 71-76
2. Glencoe Laboratory Manual “How Does Concentration of Sugar Affect Fermentation?” pp. 49-52
3. PH Laboratory Manual A “Observing Respiration” pp. 95-99
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Minilab: Determining if Apple Juice Ferments” p. 236
5. Glencoe Lab Manual “Do Dormant and Germinating Seeds Respire” pp. 156-158
Complete a laboratory investigation for photosynthesis.
6. PH Textbook Biology “Investigating Photosynthesis” p. 215
7. PH Laboratory Manual A “Measuring the Effect of Light Intensity on Photosynthesis” pp. 91-94
8. Chromatography of leaf pigments to demonstrate pigments involved in photosynthesis.
9. Glencoe Biolab “What Factors Influence Photosynthesis?” p. 238
Use a graphic organizer to outline photosynthesis.
10. PH Teaching Resources “Photosynthesis” Graphic Organizer (Concept Map) p. 101
11. Use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast photosynthesis and respiration.
12. Possible demonstrations: a. Place a small amount of yeast, sugar and water in a test tube. Secure a balloon over
the mouth of the test tube with tape. Observe changes in the set up and ask students to describe what is occurring. b.
Link two flasks with stoppers and glass tubing. In one flask add a small amount of yeast, sugar and water. In the
second flask, add a dilute bromthymol blue solution. Observe changes in the setup and ask students to describe what
is occurring.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. What is a main result of aerobic respiration?
a. storage of energy in a carbohydrate
b. production of ATP from the breakdown of glucose
c. conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy
d. production of ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
2. Bromthymol blue turns to bromthymol yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide. When carbon dioxide is
removed, the solution will return to a blue color. Two Elodea plants were placed in separate test tubes. Each
test tube contained water and bromthymol yellow. Both test tubes were covered. One test tube was placed in
the light, the other in the dark. After several days, the solution in the tube exposed to light turned blue. This
demonstration shows that during photosynthesis, green plants
a. give off oxygen gas
b. need bromthymol blue
c. form ADP molecules
d. take in carbon dioxide
3. Name the process that provides most of the oxygen found in the Earth’s atmosphere.
a. anaerobic respiration
b. fermentation
c. aerobic respiration
d. photosynthesis
4. The process represented by the equation below occurs within the organelle of which organism?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
a. the mitochondria of a pine tree
b. the chloroplast of a fern frond
c. the cell wall of a human
d. the nucleus of a bean plant
5. Oxygen is a waste by-product of
a. alcoholic fermentation
b. photosynthesis
c. aerobic respiration
d. lactic acid fermentation
6. What are the bubbles composed of in the top of the test tube?
b. CO2
c. H2O
d. NaCl
a. O2
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology pp. 201-232
Glencoe Textbook Biology pp. 221-239
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Microbes in Action
Unseen Life on Earth Program 3: Metabolism
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course:
Biology
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and
the changes of organisms over time.
Objective: 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including:
a. DNA Replication.
b. Protein Synthesis (transcription and translation).
c. Gene Regulation.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compare the structure of DNA to RNA.
Describe complementary base pairing.
Explain that the sequence of nucleotides in DNA codes for proteins – the
central key to cell function and life.
Describe how the process of replication allows daughter cells to have an
exact copy of parental DNA.
Describe the semi-conservative nature of the replication process (nature of
the process, not the term semi-conservative).
Comprehend that mutations are changes in the DNA code.
Identify the position of replication within the cell cycle.
Explain the importance of relatively weak hydrogen bonds.
Recognize protein synthesis as a process of:
ƒ Transcription that produces a RNA copy of DNA, which is
further modified into the three types of RNA.
ƒ mRNA traveling to the ribosome (rRNA).
ƒ Translation - tRNA supplies appropriate amino acids.
ƒ Amino acids linked by peptide bonds to form polypeptides which
are folded into proteins.
ƒ Use of a codon chart to determine the amino acid sequence
produced by a particular sequence of bases.
Describe that all (with a few exceptions) of an organism’s cells have the
same DNA but differ based on the expression of genes.
a. differentiation of cells in multicellular organisms.
b. cells responding to their environment by producing different types and
amounts of protein.
c. advantages (injury repair) and disadvantages (cancer) of the
overproduction, underproduction or production of proteins at the
incorrect times.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 6
Traditional: 12
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of the structure and function of nucleic acids.
Essential Vocabulary:
DNA
RNA
gene
complementary base pairing
DNA replication
mutation
daughter cells
adenine
guanine
cytosine
thymine
hydrogen bond
nucleus
cytoplasm
transcription
translation
protein synthesis
ribosome
amino acid
codon
anticodon
tRNA
peptide bond
rRNA
mRNA
gene regulation
differentiation
cancer
codon chart
Instructional Strategies:
Make paper models of DNA, which can also be used for modeling replication.
1. PH Textbook Biology “Modeling DNA Replication” p. 313
Practice transcription and translation using models.
2. Glencoe Biolab “RNA Transcription” p.302
3. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 11.1 “Transcribe and Translate” p.293
Complete an activity that investigates mutations.
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem-Solving lab Make and Use Tables “What Type of Mutation Results in Sickle
Cell Anemia?” p. 299
5. Glencoe Lab Manual A “Isolating Mutants”p. 63
6. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 11.2 “ Make and Use Tables - Gene Mutations and Proteins” p. 300
7. NCDPI Biology Support Document “What are the Effects of Various Mutations on Protein Synthesis?” p. 79
8. DNA Coloring-transcription and translation
http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/trans_coloring.html
9.Strawberry DNA extractionhttp://www.ncsu.edu/kenanfellows/2002/pligon/biotech/labs/strawberry.html
http://www.carnegieinstitution.org/first_light_case/horn/DNA/BERRYteacDNA.pdf
Writing:
10. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above.
11. Students will answer the question (Why might a mutation have little or no harmful effect on an organism?) on pg.
296 in Glencoe Textbook Biology in paragraph form.
12. Write an essay using the following prompt : Write an essay for your teacher in which you discuss the positive and
negative effects of gene mutation. * Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1.Which of the following are two types of RNA molecules?
a.cytosine and thymine
b.tRNA and mRNA
c.transfer RNA and ribosomes
d.nuclear RNA and rRNA
2. Using the table below, which amino acid sequence would be determined by the section of DNA with the sequence
CCG GAT TCT
Messenger RNA
codon
AGA
CUA
GGC
UUC
Amino acid
Arginine
Leucine
Glycine
phenylalanine
a. phenylalanine-arginine-glycine
b. phenyalanine-leucine-glycine
c. glycine-leucine-arginine
d. glycine-arginine-leucine
3. Which statement is true concerning the comparison of DNA to RNA?
a. DNA is a single strand, RNA is a double strand
b. RNA has uracil and DNA has thymine
c. DNA has glycine and RNA does not
d. DNA is made in the nucleus and RNA is made in the cytoplasm
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology pp.250-252, 287-312
Glencoe Textbook Biology pp. 281-301
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Videos/DVDs:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Cracking the Code of Life: The Race to Decode Human DNA
DNA: The Secret of Life
DNA and the Protein Express
DNA and Genes Odyssey: The Gene Scene
Double Helix
The Race for the Double Helix
DNA
DNA-The Secret of Photo 51
Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA
Cracking the Code of Life
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course:
Biology
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I R/A R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and
the changes of organisms over time.
Objective: 3.02 Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and
sexual reproduction.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
•
Recognize mitosis as a part of asexual reproduction and meiosis as a
part of sexual reproduction.
• Describe similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis
including replication and separation of DNA and cellular material,
changes in chromosome number, number of cell divisions, and
number of cells produced in complete cycle.
• Place mitosis diagrams in order and describe what is occurring
throughout the process. (Students are not expected to memorize the
names of the steps or the order of the step names.)
• Distinguish the sources of variation which include:
o Crossing over.
o Random assortment of chromosomes.
o Gene mutation.
o Nondisjunction.
o Fertilization.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of cell division.
The learner will have a clear understanding of DNA replication.
Essential Vocabulary:
mitosis
meiosis
asexual
sexual
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
interphase
cell cycle
cytokinesis
crossing over
random assortment
gene mutation
nondisjunction
fertilization
diploid
haploid
genetic variation
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 4
Traditional: 8
Instructional Strategies:
Use onion root tip slides or an online activity to study mitosis.
1. PH Textbook Biology Lab: “Modeling the Phases of the Cell Cycle” p. 254
2. Onion Root Tips Online Activity http://www.biology.arizona.edu/
3. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Cell Cycle Inquiry Lab” p. 85
4. Biology in Motion Mitosis and Meiosis great interactive online activity http://biologyinmotion.com/cell_division/
Use yarn and other manipulatives to model mitosis and meiosis
5. PH Textbook Biology Exploration “Modeling Meiosis” p. 281
Use clay to model crossing over.
6. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem-Solving lab 8.2 “How Does the Length of the Cell Cycle vary” p. 204
Use a graphic organizer to compare and contratst mitosis and meiosis.
