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Transcript
Name:
Period:
Date:
Grammar Notes (KEEP THESE ALL YEAR)
Fill in the blanks as we take notes in class.
STEPS TO LABELING SENTENCE PARTS:
1. Cross off all prepositional phrases (slot test)
.
2. Double underline verb (label LV—linking; HV—helping; AV—action)
3. Underline the subject once (Ask who/what plus verb)
4. If AV (action), DO (direct object)/label IO (indirect object)
5. If LV (linking), label PN/PA (PN—equals/renames S; PA—describes S)
6. Circle all noun functions (S, DO, IO, PN, OP)
7. Label all adjectives (ADJ) which modify above nouns
8. Label all adverbs (ADV) which modify V, ADJ, ADV
9. Find conjunctions
1. Prepositional Phrase= preposition + object of preposition (OP).
EX: to the mall ; from the store ; except all those ; Can you think of another?
Preposition- A position word which shows relationships between objects and/or time frame
Slot Test for Most Prepositions = The bird flew _____________ the clouds.
 A. subject/verb pairs are never found in a prepositional phrase
 B.
of
and
with
are always prepositions if used correctly.
 C. If there are two prepositions in a row, cross out the second .
PREPOSITIONS LIST :
with
into
amid
behind
over
concerning
at
to
past
from
below
upon
beneath
except
underneath
without
through
like
along
within
until
after
about
of
off
between
down
around
outside
on
before
near
among
but
since
under
across
for
beside
by
toward
against
up
in
during
inside
throughout
beyond
above
regarding
unto
atop
2.Object of a Preposition (OP)-- the who or what in a prepositional phrase
EX: I went by the store. Store = object of preposition
3. Parts of Speech - way of categorizing words in isolation (singly)
(8 Parts = noun / pronoun / verb / adverb / adjective / conjunction / preposition / interjection )
4. Sentence Parts - way of identifying words based on function
5. Verb – indicate tense (past, present, future); actions or state of being
The 3 Types of Verbs: action helping linking
6. Linking verbs (LV) – do not show action! Link subject with nouns/pronouns or adjectives.
EX.
His mother is an accountant.
The winners of the game were they.
Mary became sick after the high jump.
State of being verbs - to be = is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been
The REPLACEMENT TEST for linking verbs is to replace a linking verb with a form of “to
be.” If it still makes sense without the meaning changed it is a LV.
The FLIP-FLOP TEST for Linking Verbs is if you flip-flop the sentence around the verb and it
still means the same, it is a LV.
LINKING VERB LIST: *to be (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been)
*to be
to become
to remain
to taste
to seem
to appear
to look
to sound
to stay
to smell
to grow
7. Helping Verbs (HV) – begin a verb phrase
EX. I may go to the store today. She did not tell him about the test. I shall wait until dark.
HELPING VERBS LIST:
do
is
may
shall
does
am
must
will
did
are
might
can
has
was
should
have
were
would
had
be
could
being
been
8. Action Verbs (AV)- show/represent action
EX. I jumped over a toad and landed on a frog. Our teacher gave us a huge test today.
9. Subject (S)- who or what (and completes the verb after prepositions are eliminated)
and they must always indicate number (singular/ plural.)
EX. He went to the movies without you. Maria is a wonderful host.
10. Implied (You) Subject- an understood “you” through a command
EX. (You) Take me with you to the park. (You) Go to the library and read a magazine.
11. Subject/Verb Pairs- who or what + verb (together)
EX. You are my sunshine. Garrett let the dog out earlier. (You) Take me out to the ball game.
12. Sentence Patterns- Six (6) basic patterns used for building blocks
The six Basic Sentence Patterns:
1. S - V
2. S - AV - DO
3. S - AV - IO - DO
4. S - LV - PN
5. S - LV - PA
6. V – S (inverted sentence)
(DO= Direct Object, IO=Indirect Object, PN=Predicate Noun, PA= Predicate Adjective)
What kinds of sentence parts follow action verbs? IO, DO
What kind of sentence parts follow linking verbs? PN, PA
Can a DO ever come before an IO? No Does every DO have to have an IO? No
Does every IO have to have a DO? Yes
Can a DO and a PN or PA appear in the same sentence? No
13. Direct Objects (DO – Always follow an AV and receives the action of the verb (answers
“what” of the verb)
EX. I throw the eraser. (Verb + who or what? Throws what? eraser)
14. Indirect Objects (IO) - always fall between AV and DO and receives the DO.
EX. I throw Ben the eraser. (Who receives the DO/ Ben ?______) The DO receives the IO.
