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BR #8 Name that Philosopher!
This guy thought direct democracy was the best
form of government.
This guy believed that property was a natural right.
This guy promoted separation of powers.
This guy thought people needed an absolute ruler to
create order
This guy was the most handsome of all
Purposes of Our Government
“We the People of the United States, in Order to
1. form a more perfect union,
2. establish justice,
3. insure domestic Tranquility,
4. provide for the common defense,
5. promote the general Welfare, and
6. secure the Blessings of Liberty
to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.”
Forms of Government
Classifying Governments
Governments can be classified by
three different standards:
(Step 1) Who can participate in the governing process.
(Step 2) Where does the power go?
(Step 3) What is the relationship between the
legislative and executive powers?
Who Can Participate?
Supreme political authority rests with the people.
Indirect (Representative)
Direct Democracy
• A direct democracy exists • In an indirect
where the will of the
(representative) democracy
people is translated into
a small group of persons,
law directly by the
chosen by the people to act
people themselves.
as their representatives
• Example: Switzerland
expresses the popular will.
• Example: U.S.A, France,
U.K., Germany, Brazil
Two Kinds
(everyone votes
for everything)
Who Can Participate?
A dictatorship exists where those who rule cannot be
held responsible to the will of the people.
• Autocracy is a
government in which a
single person holds
unlimited political
• Oligarchy is a
government in which the
power to rule is held by
a small, usually selfappointed elite.
Types of Autocratic
Autocracy – Rule by
Monarchy (king or
Absolute Monarchy
(complete and
unlimited power)
Monarchy (shares
power with elected
parliament and
prime minister)
Totalitarian Dictators
Benito Mussolini 1922–45
Germany under Adolf Hitler 1933–
Raul Castro, Cuba
Kim Jong Il
Short list of accomplishments:
1. Glorious birth “double
2. Walking at 3 weeks, talking at
8 weeks
3. Wrote 1,500 books in
university (2 years)…6 operas
4. Designed tallest tower in N.
5. Best golf score…EVER. 1st
time played 11 holes in one
6. Declared fashion icon
7. Invented cheeseburger, called
it double bread with meat
Rule by a few
The few pick the government
Examples: Former Soviet Union
Where Does the Power Go?
Unitary Government
A unitary government has all powers held by a single, central agency.
Where Does the Power Go?
Federal Government
A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided
between a central government and several local governments.
An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this
division of power on a geographic basis.
Where Does the Power Go?
Confederate Government
A confederation is an alliance of independent states.
Relationship Between Legislative and Executive
Parliamentary and Presidential
Examples of Representative Democratic Governments
Aruba, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, United
Presidential democracy
United States, Mexico, Brazil
Forms of Government
Direct Democracy
People vote of everything
Government in which all citizens have equal power.
Every decision is voted on by the people. Rule by
1. Every citizen has equal power 1. Only works when a small
in matters of government.
number of people are
Every citizen is involved in
involved. Must gather all
the decision making.
citizens in one place for
discussions and voting.
2. Since all citizens are involved
in decision making, there is a 2. Decision making involving all
high degree of support and
citizens is time-consuming.
All citizens give input, debate,
Indirect (Representative) Democracy
People pick government
Government in which people elect representatives to
make decision for them.
1. People still have the power.
2. They elect officials to
represent their interests at
3. The representatives will vote
for the people.
4. Practiced whn too many
people for a direct
5. People can vote, protest and
1. Decision making is time
consuming. Desire of
representatives to please
majority of constituents may
be harmful.
2. Representatives may not
always agree with
3. Lack of involved citizens
allow special interest groups
to influence or dominate
A Government by the public.
Led by representatives of the people. Each is
individually chosen for a set period of time.
1. Separation of powers,
providing checks and
1. Divided government causes
more disagreement between
the president and legislature.
Policy gridlock can result.
2. Direct election of the
President and legislators to a
fixed term of office makes
them more accountable to
3. More directly democratic.
2. Divided government can
make it difficult to pass
Power and authority of rule from one person. It is
the oldest and most common form of government.
1. It is fast. When one person
makes all the decisions, no
one needs to be consulted and
time is not taken to gather a
1. Thoughts of other people are not
2. Helpful when critical
decisions need to be made in
a crises or for social control.
2. People do not have freedom.
3. Over time, autocracy decision making
leads to distrust, low morale, and
4. Military is used against people if they
try to protest or disagree.
A small group picks the government.
The rule of a few.
A form of government which consists of rule by an elite
group who rule in their own interest. Only members of
this small group have a voice in government.
The few are generally the people who are richer
and more powerful than others: aristocrats or
Often by powerful families who raise their
children to “inherit” the government position.
Government of the
Parliamentary Democracy
Led by representatives of the people. Each is chosen as
a member of a political party and remains in power as
long as his/her party is in power.
1. Quicker legislative action
because the executive branch
is chosen from the
parliament’s majority party.
1. Close connection between the
executive and legislative
branches and absence of a
clear separation of power
provides less protection
against government control.
2. Prime Minister is accountable
to the parliament and can be
removed at any time by a
vote of no confidence.
2. Less protection by rule of the
Basic Concepts of Democracy
(Found in text on page 18)
1) recognition of the fundamental worth and
dignity of all persons
2) respect for the equality of all persons
3) faith in majority rule and insistence on
minority rights
4) acceptance of the necessity of compromise
5) insistence upon the widest possible
degree of individual freedom
1. Recognition of the fundamental worth and
dignity of all persons
• Dignity and worth of the individual
• Each person is a separate and distinct
• Sometimes the welfare of a few is
sacrificed for the interests of the many
• Paying taxes or obeying street signs is
serving the many (if you speed through
a traffic light you are serving your own
interests and needs at the expense of
2. Equality of all persons
• “ all men are created equal” ~Thomas
• All have equality of opportunity
• Equality of law
• No person should be held back based
on his or her race, color, religion or
• Everyone must be free to develop his or
herself as fully as he or she can and that
person should be treated as the equal of
all others person by the law
3. Majority rule, minority rights
• The majority are right more often than
• The majority should always be willing
to listen to a minority argument-what if the majority is wrong?
• Democracy is a trial and error process
and democracy does not say the
majority will always arrive at the
correct answer -- democracy looks for
solutions to the best answer
4. Necessity of compromise
• Find the position most acceptable to
the most number or a compromise
• Since the individual is first, and equal
to all others, and there are many
individuals and groups with different
• How can public policy be made except
by compromise
• Compromising is a process way to
achieve majority argument- it is not an
end in itself
5. Individual Freedom
• Democracy thrives on freedom -- but
not absolute freedom where everybody
does what they want -- that is anarchy
• In a democracy each individual is free
to do as he or she pleases as long as it
does not infringe on the rights of
• Must strike a even balance – authority
of the government must be adequate to
the needs of society- authority cannot
be so great it restricts the individual
beyond necessity