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General Outcome #1:
Explain why diversity aids in species survival.
Can I describe the process of natural selection?
General Outcome #3:
Describe the role of genetic material and
Can I describe the process of artificial selection as a
Natural Selection
Charles Darwin developed the theory of natural
selection in 1831. Alfred Wallace also made
similar conclusions but Darwin published Origin of
a Species first so he is often credited with the idea.
Charles Darwin
Alfred Russel Wallace
Charles Darwin
Alfred Russel Wallace
Nature determines which animals and plants will be
able to reproduce and spread their characteristics.
Environmental conditions, food sources, and predators
eliminate the organisms who are less equipped to
“Survival of the Fittest”
“This survival of the fittest implies multiplication of the fittest.
{The phrase 'survival of the fittest' was not originated by Charles Darwin, though
he discussed Spencer's 'excellent expression' in a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace
(Jul 1866).}” ― Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Biology, Vol 1
The theory of natural selection can be summed
up into four statements:
Not all offspring survive.
There is incredible variation within each species.
Some of the variations increase the chances of an
organism surviving to reproduce.
Over time, variations are passed on and lead to
changes in the genetic characteristics of a species.
Natural Selection
Rapid Adaptation The Case of the Peppered Moth
Artificial Selection
Domestic animals are animals that have a history
of living with people.
In order to increase the odds of animals and plants
having the specific characteristics that we want,
humans have developed the process known as
Artificial selection involves picking the animals with
the traits that you want and breeding them with
one another, then mating the
offspring which express these traits until you get the
desired look
The carrier pigeon (bottom left) and the
Brunner pouter (bottom right) were derived
from the wild rock pigeon (top).
Sometimes artificial selection can produce health
e.g. Pekingese dogs have flattened faces so they
often have breathing problems.
Beautiful Monsters
Artificial selection can be used to increase a single
trait or to combine two or more desirable traits in a
plant or animal.
e.g. Producing the richest
colour and most fragrant
Plant hybrids are a cross between different species
that are usually within the same genus. These
hybrids may have high food production or have a
tolerance for environmental conditions such as
freezing temperature.
e.g. This is a commercial strawberry plant,
a cross between Fragaria chiloensis and F.
Breeding Strawberries History
Artificial selection can have results over a
relatively short period of time but natural
selection usually take much more time.
Look at the dog breed chart on the next page
as well as the link below. Examine each
lineage and think about the traits of each
breed. Determine what each type of dog
was bred to do. Write down your ideas.
Dog Breeds
What other animals have we bred for specific
characteristics? Collect photos and caption each
one to show several examples.