7. PH Teaching Resources “ Compare/Contrast Table” p.139
8. Glencoe Textbook Biology Biolab Investigate “Where is Mitosis Most Common?” pp. 214
Writing assignment: Students could answer the following question in paragraph form after completing the lab:
What are the causes of varying rates of mitosis in different parts of the onion root?
Writing:
9. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above.
10. Write an essay using the following prompt: Write an essay for your teacher in which you discuss the internal and
external factors that can affect the cell cycle. * Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score
student’s essays.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1.The result of meiosis is
a. four diploid cells
b. two diploid cells exactly like the original
c. four haploid cells that differ from the original
d. two haploid cells
2. If a cell has 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will its daughter cells have after mitosis?
a. 12
b. 24
c. 48
d. 6
3. Explain how crossing over may increase genetic variation.
When does crossing over occur?
Answer: Crossing-over occurs during prophase I of meiosis and allows homologous pairs of chromosomes to
exchange a portion of DNA, thus creating genetic variation.
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology pp. 240-255
pp. 275-280
p.352
Glencoe Textbook Biology pp. 204-210
pp. 263-271
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
R/A
I=Introduced
R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Course: Biology
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and
the changes of organisms over time.
Objective: 3.03 Interpret and predict patterns of inheritance.
a. Dominant, recessive and intermediate traits
b. Multiple alleles.
c. Polygenic traits.
d. Sex linked traits.
e. Independent assortment.
f. Test cross.
g. Pedigrees.
h. Punnett squares.
Learner Outcome
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify and determine genotypes and phenotypes.
Assess that phenotype is the result of both genotype and the
environment.
Discuss Mendel’s experiments and laws.
Interpret karyotypes (gender, chromosomal abnormalities).
Demonstrate that dominant traits mask recessive alleles.
Identify and give examples of a variety of intermediate patterns of
inheritance, including codominance and incomplete dominance. Be
able to solve problems involving apparently intermediate phenotypes.
The following discussion is included to help teachers with
understanding these frequently confused terms.
o Incomplete dominance (also called partial dominance) results
in the blending of traits (usually results from an inactive or less
active gene so the heterozygous phenotype appears
intermediate eg. pink flowers).
o Co-dominant alleles result in the expression of both traits. (two
different proteins are produced and both are detected e.g. roan
cows and AB blood type).
Determine characteristics of autosomal inheritance patterns and
characteristics of sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington’s
disease.
Solve and interpret codominant crosses involving multiple alleles.
Investigate A, B, AB and O blood types and alleles: IA, IB, and i).
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 9
Traditional: 19
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Predict if parentage is possible based on blood offspring types.
Identify traits that are controlled by more than one pair of genes,
including skin and hair color.
Demonstrate an understanding of the human sex chromosomes,
including being able to solve crosses involving sex linked traits
(examples: color-blindness and hemophilia) and describe why males
are more likely to express a sex-linked trait.
Describe how the process of meiosis leads to independent assortment
and ultimately to greater genetic diversity.
Given certain phenotypes create an appropriate test cross to determine
the genotype of an organism.
Identify the genotypes of individuals from a given pedigree (students
should be able to interpret pedigrees which show phenotype not
genotype).
Solve and interpret problems featuring monohybrid crosses (Parental,
F1, F2 generations).
Determine parental genotypes based on offspring ratios.
SICKLE CELL, PKU, AND DIET PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 MAY
BE EMBEDDED IN THIS OBJECTIVE.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of genetics and heredity.
Essential Vocabulary:
genotype
phenotype
genetics
inheritance
autosome
hemophilia
heterozygous testcross
homozygous
codominant
dominant
incomplete dominance
karyotype
autosome
colorblindness sex chromosome
Down’s syndrome
pedigree
independent assortment
Punnett square
multiple allele
F1, F2
ABO bloodtype
sickle cell anemia
cystic fibrosis
Huntington’s Disease
Parental
Instructional Strategies:
Activating strategy-have students examine flowers to understand Mendel’s experiments.
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Mini Lab “ Observing and Inferring - Looking at Pollen” p. 254
Use a foldable to review Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance.
2. Glencoe Textbook Biology Foldable “Heredity Laws” p. 253
Students need to understand ratio and probability. Use math problems for reinforcing.
3. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving Lab “Analyzing Information” p.262
Have students practice punnett squares in pairs. Using small white boards is a good way to see which students can
work genetic problems.
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology Applying Concepts “What are the Chances” p. 311
Use pedigree charts to explain patterns of inheritance, also a good way to review diseases.
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving lab 12.3 “How is Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy Inherited?” p. 326
6. Glencoe Textbook Biology Mini Lab 12.1 “Illustrating a Pedigree” p. 310
7. Relate pedigree to real life situation using Queen Victoria’s family pedigree.
http://www.sciencecases.org/hemo/hemo.asp
Coat color of rabbits provides a good explanation of multiple alleles.
8. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving lab 12.2 “ How is Coat Color in Rabbits Inherited?” p. 318
Complete a paper model or an online karyotype.
9. PH Biology Lab Manual A “ Making Karyotypes” p. 123
10. Online karyotyping activity http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html
Ideas for genetic disorders.
Complete a webquest activity to learn about various genetic disorders.
11. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Genetic Detective” (Webquest Activity) p.100
12. Create a Species Genetic Project – see www.biologycorner.com
13. Students can create an informative pamphlet on a specific genetic disease. The teacher can set specific parameters
as to the information covered and the format of the pamphlet.
14.PH Teaching Resources Compare /Contrast Graphic Organizer “Types of Genetic Disorders” p. 179
15. Have students create a foldable to demonstrate different types of genetic problems. (simple dominance,
incomplete dominance, codominance, sex-linked,)
16. Reebop Activity – www.masd.k12.pa.us/programs/STEEP/Science/Biology/ActivityinMeiosis.htm
17. Glencoe Textbook Biology Biolab “How can Phenotype and Genotypes of Plants be Determined” (Internet) p.274
18. Glencoe Lab Manual 12-1 “Determination of Genotypes from Phenotypes in Humans” p. 67
Writing:
19. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above.
20. Have students use a multi-flow map to illustrate the causes for one of their own genetic traits (i.e. blood type, eye
color, left or right handedness etc.) based on what they know about genetics.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. A mother has type A blood and a father has type B blood. The child has type O blood. The parental genotypes
for blood types must be
a. IAi and IBi
b. IAIa and IBIB
c. IAIB and IBi
d. IAi and IBIB
2. The human disorder Down’s syndrome is caused by
a. gene mutation
b. crossing-over
c. nondisjunction
d. abnormal blood cells
3. A diagram that represents the chromosomes of a human cell is called a
a. karyotype
b. synapsis
c. disjunction
d. deletion
4. Sue is married to George who is colorblind. They have three children, Mary, Kevin, and Karen. Sue’s father,
Bob is colorblind. Bob is married to Daisy. Mary and Karen are not colorblind, however, Kevin is. If Sue and
George decide to have another baby, what is the probability that the baby will be colorblind? Sue’s sister
Teresa is married to John and Sue is colorblind as well. She has two children, Emily and Adrienne, who are
not colorblind. Draw a pedigree chart and Punnett square to justify your answer.
Answer: 50%
X
XC
XCX
Y
XY
XC
XCXC
XCY
Chart:
Bob
George
Sue
Mary Kevin Karen
Daisy
Teresa
John
Emily
Adrienne
Recommended Resources:
PH Biology
pp. 340-360
Glencoe Biology
pp. 308-329, pp.252-262, pp.269-270, pp.339-34
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Cycles of Life: Patterns of Inheritance
DNA: Pandora’s Box
The Garden of Inheritance
Marked of Life
Perfect Baby
Birth, Sex and Death
Children by Design
The Immortal Thread
Who Are You?
Unseen Life on Earth Program 4: Reading the Code of Life
Discovering the Wonders of DNA
Interactive CD-ROMS:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
DNA and Genes Odyssey
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
R/A
I=Introduced
R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Course: _Biology__
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and
the changes of organisms over time.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 3.04 Assess the impacts of genomics on individuals and society.
• Human genome project.
• Applications of biotechnology.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Identify reasons for establishing the Human Genome project.
• Conclude ways in which the project is useful in determining whether
individuals may carry genes for genetic conditions and in developing
gene therapy.
• Demonstrate gel electrophoresis as a technique to separate molecules
based on size (Students are not expected to know the steps of gel
electrophoresis in order or great detail. They should be able to
interpret the results and have a general understanding of what takes
place during the process.)
• Identify uses of DNA fingerprinting.
• Identify applications of transgenic organisms (plants, animals and
bacteria) in agriculture and industry. This should include
pharmaceutical applications such as outlining the steps in the
production of human insulin.
• Discuss ethical issues and implications of genomics and
biotechnology (stem cell research and genetically modified
organisms).
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 4
Traditional: 10
The learner will have a clear understanding of DNA, chromosomal, and gene structure.