I throw the eraser to Ben. (Why is Ben no longer an IO?) addition of the word “to”
15. Predicate Noun (PN) - always follows LV; noun/pronoun which renames the subject
EX. I am a teacher in the classroom. (Is the verb action/linking?) LV (Replacement/flip-flop)
“I” replaces/renames “teacher” - “teacher” is the PN
16. Predicate Adjective (PA)- always follows a LV and describes subject
EX. I am unhappy about the loss of my favorite team. (Is the verb action /linking?) LV
Unhappy doesn’t equal I, but does it describe I? Yes Then unhappy is the what? PA
17. Noun FunctionsThe five functions are: OP S DO IO PN
18. Adjectives (ADJ)- modifies nouns and pronouns
a an the and possessives (ex. Hers) are always Adjectives.
EX. The green bananas were hanging from the damaged apple tree.
19. Adverbs (ADV)- modifies everything that is not a noun/pronoun (adj., adv., verb)
The ending ly is a good clue but not a sure thing! Not and very are always adverbs
What is the only way to know for sure? Identify the word being modified.
EX. I was very distraught about the loss of my friendly brother in the extremely violent storm.
Adverbs answer the questions: how, when, where, and to what extent.
Everything found after the adjectives (excluding conjunctions) are what? adverbs
20. Conjunctions- connect elements; combine and connect
EX. The football and baseball players are rowdy. What are they connecting? nouns
The three types are: coordinate subordinate correlative
21. Coordinate conjunctions- connect items of the same kind
The Eight include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, ; (punctuation mark)
A good way to remember these eight is the mnemonic device? FAN BOYS
EX. He ran and tripped. Mike and Billy-Bob had a party. He threw the hammer and the sickle.
He went to the movie, and he fell asleep. What are these conjunctions connecting?
Verbs, subjects
22. Subordinate Conjunctions- make independent clauses into dependent clauses
EX. I saw my friend.  Before I saw my friend, I was very sad.
SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION LIST:
after
as long as
if
unless
where
than
although
as soon as
in order that
until
wherever
though
as
because
since
when
while
as if
before
so that
whenever
23. Correlative Conjunction- connect items of same kind in pairs
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION LIST:
both – and
not only – but also
either – or
neither –nor
whether - or
24. Interjections ( INJ ) – show expression and are followed by (!)
EX. WOW! Hurray! Ooops! Can you think of two others? Ouch! Snap!
25. Phrases- A group of words (not including a subject/verb pair)
5 types you should know: prepositional gerund participle infinitive
appositives
26. Verbals- Words formed from verbs which act as other parts
3 types are: gerund participle infinitive
27. Gerund (GER)- A verb form that functions as a noun
Usually end in ing, and include 5 nouns functions: OP S DO IO PN
What are the gerunds below functioning as? A. S B. DO C. PN D. OP
a. Drawing is Alyssa’s hobby.
c. One of the major industries of northern
Minnesota is mining.
b. Carmella tried surfing.
d. The best place for jogging is the cinder trail
around Harvest Reservoir.
28. Participle (PART)- A verb form that functions as a noun
Usually end in ed or ing.
EX. Circle the participles below:
a. Exhausted, Lauren sat down with a sigh.
b. A falling tree blocked my driveway.
c. The articles were new and neatly arranged
29. Infinitive (INF) - Begins with the word “to” and functions as a N, Adj. or Adv.
Be careful because you have learned that “to” is a preposition. However when “to” is
followed by a verb it is an infinitive.
EX. We went to swim. Ms. Lin came home to study. I shouted to warn him.
Are these INF’s? Yes
30. Appositive Phrase (APP) – Modifies what comes before; set apart by commas; can be
removed without affecting the meaning of the sentence
EX. Michael Jordan, a highly effective shooter, dribbles down the court and scores.
31. Clauses - Group of words containing a subject/verb pair
The two types of clauses you need to know are: independent
and dependent
32. Independent Clause (IC)- Stands on its own
EX. I stopped in my tracks.
Can you write another? __________________________
33. Dependent Clause (DC)- Cannot stand on its own
Dependent clauses begin with a subordinate conjunction.
Ex. after the band played Can you write another? _____________________________
34. Simple Sentence (SS) – One subject/verb pair
BEWARE: Simples sentences can have more than 1 subject or verb, but only 1 pair.
SS = S + V or IC
Ex. I went to mall after school and bought clothes.
35. Compound Sentence (CP) - Contains two or more IC’s joined with a coordinating
conjunction
CP = IC + IC
Note : (+ = coordinate conjunction)
EX. The snow tuned to slush, but it froze later in the day. What is the conjunction? but
36. Complex Sentence (CX)- One IC and one or more DC
CX = IC + DC or CX = DC + IC
Note: + = Subordinate Conjunction
EX. After the lightning stuck, my dog hid in the closet.
Sara owes me forty dollars because I paid for her concert ticket. What are the CON? After
and because
37. Compound-Complex Sentence (CP-CX) – Combination of two IC and at least one DC
EX._________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________