Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Old English developed into the next historical form of English, known as Middle English.Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken along the coasts of Frisia, Lower Saxony and southern Jutland by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects (Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish, and West Saxon), each with distinct differences from the others. After the 9th century, Old English was influenced by Old Norse. The Old English period is arbitrarily considered as ending in 1066, when William the Conqueror conquered England, and Anglo-Norman, a relative of French, replaced English as the language of the upper classes.Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is very different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Grammatically it is close to Modern Standard German: nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, and word order is much freer. Some Old English inscriptions were written in runes, but literature is written in the Latin alphabet.