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Transcript
Atomic Structure
Image courtesy of www.lab-initio.com
Chemistry Timeline #1
B.C.
400 B.C. Demokritos and Leucippos use the term "atomos”

2000 years of Alchemy
1500's
 Georg Bauer: systematic metallurgy
 Paracelsus: medicinal application of minerals
1600's
Robert Boyle:The Skeptical Chemist. Quantitative experimentation, identification of
elements
1700s'
 Georg Stahl: Phlogiston Theory
 Joseph Priestly: Discovery of oxygen
 Antoine Lavoisier: The role of oxygen in combustion, law of conservation of
mass, first modern chemistry textbook
Chemistry Timeline #2
1800's
Joseph Proust: The law of definite proportion (composition)
 John Dalton: The Atomic Theory, The law of multiple proportions
Joseph Gay-Lussac: Combining volumes of gases, existence of diatomic molecules
Amadeo Avogadro: Molar volumes of gases
Jons Jakob Berzelius: Relative atomic masses, modern symbols for the elements
 Dmitri Mendeleyev: The periodic table
 J.J. Thomson: discovery of the electron
 Henri Becquerel: Discovery of radioactivity
1900's
 Robert Millikan: Charge and mass of the electron
 Ernest Rutherford: Existence of the nucleus, and its relative size
 Meitner & Fermi: Sustained nuclear fission
 Ernest Lawrence: The cyclotron and trans-uranium elements
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)
John Dalton
 All matter is composed of extremely
small particles called atoms
 Atoms of a given element are
identical in size, mass, and other
properties; atoms of different
elements differ in size, mass, and
other properties
 Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
 Atoms of different elements combine in simple
whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds
 In chemical reactions, atoms are combined,
separated, or rearranged
Modern Atomic Theory
Several changes have been made to Dalton’s theory.
Dalton said:
Atoms of a given element are identical
in size, mass, and other properties;
atoms of different elements differ in
size, mass, and other properties
Modern theory states:
Atoms of an element have a
characteristic average mass which is
unique to that element.
Modern Atomic Theory #2
Dalton said:
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or
destroyed
Modern theory states:
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or
destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions.
However, these changes CAN occur in
nuclear reactions
Discovery of the Electron
In 1897, J.J. Thomson used a cathode ray tube
to deduce the presence of a negatively charged
particle.
Cathode ray tubes pass electricity through a gas
that is contained at a very low pressure.
Thomson’s Atomic Model
J.J. Thomson
Thomson believed that the
electrons were like plums embedded
in a positively charged “pudding,”
thus it was called the “plum
pudding” model.
Mass of the Electron
1909 – Robert Millikan
determines the charge of the
electron.
The oil drop apparatus
Charge of the
electron is
-1.60 x 10-19 C
E=applied
electric
field
q= charge
on the
drop
Conclusions from the Study of
the Electron
 Cathode rays have identical properties regardless
of the element used to produce them. All elements
must contain identically charged electrons.
Atoms are neutral, so there must be positive
particles in the atom to balance the negative
charge of the electrons
 Electrons have so little mass that atoms must
contain other particles that account for most of
the mass
Electrons have a charge of -1.60 x 10-19C
Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment
 Alpha particles are helium nuclei
 Particles were fired at a thin sheet of
gold foil
 Particle hits on the detecting screen
(film) are recorded
Rutherford’s Findings
 Most of the particles passed right through
 A few particles were deflected
 VERY FEW were greatly deflected
“Like howitzer shells bouncing off
of tissue paper!”
Conclusions:
 The nucleus is small
 The nucleus is dense
 The nucleus is positively charged
Atomic Particles
Particle
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Charge
Mass (kg)
-1
9.109 x 10-31
+1
1.673 x 10-27
Location
Electron
cloud
Nucleus
0
1.675 x 10-27
Nucleus
The Atomic
Scale
Helium-4
 Most of the mass of
the atom is in the
nucleus (protons and
neutrons)
 Electrons are found
outside of the nucleus
(the electron cloud)
 Most of the volume
of the atom is empty
space
Image: User Yzmo Wikimedia Commons
.
About Quarks…
Protons and neutrons are NOT fundamental particles.
Protons are made of two “up” quarks and
one “down” quark.
Neutrons are made of one “up” quark
and two “down” quarks.
Quarks are held together by “gluons”
Images: Arpad Horvath, Wikimedia Commons
.
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element having
different masses due to varying numbers of neutrons.
Isotope
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
Hydrogen–1
(protium)
1
1
0
Hydrogen-2
(deuterium)
1
1
1
Hydrogen-3
(tritium)
1
1
2
Nucleus
Atomic Masses
Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally
isotopes of that element.
Isotope
Symbol
Composition of
the nucleus
% in nature
Carbon-12
12C
6 protons
6 neutrons
98.89%
Carbon-13
13C
6 protons
7 neutrons
1.11%
Carbon-14
14C
6 protons
8 neutrons
<0.01%
Carbon = 12.011
Atomic Number
Atomic number (Z) of an element is
the number of protons in the nucleus
of each atom of that element.
Element
Carbon
Phosphorus
Gold
# of protons Atomic # (Z)
6
6
15
15
79
79
Mass Number
Mass number is the number of
protons and neutrons in the nucleus
of an isotope.
Mass # = p+ + n0
Nuclide
p+
n0
e-
Mass #
Oxygen - 18
8
10
8
18
Arsenic - 75
Phosphorus - 31
33
42
33
75
15
16
15
31