Download AP GOPO MOST IMPORTANT CONCEPTS Unit 1: Constitutional

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Separation of powers wikipedia , lookup

Electoral geography wikipedia , lookup

Presidential system wikipedia , lookup

Presidency wikipedia , lookup

Intelligence and public policy wikipedia , lookup

Separation of powers under the United States Constitution wikipedia , lookup

Anocracy wikipedia , lookup

Advocacy group wikipedia , lookup

Constitution of Laos wikipedia , lookup

Realigning election wikipedia , lookup

Politics of Argentina wikipedia , lookup

Unit 1: Constitutional Underpinnings and Federalism
government vs. politics
reserved powers
Antifederalists vs. Federalists
single-issue groups
block grant vs. categorical grant
supremacy clause
checks and balances vs separation of
judicial review
unitary governments (system)
limited government
writ of habeas corpus
linkage institutions
Government Actions
majority rule vs. minority rights
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
Welfare Reform Act (1996)
natural rights
10th Amendment
New Jersey Plan vs. Virginia Plan
Government actions
Bill of Rights
double jeopardy
dual federalism vs. cooperative
elastic clause (necessary and proper
elitism (elite and class theory)
enumerated (expressed or delegated)
powers vs. implied powers
fiscal federalism
pluralism (pluralist theory)
policy agenda
policy gridlock
popular sovereignty (consent of the
public policy
Federalist Papers
Gibbons v. Ogden
Great Compromise (Connecticut
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
republic (representative democracy)
Direct democracy vs. representative democracy (republic)
Formal vs. informal amendment process to the Constitution
How the balance of power between the states and federal government has changed over time, and by what means this has
Part of national government most closely tied to citizens in original Constitution
Powers unique to the House or Senate
Problems of the Articles of Confederation and how these were addressed in the Constitution
Why framers wanted a bicameral legislature
Aspects of federalism (the different types and how they work)
Margins required by different actions of Congress
Core values of U.S. political culture
Challenges to democracy that we discussed in class
Elements of the policymaking process
Unit 2: Civil Rights and Liberties
affirmative action
Voting Rights Act of 1965
bill of attainder
Fourteenth Amendment
citizenship clause
Nineteenth Amendment
civil liberties vs. civil rights
Baker v. Karr
clear and present danger test
Barron v. Baltimore
cruel and unusual punishment
Brown v. Board of Education
De jure vs. de facto segregation
Engel v. Vitale
due process clause
Gideon v. Wainwright
equal protection clause
Gitlow v. New York
establishment clause vs. free exercise clause
Griswold v. Connecticut
ex post facto law
Grutter v. Bollinger
exclusionary rule
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Mapp v. Ohio
Miranda warnings
Miranda v. Arizona
plea bargaining
New York Times v. Sullivan
prior restraint
Oregon v. Smith
probable cause
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
right to privacy (how implied in 1st, 4th, 9th Amendments)
Plessy v. Ferguson
selective incorporation (incorporation doctrine)
Reynolds v. U.S.
Roe v. Wade
strict scrutiny
Roth v. U.S.
symbolic speech
Schenck v. U.S.
Texas v. Johnson
Government actions
Amendments that expand suffrage (15 , 19 , 23 , 24 , 26 )
Tinker v. Des Moines
Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10)
Weeks v. U.S.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Unit 3: Public Opinion, Political Parties & Interest Groups
political action committee (PAC)
political culture
critical election
political efficacy
political ideology
divided government
political participation
political party
exit poll
political socialization
free-rider problem
public interest lobbies
gender gap
public opinion
interest group
random sampling
rational-choice theory
responsible party model
minority majority
sampling error
party dealignment (party neutrality) vs. party realignment
single-issue groups
party eras
ticket splitting (split-ticket voting)
party identification
winner-take-all system vs. proportional representation
party platform
Trends in voting behavior (turnout rates, split-ticket voting, party loyalties, demographics, etc.)
Decline in trust—correlation with increase in investigative journalism
Political activities of citizens
Link between political action, party identification, and socioeconomics
Influences in political socialization
Decline in party identification – causes and effects
Types, characteristics, and impact of primaries
Reasons for two-party system/Challenges for third parties
Critical elections – 1800, 1860, 1932, 1968, 1980 – know party realignment
Party identification and voting
Party coalitions Interest Groups
Methods used by interest groups to influence the political process
Reasons for rise of interest groups
Goals and functions of parties and interest groups and how the two differ
Purpose and functions of PACs
Techniques used by interest groups – lobbying, grassroots mobilization, litigation
Regulation of interest groups
How interest groups and political parties support each other
Unit 4: Campaigns, Elections and Mass Media
PAC vs. Super PACs
527 group v. 501(c) group
plurality election
battleground states (swing states)
policy voting vs. retrospective voting
campaign contributions
presidential primary vs. general election
campaign strategy
press conferences
caucus (state party) vs. primary
civic duty
selective exposure vs. selective perception
closed primary vs. open primary
single-member district
Electoral College
soft money vs. hard money
sound bites
horse-race journalism
independent expenditures
trial balloons
investigative journalism
invisible primary
Government actions
Buckley v. Valeo
mandate theory of elections
Citizens United v. FEC
mass media
Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
