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Week 2 - Friday
What did we talk about last time?
3D graphics
Most modern 3D video games use
real-time rendering
3D scenes are (somewhat)
realistically rendered on the fly as
characters move throughout the
 Scenes usually contain tens of
thousands of triangles
The quality is much worse than
offline rendering
But it's still pretty good
Transforming, texturing, and lighting tens of
thousands of triangles is too much work for your CPU
 Most computers have special purpose graphics cards
with a powerful processor called a Graphics
Processing Unit (GPU)
 Really great at the kind of math needed for graphics
Because GPUs are so common, Windows Vista, 7, 8
and Mac OS use GPUs to make regular desktop
animations smoother and faster
 Some computer scientists use GPUs to solve other
problems like simulations and DNA sequencing
Texturing is gluing a (usually) 2D image onto a polygon
This is fully supported by GPUs
Large numbers of realistic textures are the reason that
graphics cards need so much memory
3Dfx Interactive was a huge developer in the
field until they went bankrupt in 2002
 Bought by Nvidia
Nvidia is a current manufacturer, famous for
its GeForce gaming line
AMD bought ATI in 2006 and manufactures
the Radeon line of gaming processors
Intel is also a major player in GPUs but
focuses on a budget models
One issue, in both offline and
real-time rendering, is the
uncanny valley:
 We can relate to abstract
representations of human
 We can relate to realistic
depictions of human beings
 But somewhere in the middle,
it's not real enough to be
convincing, but it is real enough
to freak us out
Video games generate more revenue
than Hollywood movies
 In 2015, video games brought in $71 billion
compared to the $38 billion of box office
101.6 million Wiis
13.4 million Wii Us
80 million Xbox 360s
19 million Xbox Ones
80 million PS3s
53.4 million PS4s
PC games are a small part of the pie
One way to get user input is to use a when
key pressed block
You'll notice that this is a starting block (it
doesn't go after other blocks)
You can add different when key pressed
blocks to respond to different keys
Each sprite has its own set of behaviors
But you can create as many sprites as you
If you want several sprites to behave in a
similar way, first make one that does what
you want
Then right-click on the sprite and choose the
duplicate option
Duplicating the sprite will make a copy of the
sprites appearance and scripts
Sprites can't control each other
If you want a sprite to interact with another sprite,
you have to broadcast a message
A message tells anyone who is listening that some
event has happened
 Messages have no contents, they just have names
 You can create as many different named messages as you
A sprite needs a when I receive block to act on a
Make it so that the user can move the Scratch
Cat to the right side of the screen step by
step using the right arrow key
Send a message when the Scratch Cat
reaches the right side of the screen
Make a new sprite that cheers when it gets
the message
Duplicate the sprite so that lots of sprites
cheer when the Cat reaches the right
We will talk about bits and bytes
Read Chapter 1 of Blown to Bits
Keep working on Project 1
Read Chapter 1 of Blown to Bits