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WS/FCS Unit Planning Organizer Subject(s) Social Studies Conceptual Lenses Grade/Course American History 2 Unit of Study Unit Title Pacing Unit 3: Global Markets, U.S. Imperialism, Spanish-American War, U.S. Foreign Policy, and WWI (3.1, 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3) “Imperialism and WWI” 8 Days Trade Imperialism Foreign Policy War Unit Overview The third unit of American History 2 examines American Imperialism and World War I through the lenses of trade, imperialism, foreign policy, and war. Global Trade, Imperialism, and the Spanish American War By the mid to late 19th Century, industrialized countries turned to imperialism to satisfy their needs for natural resources and new trade markets. Although the United States was slow to adopt imperialistic policies, it did acquire Alaska as part of its “Manifest Destiny” expansion and had developed a significant presence in Hawaii. By the end of the 19th Century, American planters in Hawaii and the U.S. military pushed for the annexation of Hawaii. By 1897, the United States had annexed Hawaii and was on its way to becoming a global imperial power. While the annexation of Hawaii was in process, the United States continued to keep its eye on Cuba. With its close proximity to the United States and excellent sugar plantations, Cuba was an American entrepreneur’s dream. By 1886, there were several American financed sugar plantations located in Cuba. In 1895, Cuba moved to gain independence from Spain. The resulting war left Americans split on how to react. While the American press used “yellow journalism” to get the United States to intervene on behalf of Cuba, Americans with business interests in Cuba wanted the United States to protect their business interests by supporting Spain. In the end, the “yellow journalism” tactics worked and the United States went to war with Spain. By the end of the war, Cuba would be an independent nation and the United States would be a new global imperial power. Foreign Policy As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States gained additional territory in the Pacific and Caribbean. Managing these new territories became the focus of the Progressive Presidents’ foreign policies. Each Progressive President, Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, developed different approaches to rule these territories and protect the economic interests of the United States. World War I Industrialized countries had turned to imperialism to gain resources and expand their trade markets. In order to protect their foreign interests, they expanded their militaries and formed alliances. By 1914, tensions throughout the world had escalated and resulted in war. While most citizens in the United States sided with the Allied Powers, the overall push was for the United States to remain neutral. After all, the war was happening “over there.” Instead of taking sides in the war, the United States became the go to country for supplies. Trade with Britain and France increased dramatically, actually resulting in a labor shortage in the United States. But, trade with Europe would have problems as both Britain and Germany established blockades and Germany had begun using U-boats to sink British ships. Eventually, the United States would be drawn into war. Once involved in World War I, the United States government used propaganda to gain support from citizens. Men were encouraged to join the fight and help protect democracy. Those at home rationed goods and bought war bonds. Patriotism was heightened and those that disagreed with the war faced increased government scrutiny. With the help of the United States, the Allied Powers won the war. Post World War I (1) When World War I ended, the United States found itself in a peculiar position. Although the United States was part of the treaty negotiations, there was disagreement between the U.S. government’s executive and legislative branches on the terms of the treaty. The legislature worried the treaty’s harsh punishment of Germany and U.S. involvement in the League of Nations (based on President Wilson’s 14 Points) would end up hurting the United States. In the end, the United States failed to join the League of Nation and shifted its foreign policy to isolationism. In addition to the political disagreements over the Treaty of Versailles, the United States was facing serious domestic issues. With the war over, foreign demand for goods waned. This resulted in an economic recession and labor tensions. The recession and labor tensions, coupled with the rise of communism in Europe, helped ignite a Red Scare. The U.S. government began searching for communists and anarchists in an effort to protect the American way of life. This overwhelming fear of “foreign influence” resulted in a rise of nativism. Unit Enduring Understanding(s) 1. 2. 3. 4. Competition for natural resources and trade markets can lead to imperialism. A nation’s foreign policies are developed to benefit the nation economically and politically. Wars and their outcomes can impact a nation’s foreign policy. Wars and their outcomes can impact a nation’s domestic policy. Unit Essential Question(s) 1. 2. 3. 