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Chapter 12
Volcanoes- Section 1
Volcanoes and Earth’s moving plates
Volcano Definition
A volcano is an opening in Earth that
erupts gases, ash, and lava.
 There are more than 600 active
Effects of Eruptions
Lava destroys everything in its path.
 Falling volcanic ash can collapse buildings,
block roads, and potentially cause lung
 Sulfurous gas can be released. This can
mix with water vapor resulting in acid
Pyroclastic Flow
Pyroclastic flow- volcanic ash and debris
flowing down the volcano.
How do volcanoes form?
They form from magma that reaches the
surface of the Earth.
 Vent- the opening in the Earth that allows
the magma to flow out.
 A crater- the steep walled depression
around the volcano’s vent.
Where do volcanoes occur?
Divergent plate boundaries-Iceland is part
of the Mid- Atlantic ridge so as the plates
pull apart the magma reaches the surface.
Convergent plate boundaries- when an
oceanic and continental plate subduct this
allows for volcano formation.
Hot spots
The Hawaiian Islands formed far from plate
boundaries but they formed from volcanic
In some areas, it is thought that the Earth’s
mantle and core are unusually hot.
Hot spot- hot rock at these areas is forced
toward the crust where it melts partially to
form a hot spot.
Hot spots