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THE NOUN Definition: The noun is the part of speech that is used to name or identify a person , place , thing , quality or action. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE NOUN According to their morphological structure nouns fall into three groups: simple nouns, derivative nouns and compound nouns. 1. Simple nouns consist of only the root which very often coincides with the word; the usual or most favoured phonetic shape is one single stressed syllable: bus, bear, land, glass, wife, etc. Simple nouns are undecomposable, having neither suffixes nor prefixes. 2. Derivative nouns have affixes (prefixes or suffixes or both): worker, kindness, brotherhood, misdemeanour, ingratitude, etc. The suffixes are: -er: worker, writer, builder, joiner; -ness: tenderness, redness, madness; -ist: novelist, dramatist, columnist; -ism: heroism, capitalism, nationalism; -ess: actress, waitress, hostess. -hood: childhood, manhood; -ance: importance, arrogance; -dom: kingdom, freedom; -ence: reference, dependence; -ship: friendship, relationship; 3. Compound nouns are the words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms (sunbeam, snowball, film-star, searchlight, readinghall, dining-room, blackmail, make-up) . GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF THE NOUN 1. The Category of Number The English number system comprises singular, which denotes one thing, person, idea, etc., and plural, which denotes more than one thing, person, idea, etc Variable (Countable) Nouns Regular Plural English countable nouns have two forms, singular and plural. The vast majority of nouns occur with either singular or plural number, and normally have a plural form which is built up by means of the inflection, or ending, -s: room — rooms, motel — motels, jeep — jeeps, or -es: ax — axes, bench — benches. This is the regular plural. Some plural forms create significant spelling difficulties. 1. When a noun ends in the letter -y preceded by a consonant letter, -y is changed into -i and -es is added: country — countries, fly — flies, enemy — enemies, cry — cries. Proper names retain -y in the plural form: Mary — Marys, Kennedy — the Kennedys. If the final -y is preceded by a vowel it remains unchanged and only -s is added: day — days, key — keys. 2. When a noun ends in -s, -ss, -ch and -x, the inflection -es is added: bus — buses, class — classes, bush — bushes, bench — benches, watch — watches, box — boxes. 3. -es is also added to nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant: echo — echoes, potato — potatoes, hero — heroes, Negro — Negroes, tomato — tomatoes, torpedo — torpedoes, veto — vetoes. Piano, photo, solo, kilo have plurals in -s: pianos, photos, solos, kilos. With some nouns plurals ending in -os and -oes are equally possible: cargo — cargos / cargoes. It also applies to archipelago, banjo, buffalo, commando, tornado, volcano. When the final -o is preceded by a vowel, only -s is added: cuckoo— cuckoos, radio — radios. 4. The following nouns ending in the voiceless fricative [f] have voiced plurals spelt -ves: calf, elf, half, knife, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf, e. g. half — halves θ Irregular Plural A number of nouns form their plural by means of vowel mutation: foot — feet, goose — geese, tooth — teeth, man — men, woman — women, louse — lice, mouse — mice. The plural ending -men occurs in words like: fireman — firemen, gentleman — gentlemen, Englishman — Englishmen. The plural is regular in: Germans, Romans, etc. and personal names like the Bowmans, the Freemans. The -en plural occurs in three nouns: ox — oxen, child — children (with vowel change [`ta_ld] — [`t_ldrn]), brother — brethren (not blood relations but fellow members of a religious society). Zero Plural Some nouns have identical forms for both singular and plural. Thus, there is no separate plural form for nouns denoting certain animals, birds and fish: deer, grouse, mackerel, plaice, salmon, sheep, trout. Thus, it is possible to say That is a deer, a sheep, etc. or These are deer, sheep, etc.: This sheep looks small. All these sheep are mine. Both regular and zero plural is used with antelope, reindeer, fish, flounder, herring. The zero plural is more common in contexts of hunting (We caught only a few fish), whereas the regular plural form is used to denote different individuals or species: the fishes of the Mediterranean. The Plural of Compound Nouns Compounds consisting of two or more elements form the plural in various ways. The most usual one is to make the final element plural: bookcase — bookcases, grown-up — grown-ups, stand-by — standbys, boy friend — boy friends. So also: assistant director — assistant directors, fountain pen — fountain pens, breakdown — breakdowns, pullover — pullovers, headache— headaches, take-off — take-offs, forget-me-not — forget-me-nots, etc. In a number of compounds the first element is made plural: passerby — passersby, runner-up — runners-up, court martial — courts martial, notary public — notaries public, man-of-war — men-of-war, mother-in-law — mothers-in-law, but also mother-in-laws informally. When the first component is man or woman, the plural is expressed in both the first and last element: manservant — menservants, woman doctor — women doctors, gentleman farmer — gentlemen farmers, woman driver — women drivers but: lady driver — lady drivers. The first component is always singular in: man-holes, woman-haters, where emphasis is on holes and haters rather than on man and woman. Foreign Plurals Foreign plurals occur in a number of words borrowed from Latin, Greek, French etc., though there is a strong tendency to use the regular -s plural in everyday language and to restrict the foreign plural to scientific contexts. 1. Latin nouns in -us. The foreign plural in -i pronounced as [ai] or [i:] only: stimulus —stimuli (also bacillus, locus, nucleus). Only regular plural (-uses): bonus — bonuses (also campus, chorus, circus, genius, virus, etc.). Both plurals: cactus — cacti / cactuses (also focus, fungus, nucleus, radius, terminus, syllabus). The plural forms of corpus and genus are corpora and genera. 2. Latin nouns in -um. Usually foreign plural in -a, pronounced [ə]: curriculum — curricula (also addendum, bacterium, erratum, stratum). Only regular plural: forum — forums (also stadium, ultimatum). Both plurals, normally regular: aquarium, medium, memorandum, symposium. The plurals media (with reference to press and radio) and strata (with reference to society) are sometimes used informally as singular. The technical singular datum is rather rare while data is used both as a mass noun and as count noun plural: The results of the experiment are still uncertain: there is / are not enough data yet. 3. Latin nouns in -a. Only foreign plural in -ae pronounced as [ai] or [i:]: alumna — alumnae (also alga, larva). Only regular plural form in -s: antenna, formula, nebula, vertebra, dogma. Formulas is being increasingly adopted, with formulae [-i:] reserved for scientific contexts; antennas prevails in general use and electronics with antennae [-i:] in biology. 4. Nouns of Greek origin may also have foreign plurals only: basis — bases, analysis — analyses (also axis, crisis, diagnosis, ellipsis, parenthesis, thesis), phenomenon — phenomena, criterion — criteria or regular plurals: demon — demons, electron — electrons. Informally, criteria and phenomena are sometimes used as singulars. 5. French nouns ending in -eau, pronounced [əu] retain their original plural, e. g. bureau — bureaux, tableau — tableaux (also plateau, portmanteau), beside the commoner -s but the plurals are mainly pronounced as regular [z], irrespective of spelling. Invariable (Uncountable) Nouns Unlike variable nouns occurring with both singular and plural number, invariable nouns are used only in the singular or only in the plural. The singular uncountable nouns, usually referred to as singularia tantum, are modified by much and little and take the finite verb in the singular while the plural uncountable nouns referred to as pluralia tantum take the finite verb in the plural. Singularia tantum Singular invariable nouns occur in the singular only. Here belong non-count nouns, concrete (gold, furniture, iron, bread, cheese, grass, oil, wine, tea, coffee, etc.) and abstract (advice, behaviour, education, homework, information, generosity, luggage, knowledge, importance, permission, progress, scenery, weather, traffic, etc.). Special attention should be paid to invariable nouns ending in –s used as singular only with a singular verb. 1. The noun news: This is very good news. Bad news travels fast. No news is good news. 2. Names of some diseases and abnormal states of body and mind: measles, German measles, mumps, rickets, shingles, creeps (some speakers also accept a plural verb, however): Measles is a catching disease while rickets is not. 3. Names of sciences and subject names in -ics: classics, linguistics, mathematics, phonetics, etc. usually take a singular verb: Ethics is a science of moral principles and rules of conduct. 4. Names of some games: billiards, bowls (esp. BrE), darts, dominoes, draughts (BrE), checkers (AmE), fives, ninepins: 25 In England bowls is played on flat greens or on sloping (crown) greens. Darts is a traditional English game which presumably developed from archery. 