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A History of The English Language
Section : 168-171
Nor Afina bt Mohamed Rashid
Rejected Words
•New words introduced – not permanantly
•Some used only few times – some forgotten
•A few were sufficiently used for a while – later
lost favour and dropped out of use
= common in the
17th century -disappeared
“Eximious” (excellent,
distinguished) – frequently
found in 17th century literature
by Robert Browning.
Now – unknown or very rare
Often – no explanation but
chance or caprice to account
for a word’s failure to survive
Most convincing reason – for
the failure of a new word to
stay because it was not needed
Some cases – prefer a
word in shorter form
Cautionate (caution)
Consolate (console)
Attemptate (attempt)
Denunciate (denounce)
New words –
were being tried out,
in various forms.
Through French
Not always possible to
say – directly Latin or
indirectly French.
Verbs – consist & explore could
come either Latin (consistere &
or French (consister & explorer)
“Fact “– Latin
Not the French (fait)
Verbs (confiscate,
exonerate) – formed
from the Latin
Conjugation – direct from
Latin ( conjugation-em), the
more usual form in French
Words From The
English traveled in France
& consumption of French
books are in such words –
alloy, ambuscade,
volunteer, vogue,
mustache, surpass, essay,
16th century, 3 classes of strange
words :
•Inkhorn terms
•Oversea language
English vocab adopted more than 50
languages – French, Italian , Spanish
English traveled frequently in Italy, observed
Italian architecture, and brought back – Italian
manners and styles, Italian words.
Algebra, argosy, balcony, cameo, design, piazza,
stanza, volcano, cupola
Many other Italian words were introduced
through French or adapted to French forms
Battalion, bankrupt, bastion, carat, brigade,
The Method of
Introducing New
•Medium of writing
•Have been the work of churchmen and
•The help of learned people to become
•Efforts of individual writers and their