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TPS on Evolution AP UNIT REVIEW • Explain why genetic variation is a prerequisite for evolution. List three factors that can result in more variation in the population. • Why do only a very small fraction of mutations become widespread in a population? • A fruit fly population has a gene with two possible allele variations. It is shown that the frequency of the dominant allele is 70 %. What is the frequency of the homozygous dominant, heterozygous and homozygous recessive individuals? • In a population of 10,000 humans, 2 had polydactily, a dominant disorder. What percent of the population is heterozygous? • List the five factors that are required to be present for a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. • Compare and contrast homology and analogy. • Explain how the following statement is inaccurate: “Anti-HIV drugs have created resistance in the virus.” • Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks. Where in these would you find the oldest and youngest fossils? • If you discovered a fossil of an extinct mammal that lived high in the Andes, would you predict that it would more closely resemble present-day mammals from South American jungles or present-day mammals that live high in African mountains? Why? • Describe what genetic drift is and how it contributes to evolution. • Describe through an example how heterozygous organisms can have an evolutionary advantage over the homozygous phenotypes. • Summarize key differences between allopatric and sympatric speciation. • Two different fruit fly species live in the same parts of the Hawaiian Islands. They both have very elaborate courtship rituals that are quite different from each other. What type of isolation is this? • List four evidence that can be used to set up phylogenic relationships. Point out one benefit and one disadvantage of using each. • State the rule of parsimony. Why do you think it is useful for setting up evolutionary relationships. • Explain the origin and consequences of oxygen in the atmosphere. • Describe the endosymbiotic theory and state 3 evidence. • Explain the RNA world hypothesis and give two evidence. • Explain the two hypotheses that describes how simple organic molecules may have originated. What is the evidence?