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Transcript
THE RISE OF ISLAM
The religion of Islam began with an ethnic group known as the Arabs…
• They arose in the Arabian Peninsula and influenced Western Asia and beyond.
• They were a nomadic, Semitic-speaking people who lived in the arid climate
of the Arabian Peninsula.
• The environment was harsh and they were organized into tribes and were led
by a sheikh, who was chosen from a council of elders.
• The tribes were independent, but worked together
as a community.
EARLY RELIGION
Before Islam, many Arabs were polytheistic.
Others recognized a chief, or supreme, god
who they called Allah which is Arabic for
“God.”
Allah was symbolized by a sacred stone,
called the Black Stone, which is thought to
be given to man by Allah at the creation of
the world.
This stone was placed as a corner stone of a
shrine called the Kaaba. This shrine is
located in the city of Makkah (Mecca) in
what is now Saudi Arabia.
THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD AND
HIS REVELATION
The founder of Islam was a man named Muhammad. He was
born in Makkah (Mecca) to a merchant family. His parents
died when he was young and he ended up living with his
uncle who was a merchant and he became a caravan
manager.
Over time, he found the richness and corruption of the
merchants and townspeople to be troubling. He decided to
visit the hills to meditate. Muslims believe that while he was
meditating in the hills he received revelations from God
through the Angel Gabriel.
THE LIFE OF MUHAMMAD AND
HIS REVELATION (CONT’D)
Muslims believe that the Angel Gabriel told Muhammad to
recite what he heard, it was believed that Allah had already
revealed himself through Moses and Jesus, but now had a final
revelation for man.
This final revelation became the religion of Islam, which means
“submission to the will of God.”
THE QURAN (KORAN)
The revelations to Muhammad were written down by scribes
and became known as The Quran (Koran), which is the holy
book of Islam. The Quran contains ethical guidelines and laws
by which Muslims (followers of Islam)should live their lives.
THE NATURE OF THE QURAN
The Quran is written in Arabic, which was the language of
Muhammad. The Quran is considered to only be true when it is
written in its original language. Translations are thought to
lose the true meaning of the original words which are
believed to be a direct revelation from God.
The Muslim observance of the holy holiday Ramadan is to
commemorate the recording of the holy text.
AFTER THE REVELATION
After Muhammad received his revelation he went to his wife,
who was his first convert to the new religion.
He began to try to convert the people of Makkah to his
message, but he was unsuccessful. After three years he was
forced to go to the city of Yathrib, which later became
Medina. This flight, or migration, is known as the Hijrah and
marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. This was in the
year 622.
ACCEPTANCE IN MEDINA AND TAKE
OVER OF MECCA
In Yathrib, renamed Medina (which means “the city of the
prophet”), Muhammad was accepted and gained
followers.
One of the groups which converted to the new religion of
Islam were the Bedouins who were desert Arabs. This new
community became the first to practice the religion.
After several years, Muhammad became both a spiritual and
political leader. There was not an idea of the separation of
church and state. He raised an army and conquered the
city of Makkah.
THE KAABA
After Muhammad took the city of
Makkah, he cleansed the Kaaba of
idols and dedicated it to Allah,
who he taught was the one true
God.
All Muslims are encouraged to
make a pilgrimage to Makkah,
known as the Hajj at least once in
their life, if they are physically
and financially able.
THE TEACHINGS OF MUHAMMAD
Islam is monotheistic, just like Judaism and Christianity. There is
only one God, Allah.
Muslims believe that Islam was God’s final revelation for
mankind. Muslims feel that in order to achieve salvation that
they must obey the will of Allah.
In order to do this they must follow the five major principles of
Islam known as the Five Pillars of Islam.
Islam is seen not just as a religion, but as a way of life.
THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
1.) Declaration of Faith
• Muslims must state that there is no other God but
Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
2.) Daily Prayer
• Muslims must pray five times a day facing the Kaaba
in Mecca:
• Pre-Dawn
• Noon
• Afternoon
• Sunset
• Evening
THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
3.) Charity
• Muslims are supposed to help others and donate part
of their income to charity.
4.) Fasting  Ramadan
• Muslims must fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy
month of Ramadan which celebrates the recording of the
Quran.
5.) Pilgrimage or Hajj
• Once in a lifetime, if they are physically and financially
able, Muslims are to journey to Mecca (Makkah) in Saudi
Arabia and perform the rituals of the Hajj.
ISLAMIC LAW
After the death of Muhammad there were further interpretations of his
teachings. These are known as the Hadith. There are different versions
of the Hadith for different branches of Islam.
These teachings were further interpreted in the Shari’ah. This is a set of
laws which regulate many aspects of Muslim life. It does not separate
between church and state and covers family life, business, government,
and moral conduct.
Muslims are expected to practice honesty and justice in dealing with
others and are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcohol, or engage
in dishonest behavior.
TERMS TO KNOW
• Quran (Koran): holy book of Islam
• Muslim: a follower of Islam
• Mosque: a Muslim house of worship
• Minarets: the towers located on a Mosque from which Muslims are
called to pray five times a day.
LOCATIONS TO KNOW
Mediterranean Sea
Medina
Persian Gulf
(Yathrib)
Mecca
(Mekkah)
Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Sea