The learner will have a clear understanding of the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure.
Essential Vocabulary:
Human Genome Project
gene therapy
biotechnology
DNA fingerprint
cloning
plasmid
gel electrophoresis
transgenic organism
stem cell
genetically modified organism
restriction enzyme
recombinant DNA
genomics
insulin
Instructional Strategies:
Activating Strategy- Use books as an analogy of how information is stored in the DNA code.
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Mini Lab 13.2 “Use Numbers Storing the Human Genome” p.350
Paper models are a good way to simulate biotechnology topics.
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Biolab “Modeling Recombinant DNA” p.354
2. PH Biology Textbook Quick Lab “How Can Restriction Enzymes Be Modeled?” p. 326
3. Glencoe Textbook Biology Apply Concept “Matching Restriction Enzymes to Cleavage Sites” p.343
4. PH Biology Textbook “Modeling DNA Probes” p. 361
Students need to be able to interpret DNA Electrophoresis results, a great way to introduce lab, also.
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving Lab Apply Concepts “How is Identification Made from a DNA
Fingerprint?” p.353
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Gel Electrophoresis” Worksheet pp. 124, “ DNA Fingerprint” p.132
(great starter activity or for review purposes)
7. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating Gel Electrophoresis” pp.119-122.
Genetic Engineering-use graphics to describe process of genetic engineering, students should know the process.
8. PH Teaching Resources Good Graphic Overview of Genetic Engineering p. 161
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Think Critically 13.2 “How Might Gene Transfer Be Verified?” p.347
12. Use interactive website to teach cloning “Click and Clone”
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/clickandclone/
13. Use “Your Gene, Your Choice” website to discuss ethical issues of the Human Genome Project.
Students can debate ethical issues or choose an issue to write about, discussing pros and cons.
http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/publicat/genechoice/
14. Students can make “mini-posters” depicting and describing how to genetically engineer a protein, such as insulin.
Writing:
15. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above.
16. Write an essay using the following prompt: As the lead scientist working on the Human Genome Project for the
government, write a letter to the President in which you illustrate the positive effects of the Human Genome
Project in order to convince him that you need additional funding for the project.
* Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays.
17. Write an essay using the following prompt: Write an essay for your teacher in which you define the Human
Genome Project. *Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. In the process of gel electrophoresis
a. the shorter segments travel the farthest distance
b. the longest segments travel the farthest distance
c. the shorter segments travel the shortest distance
d. the longest segments travel a medium distance
2. Using a virus to deliver the gene for normal hemoglobin into a person’s bone marrow would be used in
a. genetics
b. gene therapy
c. Human Genome Project
d. DNA testing
3.
E
S1 S2
Use the drawing above to answer the question.
In the DNA fingerprint, which suspect S1 or S2 matches the evidence?
Is this evidence definitive?
Answer: S2: No, other evidence would need to be examined.
Recommended Resources:
PH Biology
pp. 319-355
pp. 357-358
Glencoe Biology
pp. 341-356
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
The Biological Revolution:100 Years of Science at Cold Spring Harbor
Biotechnology: Sowing the Seeds fir Better Agriculture
The Cloning Revolution
Connection: Animals, People, and Biotechnology
DNA: Curing Cancer
DNA: Playing God
DNA: The Human Race
DNA in Practice: Southern Blotting
Food Biotechnology: A Roundtable on Public Issues
Food Science: Technology with Taste
Genetic Engineering: The Nature of Change
Harvest of Fear
Who Gets to Know? Genetics and Privacy
Improving Foods through Biotechnology
Cutting and Splicing DNA
The Human Genome
Recombinant Technology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
The Immortal Thread
The Mouse That Laid the Golden Egg
Sequencing Life
Spare Parts: Growing Human Organs
Unseen Life on Earth Program 5: Genetic Transfer
New Ways to Use DNA
Asking the Tough Questions About DNA Technology
National Geographic:
Clone
Nova:
Harvest of Fear
Interactive CD-ROMS:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
The Virtual Lab Series: Bacterial ID Lab
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I/A R/A
I=Introduced
R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Course: ___Biology__
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and
the changes of organisms over time.
Objective: 3.05 Examine the development of the theory of evolution by
natural selection including:
• Development of the theory.
• The origin and history of life.
• Fossil and biochemical evidence.
• Mechanisms of evolution.
• Applications (pesticide & antibiotic resistance).
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy the learner will be able to
• Outline the historical development of the theory of evolution by
natural selection.
• Compare biogenesis to abiogenesis with emphasis on the experiments
to support both ideas.
• Describe early atmosphere hypotheses and experiments.
• Explain how early conditions affected the type of organism that
developed (anaerobic and prokaryotic).
• Diagram the evolution of eukaryotic and aerobic organism.
• Compare methods of dating fossils-relative and absolute.
• Make inferences about the fossil record.
• Describe biochemical similarities.
• Describe shared anatomical structures (patterns in embryology,
homologous and analogous vocabulary are intentionally excluded).
• Explain how variations provide material for natural selection.
• Describe the role of geographic isolation in speciation.
• Summarize the importance of the environment in selecting
adaptations.
• Describe the mechanisms of antibiotic and pesticide resistance in
species.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 5
Traditional: 10
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of evolution theories and patterns as well as the geological time scale.
Essential Vocabulary:
evolution
natural selection
fossil
absolute dating
reproductive isolation
biochemical comparison
biogenesis
abiogenesis
carbon dating
speciation
antibiotic resistance
adaptation
relative dating
geographic isolation
pesticide resistance
vestigial organs
Instructional Strategies:
Activating Strategy-discuss variation in organisms using peanuts.
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Mini Lab 15.2 “Detecting a Variation”p. 407
Activating Strategy- students analyze and compare anatomy of birds and make inferences about habitats, diets, etc.
2. PH Lab Manual A “ Comparing Adaptations of Birds” pp. 131-136
Students can complete graphic organizer as they discuss Theory of Evolution.
3. PH Teaching Resources” Graphic organizer “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution” p. 191
Complete a simulated evolution lab.
4. PH Textbook Biology “ Modeling Coevolution” Exploration Lab p. 441
5. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Fishy Frequencies” p. 110
6. Breeding Bunnies Evolution lab http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/educators/lessons/lesson4/act1.html
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 15.1 “Camouflage Provides an Adaptive Advantage” p. 398
Complete a foldable to organize the evidences of evolution.
8. Glencoe Textbook Biology Foldable activity p. 393
Interpret data to understand changes in populations.
9. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving Lab 15.1 Interpret Data” How can Natural Selection be Observed”
p. 397
Biogenesis- Use a graphic to explain the history of biogenesis research.
10. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Pasteur’s Worksheet” p.6
Writing:
11. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above
12. Write an essay using the following prompt: As Charles Darwin during the twenty years following your five year
voyage on the HMS Beagle, write an entry in your journal in which you discuss the causes of evolution. * Use the
North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays.
13. Students will complete a multi-flow map to illustrate the effects of antibiotic or pesticide resistant species.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. The best description of natural selection is
a. survival of the fittest
b. organisms that are best suited to their environment survive to reproduce and therefore pass on their
characteristics to their offspring
c. acquired characteristics
d. organisms that are best suited to their environment are able to reproduce
2. Evidence of evolution may include
a. Arms of humans, fins of whales, and wings of bats
b. vestigial organs
c. similarities in embryology
d. all of the above
3. Two populations of alligators are separated by a huge body of water and evolve to become different species.
This is an example of
a. geographic isolation
b. behavior isolation
c. temporal isolation
d. natural selection
Recommended Resources:
Prentice Hall Biology pp. 368-441
Glencoe Biology pp. 369-385, p.388, pp. 393-413
Useful Websites:
Facts about Antibiotic USFDA http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/hottopics/antiresist_facts.html
BAD BUGS “What doesn’t kill them makes them stronger” http://whyfiles.org/038badbugs/
NOVA article PBS.org Pesticide resistance http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/1/l_101_02.html
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
The Infinite Voyage: The Geometry of Life
Accidents of Creation
Unseen Life on Earth Program 6: Microbial Ecology
Nova:
Evolution Boxed Set
Darwin’s Dangerous Journey
Great Transformations
Extinction!
The Evolution Arms Race
The Mind’s Big Bang
What About God?
Rx for Survival Boxed Set
The Missing Link
Origins
Journey of Man
Evolution: Learning and Teaching Evolution
National Geographic:
Galapagos
A & E:
Ape Man: The Story of Evolution Boxed Set
Biography: Charles Darwin: Evolution’s Voice
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course: _____Biology__________
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
R
R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of
life.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 4.01 Analyze the classification of organisms according to their
evolutionary relationships.
a. The historical development and changing nature of classification
systems.
b. Similarities and differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic
organisms.
c. Similarities and differences among the eukaryotic kingdoms: Protists,
Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
d. Classify organisms using a dichotomous key.