5. Some proper nouns: Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flander ,Marseilles, Naples, Wales; the United Nations and the United States have a singular verb when considered as units: The United States has immense mineral wealth. Pluralia Tantum A number of nouns in English occur in the plural only. To this group belong the following nouns. 1. Nouns denoting articles of dress, tools and instruments consisting of two equal parts: trousers, pants, breeches, trunks, pyjamas (BrE), pajamas (AmE), drawers, braces, suspenders, tights, knickers; scissors, spectacles, glasses, tongs, pincers, binoculars, tweezers, pliers, shears, etc. These trousers are too long for me, give me another pair, please. Is there a decent pair of scissors in this house? — Take these, they are quite sharp. 2. Miscellaneous nouns ending in -s used only with a plural verb, not with a numeral. In some cases, however, there are also forms without -s with different meaning and use: amends (make every / all possible amends), annals, archives, arms (= weapons, as in arms depot), arrears, ashes (= human remains, but tobacco ash), auspices, banns (of marriage), belongings, bowels, clothes (cf. cloths, plural of cloth), congratulations, credentials, contents (but the silver content of the coin), customs (customs duty), dregs (coffee dregs), earnings, goods (a goods train), lodgings, looks (= appearance), manners (= behaviour), odds (in betting), outskirts, premises (= buildings), quarlaria 26 ters (= lodgings), remains, savings, shortcomings, surroundings, thanks, valuables. 3. The Category of Case The category of case expresses relations between objects and phenomena denoted by nouns in a sentence. The widely accepted view is that English nouns have two cases. The category of case is expressed by the opposition between the form in -’s, usually called the possessive (genitive) case and the unmarked form of the noun, usually called the common case. The genitive case is formed by means of the inflection -’s which is added to singular nouns and to irregular plural nouns. Gender English makes very few gender distinctions. Gender applies only to certain gendersensitive pronouns, where the categories of masculine / feminine and personal / non-personal can apply. Since nouns have no grammatical gender, the choice of pronoun substitutes he, she and it is based on natural distinctions of meaning. The choice between he or she, for example, is almost entirely determined by sex. Thus, he refers to a man or a male animal; she — to a woman or a female animal; it — to an inanimate object or an animal which is not regarded as either male or female; the plural pronoun they is not gender specific. 1. Animate personal nouns may refer to males or females. Some of them are morphologically marked for gender: actor — actress, duke— duchess, emperor — empress, god — goddess, host — hostess, prince— princess, waiter — waitress. Steward and stewardess are being replaced by other terms such as flight attendant. -Ess is practically the only gender-forming suffix in Modern English; note also hero — heroine 2. Animate personal nouns may refer to both male or female. Here belong artist, cook, doctor, enemy, fool, foreigner, friend, guest, musician, neighbour, parent, person, servant, student, teacher, writer THE ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word that describes (modifies) a noun (person, place, thing, or idea). Morphological composition Simple adjectives are kind, new, fresh Derived adjectives are recognizable morphologically. They consist of one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes - suffixes or prefixes. There are the following adjective-forming suffixes: -able -al -ary -ed -en -que -fold -ful -ic -id -ish understandable musical, governmental documentary beaded, barbed wooden, silken, shrunken picturesque twofold, manifold careful, sinful pessimistic, atomic torpid, morbid feverish, bluish -ive -less -like -ly -most -ory -ous -some -y effective, distinctive careless, spotless manlike, warlike kindly, weekly, homely uttermost observatory glorious lonesome, troublesome handy, messy Some adjectives are former participles and therefore retain participial suffixes: charming, interesting, cunning, daring. Compound adjectives consist of at least two stems. They may be of several patterns: a) consisting of a noun + an adjective: colour-blind, grass-green; b) consisting of an adjective + an adjective: deaf-mute; c) consisting of an adverb + a participle: well-known, newly-repaired, much-praised; d) Consisting of a noun/pronoun + a verbal: