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Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14 Chapter 7 Lessons 3-4 Conservation of Mass-matter cannot be created or destroyed Chemical Change- The substance has changed in color, or it fizzed, bubbled, created an odor, got warmer or colder ( temp. change caused by the chemical reaction ). The original substance is no longer there; frying an egg, any type of cooking, alka seltzer and water Physical Change- A noticeable change in one or more characteristics of the substance; did it melt, freeze, change shape, color, texture, size, etc. Chemical Properties - The ability of a substance to change its chemical composition—and become a new substance(s). Ex: alka seltzer and water = carbon dioxide gas + etc; can it produce a gas, can it fizz, bubble, change color, create new products, taste different, smell different, can it react with water or acid? Physical Properties-characteristic of matter you can observe without changing its identity; color, size, shape, odor, texture, hardness, malleable, ductile, melting pt, boiling pt, density, volume, mass, solid, liquid, gas, phase changes Atom – smallest particle, building block of matter Compounds – 2 or more atoms chemically joined together Subscript in a compound tells you how many atoms of each element are there Elements- simplest pure substance; made up of only 1 kind of atom. Ex: H=hydrogen Mixtures –substances are physically combined and retain their own properties States of Matter (what are the properties of a solid, liquid & gas) Phases / States of Matter def shape Y N def volume Y N Solid Y Y Liquid N Y Gas N N Chapter 8 Lesson 1-3 Thermal Energy - the total potential and kinetic energies of an object Temperature-a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance States of Matter - PHASE CHANGES: changes in states of matter ( s, l and g) due to increases or decreases of Energy being absorbed ( endothermic ) or released ( exothermic ) Solid Liquid see above Gas Evaporation liquid to gas; endothermic Condensation gas to liquid; exothermic Sublimation solid to gas; endothermic Deposition gas to solid ; exothermic Melting solid to liquid; endothermic Freezing liquid to solid; exothermic Kinetic molecular theory-explanation of how particles in matter behave; ex: small particles make up matter, are in constant motion; collide with each other, etc. Boyle’s Law (theoretical) inverse relationship between pressure and volume, as one increases the other decreases Charles Law (theoretical) direct relationship between volume and temperature, if one increases so does the other Chapter 9 Lessons 1-2 Atom smallest piece of an element that still represents that element Electron located outside nucleus, negatively charged, no mass Nucleus center of atom, contains protons and nuetrons; positively charged Proton located in nucleus, positively charged, mass of 1 amu Neutron located in nucleus, no charge, mass of 1 amu Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14 Electron cloud surrounds nucleus, where you find electrons Atomic number identifies the element, is equal to the number of protons, if it changes you have a new element Isotope version of same element with different numbers of neutrons Mass number protons plus neutrons Ion a charged element due to the gain or loss of electrons Chapter 10 Lesson 1-3 Periodic Table Chemical symbols represent – elements Classification – 3 main groups: metals 2. nonmetals 3. metalloids Group run vertically on table Period run horizontally on table Metal make up ¾ of table located on the left side of the staircase; shiny and conduct both thermal and electrical energy Non metal located to the right of the staircase; most are gases and don’t conduct thermal or electrical energy Metalloid elements that touch the staircase; have properties of both metals and nonmetals Luster, ability to reflect light (shiny) ductility can be made into wires, malleability can be made into thin sheets Alkali Group 1 on periodic table & Alkaline Earth Metals group 2 Halogen group 17 or 7A Noble Gases group 18 or 8A Chapter 11 Lessons 1-3 Valence Electron outer shell electrons; related to group # Electron dot diagram representation that only shows valence electrons Chemical bond an attraction between atoms Ionic bond – involves the transfer of electrons Covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons Chemical formula a shorthand notation of a compound with symbols and numbers Chapter 12 Lesson 1-3 Chemical Reaction Chemical Equation shorthand way to explain a chemical reaction made up of reactants and products. Ex: 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl Reactant at the left side of a chemical equation. The parts that are reacting together Product the right side of an equation; these are the results of the chemical reaction; these are the new substances created. Coefficient - IN FRONT OF MOLECULE, AND TELLS # OF MOLECULES Ex: 3 O2 MEANS 3 OXYGEN MOLECULES; 3 SiO2 means 3 molecules of Silicon Dioxide. Synthesis one product A + B C Decomposition one reactant C A + B Single Replacement an element plus a compound yields and element plus a compound AB + C AC + B Double Replacement a compound plus a compound yields and compound plus a compound AB + CD AD + BC Endothermic absorbs or takes energy in Exothermic released energy Combustion reaction where substance combines with oxygen and releases energy products are carbon dioxide and water Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14 Chapter 13 Lesson 3 PH scale: # 0-14 Describe the type of acid or base ( weak or strong ) or if it is neutral , below: 1 = strong acid 7 = neutral 8-9 = weak base 14 = strong base Acid examples: coffee, colas, fruit and fruit juices Base examples: cleaning agents: soaps, detergents, bleach, ammonia, baking soda Hydronium Ions: H ions ; these represent Acids, and are at the beginning of a formula: HCl H3O is a Hydronium ion ; these determine the pH Hydroxide ions: OH ions. These represent bases, and are at the end of a formula: NaOH Chapter 19 Lesson 1 Electric Current a continuous flow of electric charge Circuit a complete path for the electric charges to flow 3 parts=source load wires Series circuit only 1 path for electrons to flow, so if 1 load goes out, all the loads on the circuit go out. Parallel circuit more than 1 path for electrons to flow, so if 1 load goes out, the others stay on. Open/closed circuit open circuit: no flow of electricity due to a gap; closed: electrons can flow- it is all connected Chapter 20 Lesson 1 Magnet: Force of Repulsion – when 2 like poles are near each other, and they push away or repel. Force of Attraction – when 2 unlike poles are near each other and they attract or stick to each other Law of magnetism – like poles repel; unlike poles attract Magnetic Pole area where magnetic force is strongest, all magnets have 2, north and south Magnetic Force created by the magnetic field ; strongest at the poles Domain - areas within the magnet or magnetic material where all the atoms are aligned facing the same direction. This makes it a permanent magnet. If they are randomly positioned, it is not a magnet. A Temporary magnet will have them aligned for a short period of time. Temporary loses its magnetic field after being removed from a magnetic field vs. Permanent remains a magnet after being removed from another magnetic field. Ferromagnetic elements including iron, nickel and cobalt that have an especially strong attraction to magnets.