4. How can the desire to increase trade lead to imperialism? Why would a country create a foreign policy that would infringe on the rights and principles of other people or nations? How can war impact a nation’s foreign policy? How can war impact a nation’s domestic policy? Essential State Standards Priority Objectives AH2.H.3.1 Analyze how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced United States imperialism. (only unit addressing this objective) AH2.H.6.1 Explain how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy since Reconstruction. Supporting Objectives AH2.H.8.3 Evaluate the extent to which a variety of groups and individuals have had opportunity to attain their perception of the “American Dream” since Reconstruction. AH2.H.6.2 Explain the reasons for United States involvement in global wars and the influence each involvement had on international affairs. AH2.H.7.1 Explain the impact of wars on American politics since Reconstruction. AH2.H.7.2 Explain the impact of wars on the American economy since Reconstruction. AH2.H.7.3 Explain the impact of wars on American society and culture since Reconstruction. “Unpacked” Concepts (students need to know) “Unpacked” Skills (students need to be able to do) COGNITION (RBT Level) AH2.H.3.1 how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced United States imperialism AH2.H.3.1 Analyze (influence) AH2.H.3.1 Analyzing AH2.H.6.1 how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy AH2.H.6.1 Explain (interests) AH2.H.6.1 Understanding AH2.H.6.2 reasons for United States involvement in global wars and the influence each involvement had on international affairs AH2.H.6.2 Explain (reasons and influence) AH2.H.6.2 Understanding AH2.H.7.1 impact of wars on American politics AH2.H.7.1 Explain (impact) AH2.H.7.1 Understanding AH2.H.7.2 Explain (impact) AH2.H.7.2 Understanding AH2.H.7.3 Explain (impact) AH2.H.7.3 Understanding AH2.H.7.2 impact of wars on the American economy AH2.H.7.3 impact of wars on American society and culture Standard(s) Unit “Chunking” & Enduring Understandings AH2.H.3.1 Analyze how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced United States imperialism. AH2.H.6.1 Explain how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy since Reconstruction. AH2.H.6.2 Explain the reasons for United States involvement in global wars and the influence each involvement had on international affairs. AH2.H.7.1 Global Trade, Imperialism, and the Spanish American War Trade relations can impact a country’s global power and authority. Suggested Lesson Essential Questions Possible Factual Content (Bold Found in Standards) Trade Markets - desire for * commercial interests - expansionism - power and authority * England * Germany * Russia * Japan How can a * United States desire for - US foreign policy increased global - Open Door Policy trade impact the in China distribution of - industrialization power and - foreign imperialism authority of U.S. Imperialism industrialized Begins countries? - territory * Alaska * Hawaii - American defense and objection * religious, racial, national honor * Albert Beverige * Josiah Strong * Alfred Thayer Mahan ~ The Influence of Sea Power upon History * Mark Twain * William Jennings Bryan ~ AntiImperialism League * jingoism - reaction of Hawaiians Example(s) From Unpacked Standard How the desire for new trade markets by industrialized countries like England, Germany, Russia, Japan and the United States impacted the distribution of global power and authority at the onset of the 20th Century. How and why the United States gained territory and influence in the Pacific leading up to and as a result of the Spanish American War. How trade and commercial interests in East Asia led to the development of the Open Door Policy in China. How and why various Americans used religion, race and national honor to both defend and object to United States imperialism. Explain the impact of wars on American politics since Reconstruction. AH2.H.7.2 Explain the impact of wars on the American economy since Reconstruction. AH2.H.7.3 Explain the impact of wars on American society and culture since Reconstruction. Changes in a nation’s power and authority can have an impact on foreign and domestic relations. U.S. Imperialism - American defense and objection * religious, racial, national honor * Albert Beverige * Josiah Strong * Alfred Thayer Mahan ~ The Influence What was the of Sea Power foreign and upon History domestic impact * Mark Twain of the increased * William Jennings global presence Bryan of the United ~ AntiStates? Imperialism League Spanish-American War - involvement * economic reasons * political reasons * foreign aggression ~ U.S.S. Maine * role of newspapers ~ yellow journalism * Rough Riders * Teller Amendment - impact on U.S. * foreign policy * commerce * industry - outcome * U.S. imperial power * acquisitions ~ Samoa ~ Philippines How economic and political aims led to the United States involvement in the SpanishAmerican War. How communication technologies and mediums, such as newspapers, television, film and radio influenced American patriotism and propaganda during warfare. How the results of the Spanish American War and the global imperial presence of the United States impacted American commerce and industry. ~ Guam * Platt Amendment * White Man’s Burden - reaction of other nations and citizens * Cubans * Puerto Ricans * Filipinos AH2.H.3.1 Analyze how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced United States imperialism. AH2.H.6.1 Explain how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy since Reconstruction. AH2.H.3.1 Analyze how economic, political, social, military and religious factors influenced United States imperialism. Foreign Policy Leaders may use different tactics when developing foreign policy. World War I A country may shift its foreign policy during war to protect its political and economic interests. How did the Progressive Presidents respond to the United States role as an imperial power? Foreign Policy - Presidential Administrations * Roosevelt - Panama Canal - Roosevelt Corollary - Big Stick Diplomacy * Taft - Dollar Diplomacy * Wilson - Missionary Diplomacy - Monroe Doctrine - Latin American and Caribbean interests - sphere of influence Beginning WWI - U.S. foreign policy * shifts Why did the ~ neutrality United States ~ interventionism shift its foreign - mobilization to policy of support Allies neutrality to join Joining WWI the Allied - involvement Powers in World * foreign aggression War I? How the leaders and citizens of other nations reacted to the expansion of United States power and influence within their countries and others. How United States Presidents and