all-seeing, heart-breaking, high-born, high-flown, man-made; e) consisting of an adjective/adverb + a noun + the suffix -ed: blue-eyed, long-legged, fair-haired, down-hearted. Morphological characteristics There are three grades of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. The superlative is generally used with the definite article. Ways of formation may be synthetic, analytic, and suppletive (irregular). The synthetic way is by adding the inflection -er, -est, as fine -finer - finest. This means is found with monosyllabic and some disyllabic adjectives in which the stress falls on the last syllable: 1) full - fuller - fullest polite - politer profoun - profounder d - completer - politest - profoundest - completest complet e 2) in which the second syllable is the syllabic : able noble - abler - nobler - ablest - noblest 3) with adjectives in -er, -y, -some, -ow:, tender happy handsom e narrow - tenderer - happier handsome r - narrower - tenderest - happiest - handsomest - narrowest Synthetic inflection, however, is often found in other disyllabic adjectives: You are the horridest man I have ever seen. Polysyllabic adjectives form their degrees of comparison analytically, by means of more and most: difficult - more difficult - most difficult curious - more curious - most curious Several adjectives form their degrees of comparison by means of (suppletive forms) irregularly: good/well bad little many - better - worse - less - more - best - worst - least - most far farther - farthest (with reference to distance) further - furthest (with reference to distance, abstract notions and in figurative use) old older - oldest (with reference to age) elder - eldest (with reference to the sequence of brothers and sisters) Adjectival compounds can be inflected in two ways, either the first element is inflected (if it is an adjective or adverb), or comparison is with more and most, for example: well-known dull-witted kindhearted - better-known - best-known - more dull- - most dull-witted witted - most kind-hearted - more kindhearted The following adjectives generally do not form degrees of comparison: 1. Limiting qualitative adjectives which single out or determine the type of things or persons, such as: previous, middle, left, childless, medical, dead, etc. 2. Relative adjectives (which are also limiting in their meaning) such as: woollen, wooden, flaxen, earthen, ashen. 3. Adjectives with comparative and superlative meaning (the so-called gradables) which are of Latin origin: former, inner, upper, junior, senior, prior, superior, etc. (originally with comparative meaning), and minimal, optimal, proximal, etc. (originally with superlative meaning). With most of them the comparative meaning has been lost and they are used as positive forms (the inner wall, the upper lip, superior quality, minimal losses). However, some comparatives borrowed from Latin (major, minor, exterior, interior, junior, senior) may form their own comparatives with a change of meaning. 1. Adjectives already denoting some gradation of quality, such as darkish, greenish, etc. ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Sometimes we use more than one adjective in front of a noun: He was a nice intelligent young man. She had a small round black wooden box. Opinion adjectives: Some adjectives give a general opinion. We can use these adjectives to describe almost any noun: good bad lovely strange beautiful nice brilliant excellent awful important wonderful nasty Some adjectives give a specific opinion. We only use these adjectives to describe particular kinds of noun: Food: tasty; delicious Furniture, buildings: comfortable; uncomfortable People, animals: clever; intelligent; friendly We usually put a general opinion in front of a specific opinion: Nice tasty soup. A nasty uncomfortable armchair A lovely intelligent animal Usually we put an adjective that gives an opinion in front of an adjective that is descriptive: a nice red dress; a silly old man; those horrible yellow curtains We often have two adjectives in front of a noun: a handsome young man; a big black car; that horrible big dog Sometimes we have three adjectives, but this is unusual: a nice handsome young man; a big black American car; that horrible big fierce dog It is very unusual to have more than three adjectives. Adjectives usually come in this order: 1 2 3 4 5 General Specific Size opinion opinion Shape Age 6 7 Colour Nationality Material We use some adjectives only after a link verb: afraid alive alone asleep content ready glad ill 8 sorry sure unable well Some of the commonest -ed adjectives are normally used only after a link verb: annoyed; finished; bored; pleased; thrilled