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Social Studies 10-2
Chapter 9: Historical Globalization and Imperialism:
Notes: DRIVING IMPERIALISM – p. 144-147
Imperialism: The policy of one country extending political, economic, or military
control over another.
In the 19th century, Europeans took over vast regions of the world. They engaged
inhabitants in economic partnerships.
Chapter Issue: To what extent was imperialism a beneficial force?
Imperialism is sometimes called empire building. Throughout the course of
human history many empires have risen and fallen.
European imperialism has its roots in early mercantilism. It caused huge increases
in trade and exploration around the world. It brought peoples into contact that
had never had the opportunity to meet before.
By 1814, the world had seen about 400 years of outward expansion of European
power over the peoples’ in other continents.
The word imperialism came into use in the mid-1800’s when the world saw a
great surge of empires led by European countries. By 1815, most European
countries were increasingly industrialized. They needed two things to keep their
industrialized economies going:
• Raw materials with which they could create goods to sell
• Markets to buy those goods
Europe was running out of both. Europeans began looking outside of their
borders for cheaper and more abundant raw materials.
They used their armies to acquire territories all over the world. These territories
provided them with both raw materials and markets for their goods.
The Europeans valued these territories so much that they fought wars with each
other over which country would control which region.
This eventually leads Europe to fight the “War to End all Wars” or “the Great
War” in 1914.
Social Studies 10-2
Chapter 9: Historical Globalization and Imperialism
Justifying the Methods: Eurocentric Views (p.148-151)
Early arguments in favor of imperialism were based on ECONOMIC grounds.
Europeans needed raw material, so they took them from where they could.
Many Europeans claimed they were helping countries modernize.
Ex) The British helped build an extensive railway in India
Who benefited from the building of a railway in India? –
the British or the people of India?
Many Europeans claimed they were helping countries modernize.
Ex) The Canadian government move Inuit in the 1950’s who were living a
traditional lifestyle on the land into year round communities with permanent
housing. The Canadian government said they wanted to ensure that the Inuit had
sufficient housing, food, and schooling, and wanted to provide them with benefits
such as modern medicine and technology. Others argue that the Canadian
government did this to solidify Canada’s land claim to the region.
Europeans claimed that Western people and the Western cultures were superior to
those of Indigenous People and the Europeans claimed it was their duty to
“civilize” Indigenous people.
The Europeans tried to justify their actions in Africa and other European colonies
by claiming that they had A RESPONSIBILITY to “uplift, civilize, and
Christianize” the Indigenous people of the world. This so-called duty became
known as “The White Man’s Burden” after a popular poem written in 1899 by
Rudyard Kipling.
Many Europeans claimed they were helping countries modernize.
Ex) Jesuits of New France worked tirelessly to convert the First Nations and Inuit
to Christianity.
Global Trade in People – SLAVERY
Eurocentrism became so extreme that some Europeans felt that Indigenous people
were little more than commodities – something to be bought and sold. Between
1650 and 1900, approximately 28 million Africans were put on ships and sold into
slavery on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
“The Middle Passage” (Figure 9-7, page 150) was the name given to the route
used by European countries to exchange goods across the Atlantic:
a)European traders would export manufactured goods to the West Coast of Africa.
These goods were exchanged for captured African slaves.
b) Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas by boat and sold for huge
profits and forced to work on plantations to produce raw materials such as sugar,
cotton, coffee, metals, tobacco.
c) These raw materials were shipped back to European countries and sold to make
huge profits for the monarchs and governments of Europe.
Look at Figure 9-6 on the top of page 150 to see a diagram of the European
imperialist governments motives and methods.
What were they gaining?
What were they hurting?
Impacts of Imperialism on Canada
Chapter 9 - (pages 152-154)
Economic Impacts: Example:
- the Canadian fur trade created great wealth for European nations
Political Impacts: Example:
- treaties and alliances shift control of the land from First Nations and Inuit to French
and English governments
Social Impacts: Example:
- diseases from Europe kill millions of Aboriginal people
Creation of Canada
English and French are Canada’s two official languages but the Aboriginal peoples have
always occupied this land.
France was the first European country to begin a permanent colony in Canada. They
conducted a very profitable fur trade and the French valued the First Nations fur
trappers (Wendat and Haudenosaunee tribes) so they generally had a co-operative
working relationship.
The French became the Acadians and Canadiens of New France.
England began a fur trade as well into Hudson’s Bay where they traded with Cree First
Nation’s trappers.
The British also occupied the Thirteen Colonies in what is present day USA.
Les Canadiens
European countries fought over territory all over the world to quench their imperialist
motives (see page 150). The same tune rings true in present day Canada where the
British and the French fought over territory in what was called the Seven Years War.
France lost territory in Canada to the British following the Treaty of Paris and this
made New France a British colony - full of French speaking Canadiens. Britain tried to
assimilate les Canadiens and take away their rights as French speaking citizens in a
British territory with the Proclamation Act of 1763. However, when the Americans
citizens revolted against the British in the American Revolution, the British wanted to
preserve the loyalty of the Canadiens. The Quebec Act of 1774 guaranteed les Canadiens
their rights in the areas of language, religion, and civil law.
This is why Canada is a bilingual country today. To make bilingualism work in Canada
has NOT been an easy job. The legacy of British imperialism meant that Francophones,
Aboriginal, and non-British immigrants experienced the oppression of a government
and a society that believed British ways were superior to theirs. However, many
Canadians have learned to value the attitudes of acceptance and respect for others.
Canadians have used these attitudes to help create a pluralistic society - one grounded
on respect for all peoples.
Impact on Aboriginal Peoples
Confederation - the formal agreement of Canada’s union - was a very exclusive club.
Inuit, Metis, and First Nations were NOT given a chance to participate. Neither were
women or the poor. All of the decisions surrounding Confederation was left to the
imperialist ideals of the Eurocentric politicians. This Eurocentrism led to a lack of
respect for Aboriginal people and their way of life and by leaving them out of the
discussions for Confederation. Canadian politicians embraced this imperialist
Canada’s new constitution made “Indians and land reserves for Indians” a government
responsibility like mines or roads. First Nations governments lacked real power. The
federal government took control of resources located on reserve lands. The federal
government forcibly replaced First Nations concepts of marriage and parenting with
European ones.
First Nations people traditional way of life was completely ignored.