Learner Outcome:
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
Outline the history of the classification system
• Originally two kingdoms (plants and animals). More kingdoms added
as knowledge of the diversity of organisms increased.
• Development of the seven level classification system (KPCOFGS)
and binomial nomenclature.
• The system is changing as knowledge is gathered, currently, the
thinking is 3 domains with 6-7 kingdoms.
Interpret the basis of the classification system including
• Evolutionary phylogeny, DNA and biochemical analysis,
embryology, morphology.
• Phylogenetic trees.
Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.
Compare:
• Cellular structures.
• Unicellular vs. Multicellular.
• Methods of making/getting food and breaking down food to get
energy.
• Reproduction.
Explain basic differences and similarities between prokaryotic and
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 4
Traditional: 7
eukaryotic cells including
• Membrane bound organelles – none in prokaryotes.
• Ribosomes in both.
• Contrasts in chromosome structure.
• Contrasts in size.
PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS WERE EMBEDDED
EARLIER IN OBJECTIVE 2.02.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of plants and animals.
The learner will have a clear understanding of
o DNA and protein synthesis.
o Basic cell structure.
o Patterns of evolution.
Essential Vocabulary:
taxonomy
dichotomous key
classification
phylogeny
biochemical analysis
embryology
morphology
phylogenetic tree
eukaryote
hierarchy
prokaryote
taxon
domain
cladogram
kingdom
phylum
class, order, family, genus, species
binomial nomenclature
chemosynthetic
Instructional Strategies:
Students should be able to prepare and interpret a dichotomous key. Activating strategy-give students several similar
items and have them separate by characteristics. (objects to use-seeds, shells, leaves)
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Biolab “Making a Dichotomous Key” pp.460-461
2. Glencoe Lab Manual Lab 17.1 “ How Can A Key Be Used to Identify Organisms?” p.101
3. PH Lab Manual A “Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key” p. 147
4. PH Teaching Resources “Classifying Organisms Using Dichotomous Keys” pp. 230-232
5. PH Textbook Biology “ Using a Dichotomous Key Activity” pp.462-463
Make a foldable to study the history of classification systems.
6. Glencoe Textbook Biology Foldable “Classification” p. 443
Cladograms are often hard for students to understand. Have them practice making a cladogram using data.
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Using a Cladogram to Show Relationships” p. 453
8. PH Textbook Biology Quicklab “How is a Cladogram Constructed?” p. 453
9. www.sasschool.com SAS Interactive “Modern Taxonomy”
Use charts to compare and contrast domains and kingdoms.
10. PH Teaching Resources Compare/Contrast Table (Compares the three domains) p. 229
11. Students can create a graphic organizer (chart) to compare the domains and kingdoms. See example below.
Domain
Archaea
Bacteria
Eukarya
Archaebacteria
Kingdom
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Cell Type
Number of
Cells
Nutrition
Reproduction
Examples
12. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “ Reinforcing Concepts on Hierarchy , Cladograms, Biochemical
and Genetic Evidence Three Domains, and Kingdoms” pp.165-172
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. In the diagram below, the circles labeled “Enhydra” members of the genus Enhydra and the circles labeled “lutris”
represent the members of the species lutris. Which arrangement of circles best illustrates the relationship between the
series and the species of Enhydra lutris, the common sea otter?
a.
b.
c
d.
Enhydra lutris
lutris Enhydra
Enhydra lutris
Enhydra lutris
2. The scientific name for the dog is Canis familiaris. In this name the genus name is
a. Canis
b. Familaris
c. Canis Familiaris
d. Canis familiaris
3. Using the key, identify the oak tree:
1a. Leaves usually without teeth or lobes:
1b. Leaves usually with teeth or lobes:
2a. Leaves evergreen:
2b. Leaves not evergreen:
3a. Mature plant a large tree —
3b. Mature plant a small shrub —
4a. Leaf narrow, about 4-6 times as long as broad —
4b. Leaf broad, about 2-3 times as long as broad —
5a. Lobes or teeth bristle-tipped:
5b. Lobes or teeth rounded or blunt-pointed, no bristles:
6a. Leaves mostly with 3 lobes —
6b. Leaves mostly with 7-9 lobes —
7a. Leaves with 5-9 deep lobes —
7b. Leaves with 21-27 shallow lobes —
Source: Google Images
Go to 2
Go to 5
Go to 3
Go to 4
Southern live oak Quercus virginiana
Dwarf live oak Quercus minima
Willow oak Quercus phellos
Shingle oak Quercus imbricaria
Go to 6
Go to 7
Blackjack oak Quercus marilandica
Northern red oak Quercus rubra
White oak Quercus alba
Swamp chestnut oak Quercus prinus
Source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Oak
Answer: White Oak
4. Some species of bacteria are unicellular, autotrophic and have cell walls made of peptidoglycan. Under the
modern system of classification, they would be classified as
a. Eubacteria
b. Archaebacteria
c. Protists
d. Fungi
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology
pp. 446-467
Glencoe Textbook Biology
pp. 442-471
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
Course: ___Biology____
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I R
R R
R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of
life.
Objective: 4.02 Analyze the processes by which organisms representative of
the following groups accomplish essential life functions including:
a. Unicellular protists, annelid worms, insects, amphibians, mammals,
non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
b. Transport, excretion, respiration, regulation, nutrition, synthesis,
reproduction, and growth and development.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
Investigate essential life functions of unicellular protists, annelid worms,
insects, amphibians, mammals, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and
angiosperms.
Investigate and analyze the physiology of the following systems for the above
organisms:
• Transport – how organisms get what they need to cells; how they
move waste from cells to organs of excretion.
• Excretion – how organisms get rid of their waste and balance their
fluids (pH, salt concentration, water).
• Regulation – how organisms control body processes – hormones,
nervous system.
• Respiration – how organisms get oxygen from the environment and
release carbon dioxide back to the environment and how plants
exchange gases.
• Nutrition – how organisms break down and absorb foods.
• Synthesis – how organisms build necessary molecules.
• Reproduction – sexual versus asexual, eggs, seeds, spores, placental,
types of fertilization.
• Growth and development – metamorphosis, development in egg or in
uterus, growth from seed or spore.
PROTIST PARASITE PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 MAY BE EMBEDDED
IN THIS OBJECTIVE.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 10
Traditional: 17
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a clear understanding of homeostasis, including diffusion, osmosis, and enzymes.
The learner will have a clear understanding of respiration and photosynthesis.
The learner will have a clear understanding of sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, mitosis and meiosis.
Essential Vocabulary:
transport, excretion, regulation, respiration, nutrition, synthesis, reproduction, growth, development, metamorphosis,
placental, fertilization, homeostasis, ingestion, angiosperm, gymnosperm, bryophyte, annelid, amphibian, nonvascular
plant
Instructional Strategies:
This objective is a very broad topic. The teacher will need to use some type of graphic organizer (charts, concept
maps, mind maps, mobiles, flip books) to assist the students in summarizing the materials.
Material can also be split up by student groups for research. Research can be done by systems (excretory, respiration,
etc.) or by organisms (protists, annelid worms, etc).
Ideas for presentation of research:
ƒ Posters with museum walks
ƒ Power points
ƒ Commercials, songs (eg. instead of “You Ain’t Nothing but a Hound Dog” use
“You Ain’t Nothing but an Insect”)
ƒ Have students create concept maps or mind maps for other groups
Attached are extensive lists of resource pages from the textbook materials including lab ideas, graphic reviews, etc.
The lists have been arranged by systems and by organisms. The Prentice Hall Adapted Reading and Study Workbook
B has some excellent graphics of the systems that might be used in student projects or as review sheets.
Writing:
1. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above
2. Teacher could divide students into groups and assign each group a system (transport, excretion, regulation,
respiration, nutrition, synthesis, reproduction, growth & development) and ask each group to write an essay in
which they define the system and then students could share their information with the rest of the class.
3. Teacher could write the names of organisms and systems studied in this unit on index cards (one per card), then
randomly pass out two cards to each student (one card with the name of an organism and one card with the name of
a system- i.e. one student could receive: unicellular protists and excretion and another student could receive
amphibians and reproduction etc.) and ask them to write an essay in which they define the system within that
particular organism. *Use North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s essays. Then students
could be required to make posters or presentations about their topic to share with the rest of the class.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. The body cells of most multicellular animals are not in direct contact with the outside environment. The
cells that are not in direct contact are supplied with materials from the environment by
a. a circulatory system
b. a nervous system
c. sense receptors
d. a complex reproductive system
2. Which organism has an open circulatory system?
a. an earthworm b. a protist
c. an amphibian
d. a grasshopper
3. The digestive systems of mammals, insects and segmented worms are similar in that all three
a. chemically digest food in the heart
b. contain a tube like system with two openings
c. contain a long coiled small intestine
d. mechanically break down food in the liver
4. In an amphibian, the coordination of the activities that maintain homeostasis in a changing environment is
accomplished by the process of
a. synthesis
b. respiration
c. transport
d. regulation
5. How does excretion in plants and animals differ?
a. Animals must release their waste products into the environment while plants can reuse some of
their waste products.
b. Animal produce waste products 24 hours a day and plants produce waste products only during the
night time hours.
c. Plant respiration produces carbon dioxide as a waste and animal respiration produces oxygen as a
waste.
d. Plants produce nitrogenous wastes and animals do not.