We say: Our teacher was ill. My uncle was very glad when he heard the news. The policeman seemed to be very annoyed but we do not say: We had an ill teacher. When he heard the news he was a very glad uncle He seemed to be a very annoyed policeman A few adjectives are used only in front of a noun: north northern countless eventful south southern occasional indoor east eastern lone outdoor west western We say: He lives in There were countless problems with the new machinery. but we do not say: The district he lives in The problems with the new machinery were countless. the eastern district. TYPES OF COMPARISONS Конструкция Пример as… as - такой же… как и His hands were as cold as ice not so/as … as - не так(ой) … It is not so/as cold as it was как yesterday. such a/ so… as - такой же… It is not such an interesting как и book as his last one. twice/ three times/ half etc. Their house is twice as big as as…as - в два/ три раза и т.д./ ours. наполовину такой же… как и the same as - такой же, как Your jacket is the same as the one I bought last month look, sound, smell, taste + She looks like an angel. like - выглядеть, звучать, пахнуть, иметь вкус чего-л… less …than - менее… чем The green sofa is less expensive than the black one, the least… of/in - but the blue one is the least наименее….из чего-либо expensive of all. the + сравнительная The sooner you'll start, the степень - чем…., тем…. sooner you'll finish. сравнительная степень + Life is getting harder and and +сравнительная harder. степень is eastern prefer doing / сущ. to I prefer watching TV to going doing/сущ. - предпочитать out. что-либо чему-либо would prefer + to + I would prefer to eat in rather инфинитив + rather that than go to a restaurant. + инфинитив скорее делать что-либо, чем чтолибо would rather/ sooner I'd rather look for a new flat +инфинитив + THAN than stay in this house any +инфинитив - лучше бы longer. сделать что-либо, чем чтолибо предложение + whereas / Tom likes living in the country while + предложение - … в whereas his sister likes living то время как …. in the city. THE VERB Most verbs denote action or state. However, there are some verbs which have other meanings. They are modal verbs, causative verbs, some impersonal verbs, relational and link-verbs. They present a system of finite and non-finite forms, except for modal verbs, which have no nonfinite forms. The verb in its finite forms possesses the morphological categories of person, number, tense, aspect, perfect, voice and mood. Its syntactical function is that of the predicate. The non-finite forms (or verbals) are four in number, they are: the infinitive, the gerund, participle I and participle II. Non-finite verb forms possess the verbal categories of perfect, voice and to a certain extent aspect. Owing to the richness of its morphological categories, the flexibility of its syntactical functioning and wide combinability, the verb is of the greatest importance in the structure of the sentence. The morphological categories of the verb are interrelated, that is every verb form expresses all these categories simultaneously. 1.CLASSIFICATIONS OF VERBS Morphological structure According to their morphological composition verbs can be divided into simple, derivative, compound and phrasal. Simple verbs consist of only one root morpheme: to ask, to build, to come. Derivative verbs are composed of one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes and suffixes). The main verbforming suffixes are -ize, -fy, -en, -ate, as in: to criticize, to justify, to blacken, to enumerate. Compound verbs consist of at least two stems: to overgrow, to undertake. Phrasal verbs consist of a verbal stem and an adverbial particle, which is sometimes referred to as postposition. The adverbial meaning is evident in phrasal verbs of the type to come in, to look out, whereas it is quite lost in the verbs to give up, to give in, to bring up. Regular and irregular verbs Owing to the historical development of the verb system the English verbs fall into two groups: regular and irregular verbs. The regular verbs, which go back to the Germanic weak verbs, constitute the largest group. The past indefinite and participle II of these verbs are formed by means of the dental suffix ed added to the stem of the verb. This is the productive pattern according to which all new verbs form their past indefinite and participle II. The irregular verbs form their past indefinite and participle II according tо some fixed traditional patterns going back partly to the Germanic strong verbs, partly to the weak verbs, which underwent some changes in the process of history. The irregular verbs