media chains
Federal Election Campaign Act
media event
Federal Election Commission
McGovern-Fraser Commission
national party convention
Motor Voter Act
Reasons for low voter turnout in the U.S.
News media influence on policy
Direct and indirect elections
Electoral college and presidential campaign strategy
Reasons why the electoral college has not been abolished
How electoral college helps to reinforce two-party system
Balance vice president candidate provides to ticket in presidential elections
Unit 5: Congress
caucus (congressional)
bicameral legislature
committee chair
conference committees
legislative oversight
congressional redistricting
delegate role of representation (instructed delegates) vs.
majority leader
trustee role of representation
minority leader
politico role of representation
franking privilege
pork barrel
seniority system
House Rules committee
Speaker of the House
House Ways and Means Committee
standing committees vs. select committees
joint committees
Role legislative oversight has over the power of the president and bureaucracy
Incumbency advantage and why it occurs
Differences between Senate and House (number of members, term in office, size of constituency, qualifications, level of
policy knowledge, media coverage, prestige, and partisanship, rules for debate)
Congressional checks and balances
Unique jurisdiction of each chamber/special formal powers Constitution provides
Leadership roles in Congress
Founding Fathers’ intent for the legislative process
Committee membership and policy specialization
Majority party advantages
Reasons for greater competition for Senate seats
Types of committees and differences between them
Importance of the committee system
Unit 6: The President and the Bureaucracy
standard operating procedures
administrative discretion
street-level bureaucrats
executive order
iron triangle
command-and-control policy
policy agenda
incentive system
independent regulatory agency
independent executive agency
Government actions
line-item veto
executive agreement
executive privilege
lame-duck period
issue network
pocket veto
presidential coattails
government corporation
22nd Amendment
25th Amendment
War Powers Resolution
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Hatch Act
Federal Election Campaign Act
United States v. Nixon
Korematsu v. United States
Sources of presidential power (formal and informal)
How/why presidential power has increased in the post-World War II era
Presidential control/lack of control of the cabinet
Pros and cons of using cabinet members as advisors
Presidential influence on legislation
Presidential influence on the judiciary
How party polarization limits president’s influence on policymaking
Pros and cons of the line-item veto (why does the president not have one?)
How the veto power affects the President’s relationship with Congress
Impeachment process
How executive agreements circumvent the formal approval process of treaties
Roles of the president v. Congress in terms of foreign policy
Lame-duck period, and how this limits presidential influence
How new cabinet-level departments are formed
Council of Economic Advisors, Office of Management Budget and National Security Council – areas of responsibility
Advantages bureaucrats have over the president in areas of policymaking
White House staff – who are they, and how are they chosen?
Congressional oversight of the bureaucracy
How independent regulatory agencies differ from other bureaucratic entities
Unit 7: The Judiciary
amicus curiae brief
appellate jurisdiction vs. original jurisdiction
class action suits
courts of appeal
district courts
judicial activism vs. judicial restraint
judicial implementation
judicial review
(written) opinion
Originalism (original intent theory)
political questions
rule of four
senatorial courtesy
solicitor general
standing to sue
stare decisis
statutory construction
Supreme Court
writ of certiorari
District courts vs. courts of appeal (compare/contrast three levels of federal judicial system)
Central issues and impact of the Marshall, Warren, Burger, Rehnquist and Roberts’ Courts
Supreme Court Justices term length (amount of time and Founding Father’s reasoning)
Who establishes the federal court system and number of judges?
Nomination and approval process for federal judges
Selection process for the Supreme Court’s caseload
Original intent theory vs. “living constitution” theory
Unit 8: Public Policy (Economic, Domestic and Foreign)
monetary policy
domestic policy vs. foreign policy
Government groups
fiscal policy
Federal Reserve System
entitlement programs
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Secretary of State
tax expenditures
Secretary of Defense
Joint Chiefs of Staff
uncontrollable expenditures
Central Intelligence Agency
budget resolution
House Ways and Means Committee
Senate Finance Committee
authorization bill
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
appropriations bill
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
continuing resolutions
United Nations (UN)
mixed economy
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
unemployment rate
Government actions
Keynesian economic theory
supply-side economics
means-tested programs
poverty line
feminization of poverty
national debt
social welfare policies
progressive tax
Sixteenth Amendment
Social Security Act of 1935
Clean Air Act of 1970
Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Affordable Care Act of 2009
American recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
Area of policy which President has stronger control over than Congress
Federal budgetary process (from proposal to approval)
Fiscal Policy vs. Monetary Policy
Executive and Legislative branches’ role in fiscal policy
Importance of the Federal Reserve’s independence
Entitlement programs vs. means-tested programs
Concerns with entitlement programs and how they are considered uncontrollable expenditures
Consequences of running a budget deficit and the accumulation of national debt