Use the following diagram to answer question #7.
6. The diagram above represents a leaf. The structure indicated by the arrow functions in
a. reproduction
b. growth and development c. transport
d. water absorption
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology
Insects pp. 726-733
Protists pp. 496-506
Annelids pp. 694-699
Amphibians pp. 782-789
Mammals pp. 821-826
Plants pp. 569-570, pp. 579-600, pp. 608-616, pp. 643-646
Glencoe Textbook Biology –
Insects 751-756
Protists pp.503-506
Annelids pp. 728- 735
Amphibians pp. 803-809
Mammals pp. 841-852
Plants pp. 558-572
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16
Video/DVD:
Nova:
The Seedy Side of Plants
The Super Seeds
Teacher Notes:
Instructional Strategies (by organism group)
1. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating Contractile Vacuoles” pp. 256258
2. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating the Diversity of Protists” pp. 161-164
3. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Can Digestion Be Observed in Protozoa?”
pp. 117-120
1. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Worms and Mollusks”
Annelid
(Earthworm labeling diagram) p. 260
Worms
2. PH Teaching Resources “Worms and Mollusks” (Graphic Organizer –
Concept Map – Types of Worms) p. 344
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Does Temperature Affect Mealworm
Insects
Metamorphosis?” pp. 179-180
2. PH Teaching Resources “Arthropods and Echinoderms” (Arthropod
Compare and Contrast Table) p. 358
3. PH Lab Manual A “Investigation Insect Metamorphosis” pp. 207-210
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Arthropod Anatomy and Physiology – Grasshopper
labeling) p. 269
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Insect Body Sections – labeling) p. 273
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis Diagrams –
labeling) p. 274
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 28.2 “Comparing Patterns of
Metamorphosis” p. 754
Amphibians 1. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating Homeostasis in Fishes and
Amphibians” pp. 384-386
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate Chordates,
Fishes, and Amphibians” (Good reading summary information) pp. 292
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate Chordates,
Fishes, and Amphibians” (Amphibian Land Adaptation Chart) p. 297
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate Chordates,
Fishes, and Amphibians” (Fish and Amphibian Circulation Chart) p. 299
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate Chordates,
Fishes, and Amphibians” (Frog Life Cycle) p. 300
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B (Frog Digestive System –
diagram) p. 298
7. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating Frog Anatomy” pp. 217-223
8. Glencoe Lab Manual “Frog Dissection” pp. 189-194
Mammals 1. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Mammal Characteristics” Foldable p. 841
2. PH Teaching Resources “Mammals” (Monotreme, Marsupial, Placental
Mammal Concept Map) p. 407
3. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Does Insulation Affect Body Temperature?”
pp. 205-208
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Mammals” (Good reading
Protists
Plants
Summary
of all of the
organisms
summary information) pp. 312-314
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Mammals” (Diagram of
Mammalian Heart – flow of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood) p. 316
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate Chordates,
Fishes, and Amphibians” (Amphibian Land Adaptation Chart) p. 297
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “Do Dormant and Germinating Seeds Respire?”
pp. 155-158
2. Glencoe Lab Manual “Comparing Plants” (Can modify lab with other
types of plants) pp. 137-140
3. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating Germination and Seedling
Development” pp. 183-188
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Good reading
summary information) pp. 203-205
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Plant Life Cycle
– Alternation of Generation – labeling) p. 206
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Bryophyte
Structure – diagram) p. 208
7. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Seed Structure –
Chart) p. 210
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Types of Plants –
Chart) p. 211
9. PH Teaching Resources (Graphic Organizer – Reproduction Cycle
Diagram) p. 281
10. PH Teaching Resources “Identifying the Growth Zones in a Plant” pp.
296-298
11. PH Teaching Resources (Seed Dispersal Enrichment
Reading/Questions) p. 306
12. PH Teaching Resources (Reproduction of Seed Plants – Graphic
Organizer – Concept Map) p. 307
13. PH Teaching Resources (Plant Responses and Adaptations – Hormones
– Graphic Organizer) p. 319
14. PH Teaching Resources “Using Hormones to Control Plant
Development” pp. 320-322
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “Comparing Characteristics of Organisms” pp.
105-108
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing Invertebrates”
(Good reading summary information) pp. 278-288
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B Chordate and Vertebrate
pp. 290, 292, 298, 300, 312-314, 318.
Websites – http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/index.html
good source Features a large number of pictures and even a large number of sounds of various
organisms
for teachers
http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/control.html
This is a link to Colorado State's Endocrinology Hypertextbook - has a nice animation and
discussion of feedback loops.
http://www.aa.psu.edu/biology/frog/
Penn State virtual frog dissection
http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/BioG101_104/tutorials/animals/animals2.html
Review of animal anatomy (and physiology) – contains more organisms than needed but is
interactive.
Instructional Strategies (by system)
Transport
Excretion
Regulation
Respiration
Nutrition
Synthesis
Reproduction
1. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate
Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians” (Fish and Amphibian Circulation
Chart) p. 299
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Mammals” (Diagram
of Mammalian Heart – flow of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood) p.
316
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Invertebrate Circulatory System – label, coloring
diagram) p. 286
1. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating Contractile Vacuoles” pp.
256-258
2. PH Teaching Resources “Investigating Homeostasis in Fishes and
Amphibians” pp. 384-386
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Invertebrate Excretory System – label, coloring
diagram) p. 287
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Does Insulation Affect Body
Temperature?” pp. 205-208
2. PH Teaching Resources (Plant Responses and Adaptations –
Hormones – Graphic Organizer) p. 319
3. PH Teaching Resources “Using Hormones to Control Plant
Development” pp. 320-322
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Invertebrate Nervous System – label, coloring diagram)
p. 288
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “Do Dormant and Germinating Seeds
Respire?” pp. 155-158
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Invertebrate Respiratory System – label, coloring
diagram) p. 285
1. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating the Diversity of Protists” pp. 161164
2. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Can Digestion Be Observed in
Protozoa?” pp. 117-120
3. PH Teaching Resources “Worms and Mollusks” (Graphic Organizer
– Concept Map – Types of Worms) p. 344
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Invertebrate Digestive System – label, coloring
diagram) p. 284
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B (Frog Digestive System
– diagram) p. 298
1. PH Teaching Resources “Mammals” (Monotreme, Marsupial,
Placental Mammal Concept Map) p. 407
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Seed
Growth and
Development
Multiple
Systems
Structure – Chart) p. 210
3. PH Teaching Resources (Graphic Organizer – Reproduction Cycle
Diagram) p. 281
4. PH Teaching Resources (Seed Dispersal Enrichment
Reading/Questions) p. 306
5. PH Teaching Resources (Reproduction of Seed Plants – Graphic
Organizer – Concept Map) p. 307
1. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Does Temperature Affect Mealworm
Metamorphosis?” pp. 179-180
2. PH Lab Manual A “Investigation Insect Metamorphosis” pp. 207210
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis Diagrams –
labeling) p. 274
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 28.2 “Comparing Patterns of
Metamorphosis” p. 754
5. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate
Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians” (Frog Life Cycle) p. 300
6. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating Germination and Seedling
Development” pp. 183-188
7. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Plant Life
Cycle – Alternation of Generation – labeling) p. 206
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Bryophyte
Structure – diagram) p. 208
9. PH Teaching Resources “Identifying the Growth Zones in a Plant” p.
296-298
10. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Coelom Evolution – diagram) p. 283
1. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Worms and Mollusks”
(Earthworm labeling diagram) p. 260
2. PH Teaching Resources “Arthropods and Echinoderms” (Arthropod
Compare and Contrast Table) p. 358
3. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Arthropod Anatomy and Physiology – Grasshopper
labeling) p. 269
4. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Arthropods and
Echinoderms” (Insect Body Sections – labeling) p. 273
5. PH Lab Manual A “Investigating Frog Anatomy” pp. 217-223
6. Glencoe Lab Manual “ Frog Dissection” pp. 189-194
7. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate
Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians” (Good reading summary
information) pp. 292
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Nonvertebrate
Chordates, Fishes, and Amphibians” (Amphibian Land Adaptation
Chart) p. 297
9. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Mammal Characteristics” Foldable p.
841
10. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Mammals” (Good
reading summary information) pp. 312-314
11. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “ Mammals”
(Diversity of Mammals: Monotremes, Marsupials, Placentals – table) p.
