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Transcript
Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14
Chapter 7 Lessons 3-4
Conservation of Mass-matter cannot be created or destroyed
Chemical Change- The substance has changed in color, or it fizzed, bubbled, created an odor, got warmer or colder ( temp.
change caused by the chemical reaction ). The original substance is no longer there; frying an egg, any type of cooking,
alka seltzer and water
Physical Change- A noticeable change in one or more characteristics of the substance; did it melt, freeze, change shape,
color, texture, size, etc.
Chemical Properties - The ability of a substance to change its chemical composition—and become a new substance(s). Ex:
alka seltzer and water = carbon dioxide gas + etc; can it produce a gas, can it fizz, bubble, change color, create new
products, taste different, smell different, can it react with water or acid?
Physical Properties-characteristic of matter you can observe without changing its identity; color, size, shape, odor, texture,
hardness, malleable, ductile, melting pt, boiling pt, density, volume, mass, solid, liquid, gas, phase changes
Atom – smallest particle, building block of matter
Compounds – 2 or more atoms chemically joined together
Subscript in a compound tells you how many atoms of each element are there
Elements- simplest pure substance; made up of only 1 kind of atom. Ex: H=hydrogen
Mixtures –substances are physically combined and retain their own properties
States of Matter (what are the properties of a solid, liquid & gas)
Phases / States of Matter
def shape Y N
def volume Y N
 Solid
Y
Y
 Liquid
N
Y
 Gas
N
N
Chapter 8 Lesson 1-3
Thermal Energy - the total potential and kinetic energies of an object
Temperature-a measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
States of Matter - PHASE CHANGES: changes in states of matter ( s, l and g) due to increases or decreases of Energy
being absorbed ( endothermic ) or released ( exothermic )
Solid
Liquid
see above
Gas
Evaporation liquid to gas; endothermic
Condensation gas to liquid; exothermic
Sublimation solid to gas; endothermic
Deposition gas to solid ; exothermic
Melting solid to liquid; endothermic
Freezing liquid to solid; exothermic
Kinetic molecular theory-explanation of how particles in matter behave; ex: small particles make up matter, are in
constant motion; collide with each other, etc.
Boyle’s Law (theoretical) inverse relationship between pressure and volume, as one increases the other decreases
Charles Law (theoretical) direct relationship between volume and temperature, if one increases so does the other
Chapter 9 Lessons 1-2
Atom smallest piece of an element that still represents that element
Electron located outside nucleus, negatively charged, no mass
Nucleus center of atom, contains protons and nuetrons; positively charged
Proton located in nucleus, positively charged, mass of 1 amu
Neutron located in nucleus, no charge, mass of 1 amu
Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14
Electron cloud surrounds nucleus, where you find electrons
Atomic number identifies the element, is equal to the number of protons, if it changes you have a new element
Isotope version of same element with different numbers of neutrons
Mass number protons plus neutrons
Ion a charged element due to the gain or loss of electrons
Chapter 10 Lesson 1-3
Periodic Table Chemical symbols represent – elements
Classification – 3 main groups:
metals
2. nonmetals
3. metalloids
Group run vertically on table
Period run horizontally on table
Metal make up ¾ of table located on the left side of the staircase; shiny and conduct both thermal and electrical energy
Non metal located to the right of the staircase; most are gases and don’t conduct thermal or electrical energy
Metalloid elements that touch the staircase; have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Luster, ability to reflect light (shiny) ductility can be made into wires, malleability can be made into thin sheets
Alkali Group 1 on periodic table & Alkaline Earth Metals group 2
Halogen group 17 or 7A
Noble Gases group 18 or 8A
Chapter 11 Lessons 1-3
Valence Electron outer shell electrons; related to group #
Electron dot diagram representation that only shows valence electrons
Chemical bond an attraction between atoms
Ionic bond – involves the transfer of electrons
Covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons
Chemical formula a shorthand notation of a compound with symbols and numbers
Chapter 12 Lesson 1-3
Chemical Reaction
Chemical Equation shorthand way to explain a chemical reaction made up of reactants and products.
Ex: 2Na + Cl2
2NaCl
Reactant at the left side of a chemical equation. The parts that are reacting together
Product the right side of an equation; these are the results of the chemical reaction; these are the new substances created.
Coefficient - IN FRONT OF MOLECULE, AND TELLS # OF MOLECULES Ex: 3 O2 MEANS 3 OXYGEN MOLECULES; 3 SiO2 means
3 molecules of Silicon Dioxide.
Synthesis one product A + B  C
Decomposition one reactant C  A + B
Single Replacement an element plus a compound yields and element plus a compound AB + C  AC + B
Double Replacement a compound plus a compound yields and compound plus a compound AB + CD  AD + BC
Endothermic absorbs or takes energy in
Exothermic released energy
Combustion reaction where substance combines with oxygen and releases energy products are carbon dioxide and
water
Name________________Study Guide Enriched Science 13-14
Chapter 13 Lesson 3
PH scale:
# 0-14
Describe the type of acid or base ( weak or strong ) or if it is neutral , below:
1 = strong acid
7 = neutral
8-9 = weak base
14 = strong base
Acid examples: coffee, colas, fruit and fruit juices
Base examples: cleaning agents: soaps, detergents, bleach, ammonia, baking soda
Hydronium Ions: H ions ; these represent Acids, and are at the beginning of a formula: HCl
H3O is a Hydronium ion ; these determine the pH
Hydroxide ions: OH ions. These represent bases, and are at the end of a formula: NaOH
Chapter 19 Lesson 1
Electric Current a continuous flow of electric charge
Circuit a complete path for the electric charges to flow 3 parts=source load wires
Series circuit only 1 path for electrons to flow, so if 1 load goes out, all the loads on the circuit go out.
Parallel circuit more than 1 path for electrons to flow, so if 1 load goes out, the others stay on.
Open/closed circuit open circuit: no flow of electricity due to a gap; closed: electrons can flow- it is all connected
Chapter 20 Lesson 1
Magnet: Force of Repulsion – when 2 like poles are near each other, and they push away or repel.
Force of Attraction – when 2 unlike poles are near each other and they attract or stick to each other
Law of magnetism – like poles repel; unlike poles attract
Magnetic Pole area where magnetic force is strongest, all magnets have 2, north and south
Magnetic Force created by the magnetic field ; strongest at the poles
Domain - areas within the magnet or magnetic material where all the atoms are aligned facing the same direction. This
makes it a permanent magnet. If they are randomly positioned, it is not a magnet. A Temporary magnet will have them
aligned for a short period of time.
Temporary loses its magnetic field after being removed from a magnetic field vs. Permanent remains a magnet after
being removed from another magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic elements including iron, nickel and cobalt that have an especially strong attraction to magnets.