are about 250 in number. Semantic classifications of the verb Semantic classifications of the verb may be undertaken from different standpoints. Grammatically important is the devision of verbs into the following classes: Actional verbs, which denote a c t i o n s p r o p e r (do, make, go, read, etc.) and statal verbs, which denote s t a t e (be, exist, lie, sit, know, etc.) сor r e l a t i o n s ( fit, belong, have, match, cost, etc.). The difference in their categorical meaning affects their morphological paradigm: s t a t a l and r e l a t i o n a l v e r b s have no passive voice (though some have forms coinciding with the passive voice as in The curtains and the carpet were matched). A l s o s t a t a l and r e l a t i o n a l v e r b s generally are not used in the continuous and perfect continuous tenses. Their occasional use in these tenses is always exceptional and results in the change of meaning. From the syntactic standpoint verbs may be subdivided into transivite (переходные) and intransitive (непереходные) ones. Intransitive verbs do not require any object for the completion of their meaning: The sun is rising. Transitive verbs can take a direct object: Jane gave her sister an apple. There are many verbs in English that can function as both transitive and intransitive. Tom is writing a letter. (transitive) Tom writes clearly. (intransitive) Who has broken the cup? (transitive) Glass breaks easily. (intransitive) Jane stood near the piano. (intransitive) Jane stood the vase on the piano. (transitive) Classification based on lexical meaning Fro the point of view of their lexical meaning, the verbs can be terminative and nonterminative. T e r m i n a t i v e v e r b s (предельные глаголы) besides their specific meaning contain the idea that the action must be fulfilled and come to an end, reaching some point where it has logically to stop. These are such verbs as sit down, come, fall, stop, begin, open, close, shut, die, bring, find, etc. N o n - t e r m i n a t i v e , or d u r a t i v e v e r b s (непредельные глаголы) imply that actions or states expressed by these verbs may go on indefinitely without reaching any logically necessary final point. These are such verbs as carry, run, walk, sleep, stand, sit, live, know, suppose, talk, speak, etc. Classification based on lexical meaning According to their meaning and function in the sentence English verbs are classified into notional and structural ones. Notional verbs always have a lexical meaning of their own and can have an independent syntactic function in the sentence. (e.g. During the war he lived in London.) When a verb is used as a structural word, it may either preserve or lose its lexical meaning.. Here belong modal verbs, auxiliary verbs and link-verbs. 2. Categories of the verb The category of person expresses the relation of the action and its doer to the speaker, showing whether the action is performed by the speaker (the 1st person), someone addressed by the speaker (the 2nd person) or someone/something other than the speaker or the person addressed (the 3rd person). The category of number shows whether the action is performed by one or more than one persons or non-persons. For the present indefinite tense of the verb to be there are three contrasting forms: the 1st person singular, the 3rd person singular and the form for all persons plural: (I) am - (he) is - (we, you, they) are. In the past indefinite tense it is only the verb to be that has one of these categories - the category of number, formed by the opposition of the singular and the plural forms: (I, he) was - (we, you, they) were. All the other verbs have the same form for all the persons, both singular and plural. In the future and future in the past tenses there are two opposing forms: the 1st person singular and plural and the other persons: (I, we) shall go - (he, you, they) will go; (I, we) should come (he, you, they) would come. The category of tense in English (as well as in Russian) expresses the relationship between the time of the action and the time of speaking. The time of speaking is designated as present time and is the starting point for the whole scale of time measuring. The time that follows the time of speaking is designated as future time; the time that precedes the time of speaking is designated as past time. Accordingly there are three tenses in English - the present tense, the future tense and the past tense which refer actions to present, future or past time. Besides these three tenses there is one more tense in English, the so-called future in the past. The peculiarity of this tense lies in the fact that the future is looked upon