318
12. Glencoe Lab Manual “Comparing Plants” (Can modify lab with
other types of plants) pp. 137-140
13. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Good
reading summary information) pp. 203-205
14. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Plants” (Types of
Plants – Chart) p. 211
15. Glencoe Lab Manual “Comparing Characteristics of Organisms”
pp. 105-108
16. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Good reading summary information) pp. 278-280
17. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing
Invertebrates” (Chart) p. 282
Curriculum Guide
Course: ______Biology_________
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
I
R/A R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of
life.
Objective: 4.03 Assess, describe and explain adaptations affecting survival
and reproductive success.
a. Structural adaptations in plants and animals (form to function).
b. Disease-causing viruses and microorganisms.
c. Co-evolution.
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
•
•
•
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 2
Traditional: 5
Identify (using organisms listed in 4.02)
• Feeding adaptations.
• Adaptations to ensure successful reproduction.
• Adaptations to life on land.
.
Identify
• The basic structure of viruses.
• Mutation of viruses and other microorganisms.
Identify disease causing (pathogenic) agents (viruses, bacteria)
including:
• HIV.
• Influenza.
• Smallpox.
• Streptococcus (strep throat).
•
Identify relationship between angiosperms and their pollinators.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of microbes and pathogens.
The learner will have a clear understanding of animal and plant structure and function.
Essential Vocabulary:
virus
pathogen
strep throat
HIV(AIDS)
influenza
adaptation
pollinator
smallpox
angiosperm
pollination
coevolution
gymnosperm
Instructional Strategies:
Complete a lab that looks at adaptations of organisms.
1. PH Biology Textbook “ Modeling Coevolution” Exploration Lab p. 441
2. PH Biology Textbook Quicklab “What are the Functions of a Paramecium’s Gullet and Food Vacuole?” p. 504
3. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Biolab - How Do Earthworms Respond to their Environment?” p. 734
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology Mini Lab 30.2 “Frog and Tadpole Adaptations” p. 806
Use foldables or graphic organizers to compare adaptations.
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology Foldable “Arthropod Differences” (may be adapted for insects) p. 741
6. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “ Plant Adaptations” Graphic Organizer p. 242
Activating strategy for viruses- this activity will give students an overview of characteristics of viruses.
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving Lab “What Type of Virus Causes Disease” p. 480
Use graphics to then review, viral structure, and the lytic and lysogenic cycles.
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “What Makes Up a Virus” pp. 179-181
9. Complete a lab to simulate how viruses can spread quickly through a population. An example activity can be found
at this website. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/nttidb/lessons/kc/gavekc.html
Graphic organizers10. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B Graphic Organizer “Types of Plants “ (Compares bryophytes, ferns,
gymnosperms and angiosperms) p. 211
11. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Comparing Invertebrates” Graphic Organizer p. 282
12. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Amphibians” Graphic Organizer p. 297
13. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Flower Structure/Parts of a Flower/Angiosperm Life Cycle”
(Student handouts) pp. 229-230
14. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIFCoevolution.shtml Follow link with Case Study for interesting
information about coevolution.
Writing:
15. Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above
16. Assign students a certain virus and have them complete a multi-flow map to illustrate the following essential
question: What causes (virus name) to survive and make people, animals and plants sick?
17. Write an essay using the following prompt: As a scientist who wishes to make people aware of the dangers of
using too many antibacterial products (soap, lotion, spray, gel etc.) write a spot to air on prime time TV in which
you discuss the positive and negative effects of bacteria. * Use the North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to
score student’s essays.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. A plant in the desert would probably be expected to have
a. a large leaf
b. a thin stem
c. a non-waxy covering
d. an extensive root system
2. Plants over time have evolved toxins in response to insect attacks. This is an example of
a. coevolution
b. reproductive isolation
c. mutualism
d. natural selection
3. Using a chart, compare a virus to a bacterium. Give three examples of each.
Answer:
Viruses
Disrupt body’s equilibrium-cannot use antibiotic
Contain DNA or RNA surrounded by protein
Have a lytic cycle-require a host to replicate
Ex: HIV, chickenpox, influenza
The list may vary.
Bacteria
can use antibiotic
cell wall with DNA-prokaryotes
break down cells for food
Replicate by binary fission
strep throat, tetanus, E. coli
Recommended Resources:
PH Biology
Viruses pp. 478-490
Protists pp. 496-506
Insects pp. 726-733
Annelids pp. 694-699
Amphibians pp. 782-789
Mammals pp. 821-826
Coevolution pp. 437
Plants pp. 569-570, pp. 579-600, pp. 608-616, pp. 643-646
Glencoe Biology
Viruses pp. 475- 482
Protists pp.503-506
Insects 751-756
Annelids pp. 728- 735
Amphibians pp. 803-809
Mammals pp. 841-852
Plants pp. 558-572
Pollination pp.649-652
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual
pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A
pp. T8-T16
Video/DVD:
United Streaming:
Elements of Biology:Biomes:The Adaptations of Organisms (excellent short clips on adaptations that would be needed
in various biomes)
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace
Cell Wars
Unseen Life on Earth Program 7: Microbial Diversity
Unseen Life on Earth Program 12: Microbes and Human Diseases
Unseen Life on Earth Program 1: The Microbial Universe
Nova:
Ebola: The Plague Fighters
The Brain Eater
Secrets of the Dead IV: Killer Flu
Influenza 1918: The Worst Epidemic in American History
Epidemic Set:
Ebola
AIDS
Bird Flu
Typhoid
Discovery Channel:
Parasites: Eating Us Alive
Interactive CD-ROM:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbial Menace
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio,
I R/A R/A
Environmental
Course:
Biology
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of
life.
Objective: 4.04 Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and
external factors in health and disease:
a. Genetics.
b. Immune response.
c. Nutrition.
d. Parasites.
e. Toxins.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 3
Traditional: 7
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Summarize the role of genetics and environment in the following
diseases:
-Sickle cell anemia and malaria.
-Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use.
-Skin cancer, vitamin D, folic acid and sun exposure.
-Diabetes (diet/exercise and genetic interaction).
-PKU and diet.
Define roles and relationships between T-cells, B-cells, antibodies,
antigens, memory cells, killer cells.
Compare active and passive immunity.
Define and give examples of vaccines.
Summarize aspects of good nutrition that lead to optimal health versus
poor nutrition that leads to obesity, malnutrition, and specific
deficiencies.
Using Malaria as an example, describe a parasitic infection including
vector, symptoms, and treatments.
Describe the effects of environmental toxins such as lead and
mercury.
SICKLE CELL, PKU, AND DIET PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 WERE
EMBEDDED EARLIER IN 3.03.
PROTIST PARASITE PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 WAS EMBEDDED
EARLIER IN 4.02.
LEAD AND MERCURY PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 WILL BE
EMBEDDED IN 5.03.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a clear understanding of genetics and genetic mutations.
The learner will have a clear understanding of bacterial and viral diseases.
Essential Vocabulary:
sickle cell anemia, malaria, diabetes, phenylketonuria, toxins, antigen, antibody, lymphocytes, T-cells, B-cells,
memory cells, killer T-cells, pathogen, phagocytosis, macrophages, passive immunity, active immunity, vaccines,
vector
Instructional Strategies:
1. Essential Questions have been written for Goal 4.04. Ideas for using these essential questions:
ƒ Divide questions between student groups, research, complete questions, and present on posters.
ƒ Museum walk of poster presentations.
ƒ Have students create a Power Point slide for their assigned questions.
ƒ Divide in groups, have students research, and jigsaw to share answers.
ƒ Have students answer the essential questions in paragraph form.
Use a webquest to learn about malaria.
2. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Real World Biochallenge” p. 527 Students research malaria & methods of prevention
Complete a lab to simulate the links between sickle cell and malaria.
3. Glencoe Lab Manual “Allelic Frequencies and Sickle-Cell Anemia” pp. 97-100
Activating strategy to lead into the immune system-Complete a webquest to study emerging and re-emerging diseases.
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Biolab - Information on Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases” p. 1042
Complete a graphic organizer for the immune system.
5. PH Teaching Resources Graphic Organizer “The Immune System and Disease” p. 510
6. Give students a scenario of a disease caused by a microorganism and have them create a storyboard of what will
happen in the body. Use different scenarios to include, what if they have been vaccinated, what if they have had the
disease before, what if this is a first exposure?
Questions to consider-What cells/body systems will be attacked? What role will the immune system play in
fighting of the disease?
Students can debate the pros and cons of vaccinations.
7. PH Textbook “Should Mass Vaccinations be Required?” p.484
8. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem-Solving Lab “Get a Shot or Get the Disease” p. 1040
Then students could be required to write about the positive and negative effects of vaccinations.
*Use North Carolina Writing Assessment rubric to score student’s writing.
9. SAS in Schools InterActivity (found under Human Body) “Disease Dynamics”
Nutrition Activities.
10. Glencoe Lab Manual “How Much Vitamin C Are You Getting” pp.227-230
11. Have students investigate and prepare a report of a vitamin deficiency, such as scurvy, beriberi, rickets, night
blindness, polyneuritis, or pellagra.