their administrations developed and implemented imperial foreign policy and strategies. How and to what extent economic and political interests in Latin America and the Caribbean guided the foreign policies of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. How the desire for new trade markets by industrialized countries like England, Germany, Russia, Japan and the United States impacted the AH2.H.6.1 Explain how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy since Reconstruction. ~ Lusitania ~ Zimmerman Note * Allied Powers * “world safe for democracy” - soldiers * fight for freedom and democracy AH2.H.6.2 Explain the reasons for United States involvement in global wars and the influence each involvement had on international affairs. A nation’s government may use a variety of AH2.H.7.2 tactics to ensure support for the Explain the nation’s impact of wars involvement in on the American war. economy since Reconstruction. Citizens will often mobilize AH2.H.7.3 and economically Explain the sacrifice to impact of wars support the on American nation’s society and involvement in culture since war. Reconstruction. How and why American foreign policy shifted from neutrality to interventionism at the beginning of World War I. How and why the United States joined with the Allied Powers to end World War I. How American political leaders used foreign aggression as opportunities to prepare and request war. AH2.H.7.1 Explain the impact of wars on American politics since Reconstruction. distribution of global power and authority at the onset of the 20th Century. Supporting WWI - patriotism * rationing ~ Meatless How did the Tuesdays government and ~ Wheatless citizens of the Wednesdays United States * war bonds respond to the * economic sacrifice United States * role of involvement in communication World War I? technologies ~ newspaper ~ film ~ radio - propaganda * Committee on How the United States government used propaganda to appeal to American patriotism and sell the nation’s war efforts. How and to what extent Americans mobilized and economically sacrificed on Public Information * Four-Minute Men - mobilization - literature, art, music, pop culture * fear, anxiety, dissent - restrict civil liberties * Espionage and Sedition Acts * Schenck v. US * German Americans - rise of intelligence services * FBI - women * impact roles and perception * 19th Amendment - African Americans * contributions to war * influence civil rights * Great Migration AH2.H.6.1 Post World War I Explain how national economic and political interests helped set the direction of United States foreign policy since Reconstruction. AH2.H.6.2 Explain the reasons for United States involvement in A country may shift its foreign policy as a result of treaty negotiations. How did the rejection of President Wilson’s 14 Points and the Treaty of Versailles affect United States foreign policy? End of WWI - Treaty of Versailles * impact on U.S. politics and foreign policy * War Guilt Clause Wilson’s Fourteen Points - rejection by Allies - League of Nations - Henry Cabot Lodge and Lodge Reservations Foreign Policy - effect of Fourteen Points failure - shift to isolationism behalf of allied and national efforts in world wars. How and why United States involvement in world wars and the contributions of women during times of war impacted the perceptions and roles of women in American society. How, why and to what extent the federal government restricted the civil liberties of various groups of Americans during times of war. How and why Allied countries of World War I rejected Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and how that affected United States politics between world wars. global wars and the influence each involvement had on international affairs. How and why American foreign policy shifted to isolationism after World War I. AH2.H.7.1 ______________ _____________ ____________________ Explain the impact of wars on American politics since Reconstruction. AH2.H.7.2 Countries often face economic and social adjustments after involvement in war. Explain the impact of wars on the American economy since Reconstruction. Why were there economic and social problems in the United States after World War I ended? Labor Unrest - impact economy - impact society Red Scare - nativism - anarchy * Sacco and Vanzetti case - communism - intelligence services - J. Edgar Hoover * Palmer Raids Spanish Flu AH2.H.7.3 How and why labor unrest and strikes occurred during and after United States involvement in world wars and how labor activity impacted the economy and society. How, why and to what extent Americans feared the spread of communism and how that fear impacted American culture in “Red Scares” after World War I and World War II. Explain the impact of wars on American society and culture since Reconstruction. HISTORY Conflict Leadership ____________ GEOGRAPHY Natural Resources CIVICS & GOVERNMENT Domestic Policy Individual Rights National Identity Politics Power ECONOMICS Competition Resources CULTURE Culture Values and Beliefs Language Objective EXAMPLES Historical Thinking and Geography Skill Resources ○ “Straight Ahead” □“Uphill” ∆“Mountainous” Historical Thinking Geography Skills *This is a good unit to address the following Historical Thinking Standards: USH2.H.1 (Chronological Thinking), USH2.H.1.2 (Historical Comprehension focusing on Primary Sources), USH2.H.1.3 (Multiple perspectives: Imperialist v. . Anti-Imperialist). General Unit Resources ○ □ ∆ ○ “Straight Ahead” □“Uphill” http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/toc.html ∆ “Mountainous” Text differentiation symbols: Texts will be categorized in teacher resource documents as Straight Ahead (less challenging for struggling readers), Uphill (having some challenging words and more complex sentence structure that is appropriate for on-grade level readers), or Mountainous (containing challenging vocabulary, complex sentences, and more abstract ideas).