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Transcript
Bohr – Rutherford Diagrams
Steps to follow when drawing Bohr – Rutherford diagrams:
1:
calculate the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the atom;
2:
draw a small circle representing a nucleus for the atom;
3:
write the number of protons from step 1 inside the nucleus circle;
4:
write the number of neutrons from step 1 inside the nucleus circle;
5:
a)
b)
c)
d)
P
P
N
draw a circle around the nucleus. This represents the first energy level;
draw one small dot on the first energy level line for each electron calculated in step 1 (up to a
maximum of 2 dots). Each dot represents 1 electron;
if the atom contains more than 2 electrons, draw a second circle around the first one and draw
small dots on this second energy level (up to a maximum of 8 dots). Each dot represents an
electron;
as appropriate, draw more energy level lines according to the number of electrons present in the
atom and the maximum electron holding capacity for each level.
2
8
maximum number of electrons for
each shell is shown by the number
found on each orbital
(up to a maximum of 20 electrons)
2
P
N
8
Draw a Bohr-Rutherford diagram for the following elements (see the Periodic Table at the back of the textbook
for atomic numbers and atomic masses):
Li, Na, K
What 2 trends are evident after drawing the Bohr-Rutherford diagrams?
Be, Mg, Ca
Trend 1:
F, Cl
Trend 2:
He, Ne, Ar