12. Glencoe Textbook Biology “MiniLab 35.1 Evaluate a Bowl of Soup” p. 927
13. PH Textbook Biology Analyzing Data “Cancer Mortality” p. 1053
Writing:
Students will define essential vocabulary using a three part definition (term, classification, distinguishing
characteristics- i.e. A cell is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates it from its
surroundings.) Students could be required to write all vocabulary in this format or could be required to do selected
terms on quizzes and tests. Students could be required to color code definitions by writing or underlining with
markers, colored pencils or highlighters in three different colors as illustrated above
13. Students could each be assigned a different disease or condition and then either complete a multi-flow map or
write about the causes and effects of the disease or condition. Then students could share with the rest of the class.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. An inherited metabolic disorder known as phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by severe mental retardation. A
person with this disorder would be advised to reduce intake of which of the following compounds?
a. sugars
b. fats
c. proteins
d. carbohydrates
2. Which of the following engulfs foreign cells?
a.. T cell
b B cell
c. antibody
d. macrophage
3. A substance that triggers an immune response is a(an)
a. antibody
b. antigen
c. B cell
d. T cell
4. Use the table below to answer the following question.
Percentage of Daily Value (DV)
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fat
Saturated Fats
Total Calories
60%
10%
30%
10%
2000
Calculate how many carbohydrates a person should be getting if he or she were consuming 2800 Calories of food
energy per day.
a. 1000 Cal
b. 1550 Cal
c. 1680 Cal
d. 2000 Cal
5. List two types of cancer that you may be preventable with a healthy lifestyle. Explain your answers.
Answer: colon, lung
6. Name three things you can do to maintain good health.
Answer: Exercise, not eat fast food or overeat, drink water.
7. Explain why individuals who are heterozygous for sickle cell disease have a genetic advantage over individuals
in tropical regions in the world who are not heterozygous for the disease.
Answer: Those who are heterozygous for the trait have blood cells in which the Plasmodium cannot
reproduce.
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology
pp. Sickle Cell/Malaria 347-348,
Malaria- 503-504
Immune System-1036-1047
Environment & Health-1049- 1054
Diabetes-1007-1008
Glencoe Textbook Biology
pp. Nutrition -924-926
Skin Cancer- 212-213, 216
Malaria- 508
Diabetes-987
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Conquering Cancer
Unseen Life on Earth Program 11: Human Defenses
Nova:
Parasites: Eating Us Alive
Interactive CD-ROM:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Virtual Immunology Lab
The Virtual Lab Series
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I
Course: __Biology___
Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio
R/A
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of
life.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 4.05 Analyze the broad patterns of animal behavior as adaptations
to the environment.
a. Innate behavior.
b. Learned behavior.
c. Social behavior.
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 3
Traditional: 4
Differentiate the types of innate behaviors of taxes and instincts, including:
• Suckling (instinct).
• Insects moving away from or toward light (taxis).
• Migration, estivation, hibernation.
Summarize and give examples of the various types of learned behavior
including:
• Habituation.
• Imprinting.
• Classical conditioning (eg. Pavlov’s dog –stimulus association).
• Trial and error (focus on concept of trial and error learning not term
operant conditioning).
Describe and give examples of communication, territorial defense, and
courtship, including:
• Communication within social structure using pheromones (ex: bees
and ants).
• Courtship dances.
• Territorial defense (ex: Fighting Fish).
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a basic understanding of animal behavior.
The learner will have a clear understanding of how adaptations give an organism a survival advantage.
The learner will have a clear understanding of stimulus and response.
Essential Vocabulary:
innate behavior, learned behavior, social behavior, suckling, instinct, taxis, migration, estivation, hibernation,
habituation, imprinting, classical conditioning, trial and error, communication, pheromones, courtship rituals,
territorial defense
Instructional Strategies:
Activating strategy-use puzzles to investigate how a student learns.
1. PH Textbook Biology “What Kind of Learning is Practice?” p. 875
Create a foldable as students discuss or read about learned behavior.
2. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Learned Behavior” (Foldable) p. 868
Complete a behavior inquiry.
3. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Termite Behavior” pp. 237-243
4. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab 33.1 “Testing an Isopod’s Response to Light” p. 860
5. PH Textbook Biology “Design an Experiment – Observing Behavior in Fish” p. 883
Have students use graphs and analyze the data to understand behavior.
6. PH Textbook Biology “Analyzing Data – Caring For Eggs” p. 879
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Problem Solving Lab – Is Hibernation an Innate or Learned Behavior” p. 867
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B “Animal Behavior” (Several animal behavior concepts addressed and
illustrated) pp. 333-340
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. A student set up an experiment to test the effect of light on earthworms. During the experiment, the student
noticed the earthworms consistently moving away from light. What is the most probable explanation for this
observation?
a. imprinting
b. taxis
c. trial and error
d. migration
2. Bees and ants often communicate using
a. pheromones
b. verbal language
c. imprinting
d. hormones
3. Each year, several species of birds travel from their winter home in one location to their nesting area in a
different location. What is this behavior called?
a. courtship
b. competition
c. imprinting
d. migration
Matching: Each of the lettered choices below refers to the following numbered statements. Select the best lettered
choice. A choice can only be used once.
a. imprinting
b. trial and error learning
c. habituation
4. A mouse learns to press a button to get food. (b)
5. Ducklings follow their mother everywhere she goes. (a)
6. A robin stops responding to a repeated warning call when it is not followed by an attack. (c)
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology
pp. 870-887
Glencoe Textbook Biology
pp. 858-879
Video/DVD:
Nova:
Bees – Tales From the Hive
Jane Goodall’s Wild Chimpanzees
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A pp. T8-T16.
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
I
Course: Biology
Biology
R/A
Other:
AP/IB Bio,
Environmental
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships
among organisms.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 5.01 Investigate and analyze the interrelationships among
organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems
a. Techniques of field ecology.
b. Abiotic and biotic factors.
c. Carrying capacity.
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 5
Traditional: 10
•
Identify and give examples of symbiotic relationships
ƒ Mutualism.
ƒ Commensalism.
ƒ Parasitism.
ƒ
Use and interpret field ecology data to analyze species diversity and
recognize changes over time.
ƒ
Differentiate between primary and secondary succession.
ƒ
Identify abiotic and biotic factors and determine how these factors are
related to one another and their importance in ecosystems.
ƒ
Given limiting factors, explain how they influence carrying capacity
(e.g. food availability, competition, harsh winter.
ƒ
Interpret population growth graphs.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a clear understanding of the Kingdoms of living organisms.
The learner will have a clear understanding of how to use a dichotomous key.
Essential Vocabulary:
mututalism, commensalism, parasitism, symbiosis, prey, predator, sampling, quadrant, pioneer species, climax
community, biotic, abiotic, limiting factors, carrying capacity, J Curves and S Curves, competition
Instructional Strategies:
Students will need to do a Field Study.
1. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Techniques of Field Ecology” p. 248-256
2. PH Textbook Biology - Appendix F- p. 1078
3. PH Lab Manual “Sampling a Plant Community” pp. 73-78
Activating strategy to discuss abiotic vs. biotic factors.
4. Use pictures in texts - biome pictures work well; Have students list biotic and abiotic factors found in each
environment, then pick one of those factors and discuss what would happen if that factor was removed from the
biome.) p. 37
Analyze data to understand interactions between abiotic and biotic factors.
5. Glencoe Textbook Biology Problem Solving Lab “Biotic and Abiotic Factors” p. 37.
6. http://www.cvm.umn.edu/raptor/education/lessonplans/ (Several excellent activities for Goal 5.)
Concept maps
7. PH Teaching Resources “Symbiotic Relationships” (Concept Map) p. 48
8. PH Teaching Resources (Concept Map on Populations) p.61
Practice all types of population graphs. Students should be able to interpret data from graphs.
9. PH Teaching Resources “Interpreting Population Growth Graphs” (Use Section Review 5-3) pp. 57-59
10. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html (Have students print population graphs and write a list of 5 questions
about their graph. Exchange graphs with other groups or present graph & questions to class.)
11. PH Textbook Biology J curves and S curves [After introducing J curves (exponential growth) and S curves
(logistic growth), have students complete “Analyzing Data” activity.] p. 123
12. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B Populations (Excellent graphs and tables for studying populations.)
pp. 43-51
Other environmental labs13. PH Teaching Resources Carrying Capacity- Laboratory “Identifying a Limiting Nutrient” pp.36-38
14. Glencoe Lab Manual Lab 2-1 “Physical Factors of Soil” pp. 9-10
15. Glencoe Lab Manual Lab 3-1 “What Organisms Make Up a Micro Community” pp. 11-14
16. Glencoe Lab Manual Lab 4-1 “ How Does the Environment Affect an Eagle Population?” pp. 15-18
17. Glencoe Lab Manual Lab 4-2 “The Lesson of the Kaibab” pp. 19-22
Sample Formative Assessment:
The graph below represents a population of organisms over 30 generations.