not from the point of view of the moment of speaking (the present) but from the point of view of some moment in the past. Each tense is represented by four verb forms involving such categories as aspect and perfect. Thus there are four present tense forms: the present indefinite, the present continuous, the present perfect, the present perfect continuous; four past tense forms: the past indefinite, the past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous; four future tense forms: the future indefinite, the future continuous, the future perfect and the future perfect continuous; and four future in the past tense forms: the future in the past indefinite, the future in the past continuous, the future in the past perfect, the future in the past perfect continuous. The category of aspect shows the way or manner in which an action is performed, that is whether the action is perfective (совершенное), imperfective (несовершенное), momentary (мгновенное, однократное), iterative (многократное, повторяющееся), inchoative (зачинательное), durative (продолженное, длительное), etc. Some verbs do not usually have the forms of the continuous aspect. They are referred to as statal verbs. The most common of them are the following: 1. Relational verbs have, be and some link verbs: become, remain, appear, seem, sound. However, both to be and to have can be used in the continuous aspect forms where to be has the meaning to act and to have has a meaning other than to possess. She is so foolish! I have three brothers. She is being so foolish (acting foolishly) today I am having dinner (am dining) now. Other verbs having the same meaning of relation are not used in the continuous aspect forms: to apply to to belong to to compare (to) to concern to contain to cost to depend on to deserve to differ from to exist to hold to interest to matter to measure to own to possess to remember to stand for to weigh 2. Verbs expressing sense perception, that is involuntary reactions of the senses: to feel (чувствовать), to hear (слышать), to see (видеть), to smell (чувствовать запах), to taste (чувствовать вкус). However these verbs as well as other statal verbs may be sometimes used in continuous and perfect continuous forms, especially in informal English. 3. Verbs expressing emotional state: to care, to detest, to envy, to fear, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to prefer, to want, to wish. 4. Verbs expressing mental state: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to expect, to find, to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to mind, to notice, to perceive, to remember, to suggest, to suppose, to think, to understand. Note: Care should be taken to distinguish between some of these verbs denoting a mental state proper and the same verbs used in other meanings. In the latter case continuous aspect forms also occur. Compare, for example, the following pairs of sentences: I consider (believe) her to be a very good student. I expected (supposed, thought) you’d agree with me. I feel (suppose) there is something wrong about him. I think (suppose) you’re right. I’m still considering (studying) all the pros and con I could not come for I was expecting (waiting for) a friend at the time. I’m feeling quite cold. I am thinking over (studying) your offer. I am forgetting things more and more now (beginning to forget). She is understanding grammar better now (beginning to understand). Moreover, all the verbs treated in § 12 can occur in the continuous aspect when the ideas they denote are to be emphasized: Don’t shout, I'am hearing you perfectly well! Why are you staring into the darkness? What are you seeing there? Are you still remaining my friend. You see, she’s knowing too much. They don’t know that inside I know what they’re like, and that all the time I’m hating them. The category of Voice indicates the relation of the predicate to the subject and the object of the sentence and shows whether the subject is the doer of the action. Active voice shows that the subject is the doer or performer of the action. It is preferred in writing because it is more forceful and direct than the passive voice. Passive voice shows that the subject is the receiver of the action. The category of Mood. Mood identifies the manner in which a verb expresses an idea. The Three Moods of Verbs are: 1. The indicative mood states a fact or asks a question. 2. The subjunctive mood is used to express: a wish or a condition that is contrary to fact. a command or request after the word that. 3. The imperative mood gives a command or makes a request. Verbs in this mood are always in the present tense and second person.