1. What is indicated by letter B on the graph?
a. exponential growth
b. carrying capacity
c. population density
d. increasing growth
Growth rate of Paramecium
P.aurelia
P. caudatum
0 3 6 9 12 14 16 18 20
Days
2. Which of the statements (I, II) below give(s) evidence from the graph and which give(s) an explanation for the
data?
I. P. aurelia outcompetes P. caudatum in order to survive
II.. After 5 days, P. aurelia’s growth rate was greater than the growth rate of P. caudatum
a. Both statements give evidence.
b. Both statements give an explanation.
c. Statement 1 gives evidence and statement 2 gives an explanation.
d. Statement 1 gives an explanation and statement 2 gives evidence.
Recommended Resources:
PH Biology
pp. 90-97, 119-132, 1078-1085
Glencoe Biology
pp. 35-45, 67-69, 90-109, 132-137 (good review)
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Unseen Life on Earth Program 10: Microbial Interactions
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual
pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A
pp. T8-T16.
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio,
I R
R/A
Environmental
Course: Biology
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships
among organisms.
Objective: 5.02 Analyze the flow of energy and the cycling of matter in the
ecosystem:
a. Relationship of the carbon cycle to photosynthesis and respiration.
b Trophic levels- direction and efficiency of energy transfer.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 2
Traditional: 4
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
•
Interpret and analyze the carbon cycle as it relates to photosynthesis
and respiration.
•
Examine and describe food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids
for direction and efficiency of energy transfer.
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a clear understanding of photosynthesis and respiration.
The learner will have a basic understanding of energy flow and matter recycling.
The learner has a basic understanding of the laws of thermodynamics.
Essential Vocabulary:
food web, food chain, trophic levels, producers, consumers, decomposers, heterotroph, autotroph, herbivore,
carnivore, omnivore, energy pyramid, carbon, photosynthesis, respiration, energy transfer, biomass, oxygen, heat
Instructional Strategies:
Activating strategy-use a demonstration of blowing into a test tube of bromothymol blue to begin discussion on the
carbon cycle.
1. Glencoe Textbook Biology Minilab “Detecting Carbon Dioxide” p. 54
Activities for interpreting food chains/webs2. http://www.cvm.umn.edu/raptor/education/lessonplans/ (excellent food chain/food web activities)
3. http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains.htm (good lesson on food chain, also allows you to create your own
food chain/webs and print copy)
4.Google Images- “Food Webs” for many excellent images of food webs – have students pick a food web image
& discuss what happens when organisms are removed at various levels of the web.
Create a living food chain in the classroom.
5. PH Textbook Biology “Quick Lab - How is a Food Chain Organized?” p. 70
Use a simulation lab to talk about energy transfer in food chains.
6. NCDPI Biology Support Document “Food Chain and Biological Magnification Activity” pp. 253-254
Use math calculations to explain energy transfer.
7. PH Textbook Biology “Ecological Pyramids” p. 72
8. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B (good interactive charts, diagrams and graphs) pp. 20-22, 24-26, 28
Sample Formative Assessment:
1.If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which
organism would have the least amount of total energy
available?
a. coyote
b. insect
c. lizard
d. shrub
2. Which population would increase most if the insects were
eliminated?
a. decomposers
b. producers
c. primary consumers
d. secondary consumers
7. Consider the processes of photynthesis and
respiration.
Which statement below is accurate?
a. The products for photosynthesis provide the
reactants needed for respiration.
b. The products for both reactions are the same.
c. The reactants for photosynthesis are the same
reactants as respiration
d. There is no relationship between the two.
3. In the carbon cycle, carbon is transferred from animals to plants by which of the following?
a. carbon dioxide
b. oxygen
c. carbohydrates
d. water
4. By what process is CO2 removed from the atmosphere?
a. combustion
b. decomposition
c. respiration
d. photosynthesis
Use the pyramid to answer questions #5 and #6
Third level consumer 0.1%
Second level consumer 1%
First level consumer-10%
Producer
5. What information can obtained?
a. the ratio of producers to consumers
b. the relative amount of energy available at each feeding level
c. the exact number of producers and consumers at each feeding
level
d. what organisms feed on at each level
6. What information about the ecosystem does this pyramid provide?
a. the ratio of carnivores to herbivores
b. the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level
c. the number of individuals at each trophic level
d. what organisms feed on each other at each trophic level
Recommended Resources:
PH Biology- Prentice Hall
pp. 67-77
Glencoe Biology
pp. 46-55
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual
pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A
pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
NC Biotechnology Center:
http://www.ncbiotech.org/services_and_programs/workforce_development/04videoform.pdf
Unseen Life on Earth Program 8: Microbial Ecology
Teacher Notes:
Curriculum Guide
K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Biology Other:
AP/IB Bio,
I R
R/A
Environmental
Course:
Biology
I= Introduced R=Reinforced
A=Assessed
Goal 5: Learner will develop an understanding of the ecological relationships
among organisms.
Tested EOC: yes
Benchmark: 1 2 3 N/A
Objective: 5.03 Assess human population and its impact on local ecosystems
and global environments:
• Historic and potential changes in population.
• Factors associated with those changes.
• Climate Change.
• Resource use.
• Sustainable practices/ stewardship.
Pacing Guide:
Block: 1 2
Traditional: 1 2 3 4
Learner Outcome:
With 80% accuracy, the learner will be able to
• Analyze human population growth graphs (historical and potential
changes). (See 5.01)
• Identify factors influencing birth rates and death rates.
• Identify effects of population size, density and resource use on the
environment.
• Identify human impact on local ecosystems including acid rain, habitat
destruction, & introduction of non-native species.
• Recognize how changes in human population affect populations of other
organisms.
• Identify factors that influence climate.
-greenhouse effect (relate to carbon cycle and human impact on
atmospheric CO2).
-natural environmental processes (eg. volcanoes).
• Identify direct and indirect impact of humans on natural resources (eg.
deforestation, pesticide use and bioaccumulation research ).
• Recognize examples of sustainable practices and stewardship.
LEAD AND MERCURY PORTION OF GOAL 4.04 WILL BE
EMBEDDED IN THIS OBJECTIVE.
Teaching Time: (days)
Block: 5
Traditional: 12
Prerequisite skills or understanding:
The learner will have a clear understanding of photosynthesis, respiration, and ecological relationships among
organisms.
Essential Vocabulary:
density-dependent/density-independent factors, biodiversity, greenhouse effect, bioaccumulation (biological
magnification), ozone, acid rain, erosion, desertification, renewable resource, nonrenewable resource
Instructional Strategies:
Begin discussion of human impact by having students complete an inquiry based lab on acid rain. Lab will run over a
course of several days while 5.03 is being completed.
1. PH Teaching Resources “Observing the Effects of Acid Rain” pp. 75-78 Have students write about the effects of
Acid Rain in paragraph form.
Complete a lab to simulate biological magnification and then use the coloring activity to reinforce the concept.
2. PH Adapted Reading and Study Workbook B p. 57 good biological magnification coloring activity
3. NCDPI Biology Support Document p.253-256 (Biological magnification activity and acid rain activity)
4. PH Textbook Biology “Quick Lab – How Does Biological Magnification Occur?” p. 153
Use concept maps to review topics.
5. PH Teaching Resources (Population Limiting Factors – Concept Map) p. 61
6. PH Teaching Resources (Human Impact on Ecosystems – Concept Map) p. 74
7. Glencoe Textbook Biology “Density-Dependent Factors” p. 97
8. Human Impact on Resources- have students write Public Service Announcements , TV advertisements, or Posters
illustrating how humans impact (the effect humans have on natural resources) our natural resources and suggesting
solutions to the problems or students role-play a meeting of conservationists and developers and discuss the need to
preserve natural areas.
Sample Formative Assessment:
1. Which of the following will not be caused by the burning of fossil fuels?
a. smog
b. hole in the ozone
c. greenhouse effect
d. acid rain
Use the diagram below to answer the following question:
Hawk
Owl
Mice
Grasses
2. A chlorinated pesticide is introduced into the food chain. Which organism(s) would accumulate the highest levels
of the pesticide?
a.. grasses
b. mice
c. owl
d. hawk
3. When comparing 2005 population data to the predicted 2025 population data in the above diagrams, what can be
inferred about the predicted population of females at age 85+ in 2025 as compared to females at age 85 + in 2000 in
the United States?
a. the population will decrease
b. the population will increase
c. the population will stay the same
d. the population of females will be lower than the males in 2005 & 2025
Recommended Resources:
PH Textbook Biology
pp.144-165
Glencoe Textbook Biology
pp. 91-103, 110-128
Other instructional supplies:
Laboratory material lists may be found in the following:
Glencoe Lab Manual
pp. T18-T26.
Prentice Hall Lab Manual A
pp. T8-T16.
Video/DVD:
Nova:
Endangered Planet
Global Warming: The Signs of Science
World in Balance
Global Warming – What’s Up With the Weather?
National Geographic:
An Inconvenient Truth
Teacher Notes: