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Transcript
10/26/2015
Warm Up: Complete Sentences
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
What year did the Church split?
What is an icon?
What is heresy?
What is excommunication?
Who is the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church?
Who is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church?
 Arabian
The Rise of Islam
Peninsula
 Part of Southwest Asia, also known as the
Middle East
 Bridge between Africa, Asia, and Europe
 Desert and Town Life
 Arab nomads (Bedouins)organized
themselves into clans
Ideals of courage and loyalty to family,
and warrior skills would become a part
of Islamic way of life
 Fertile soil and larger oases caused
Arabs to settle and farm, near a oasis or
in a market town

The Prophet Muhammad
The Rise of Islam
Born into a clan of a powerful Meccan family (around
570CE)
 Orphaned at age six
 Raised by grandfather and uncle
 Little schooling
 Worked caravan trade at young age
 Age 25-trader and business manager for Khadijah
 Married Khadijah
 Very into religion
Revelations
 Age 40-Life changed overnight
 Heard voice while meditating outside cave in Mecca
 Angel of Gabriel told him he was the messenger of
Allah
 Last prophet of Allah (God)
 613CE-began publically preaching
The Muslim World
600CE-1200CE
Chapter 10
 Crossroads




The Rise of Islam
 Mecca


Visited during holy months
Religious pilgrims came to worship at
ancient shrine in Ka’Aba
 Associated
 Eventually

with worship of Abraham
contained many gods and spirits
The Hijrah



of Trade and Ideas
Trade routes connected Arabia to major
ocean and land trade routes
Some ran from extreme south of peninsula
to the Byzantine and Sassanid (Persian)
Empires in the north
Used caravan routes, trading for goods
from the Silk Road.
Traded spices, incense, information, and
ideas from the world outside Arabia



The Rise of Islam
Muhammad and followers were not fully
accepted in Mecca
622CE moved to town of Yathrib
Later Yathrib renamed Medina
Muhammad showed great leadership
skills while in Medina
Created an agreement between
Muslims, Arabs and Jews of Medina into
a single community
 Was accepted as a political leader,
religious leader and eventually a military
leader


Return to Mecca




630CE-returned with 10,000 followers
Meccans surrendered
Destroyed idols in Ka’aba
All Meccans pledged their loyalty and
converted to Islam
1
10/26/2015
 Monotheistic
Beliefs & Practices
 In
Warm Up: Complete Sentences
Where
is the Arabian Peninsula located?
is the founder of Islam?
Where was he born?
What is the story behind the founding of
Islam?
Who


Beliefs & Practices
The Five Pillars
 Faith-testify to the following “There is no God but
Allah, & Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”
 Prayer-Five times a day facing Mecca
 Alms-responsibility to support the less fortunategiving money to the poor-special religious tax
 Pilgrimage-if one can afford to, one must travel
to Mecca and stand before Allah as equals
 Fasting-during the holy month of Ramadan, must
fast between dawn and sunset-one meal at end
of day-reminds them spiritual needs are more
important than physical needs
Believe that Muhammad’s mission was to receive
the Qur’an and demonstrate how to apply it to life
 Sunna-Muhammad’s example-best model for
proper living
 Shari’a-body of law from the Qur’an and Sunna
 Regulates family life, moral conduct, and
business and community life
Arabic, Islam means
“submission to the will of Allah”
 Muslim means “one who has
submitted”
 Holy Book
 Quran (Koran)
Written in Arabic
Revelations of Muhammad
given to him from the angel
Gabriel
Only Arabic versions
considered to be the true
word of Allah
 Mosque-place of worship
Links to Judaism &
 Same
God
Christianity
Jesus as a prophet
 Regard the Qur’an the same way the Jews and
Christians believe in the Torah and the Bible
 View

Believe that it perfects the earlier versions of Gods
law
 Final
 All



book, final prophet
three believe
Heaven
Judgement Day
Trace their ancestry to Abraham
 Refer
to Christians and Jews as “people of the
book”
Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend
religious tolerance to Christians and Jews.
 The
Warm Up: Complete Sentences
 Two
part question, answer both to receive credit: How
many gods do Muslims believe in? What is this called?
 What is the name of their Holy Book?
 What is their place of worship called?
 In bullet point format; list the five pillars.
 What do Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all agree
(believe)?
 Two part question, answer both to receive credit: What do
Muslims consider Jews and Christians? How should Muslims
treat them?
Warm Up: Short Answer
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Who is the founder of Islam?
What do they call their God?
What is their holy book called?
Who are the “People of the Book”?
In what city did Islam start?
List the Five Pillars.
2
10/26/2015
 “Rightly
Islam Expands
Guided” Caliphs
 Following ancient tribal tradition-elected
loyal friend as new leader after
Muhammad’s death
 The next four, after Muhammad’s death,
had know him, therefore became known
as “Rightly Guided” Caliphs
 Ruled following the actions of the Qur’an
and Muhammad’s teachings
 Caliph-successor
 Caliphate-their rule
 Jihad-striving or an armed struggle
against unbelievers
 Treatment
of Conquered
People
 Qur’an forbade forced
conversion
 Allowed conquered people to
follow their own religion
 Christians and Jews received
special consideration
 Paid a poll tax each year to
avoid military duties
 Various restrictions
 Could not spread their
religion
 Could be officials, scholars
and bureaucrats
Umayyads

Umayyads come to power
 Moved the Muslim capital to Damascus
 Easier to control conquered territories
 Arab Muslims felt it was to far from the homeland
 Left the simple life of previous caliphs
 Surrounded in wealth and ceremony
 Leads to division of the Muslim community
 Sunni-Shi’a split
 Sunni-carry the beliefs that Muhammad had taught, and
the first four caliphs were “rightly guided”
 Do not object to Umaayads rule
 Shi’a-(Shi’ites)-believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law
should have been the next Caliph, all Muslim rulers were
descendants of Muhammad, and do not follow the
Sunna (Muslim law)
 Sufi-reject the luxurious lifestyle of the Umaayads, pursued
life in poverty and devotion through a spiritual path
 Rise


of Muslim Cities
Muslim Culture
Baghdad-impressed all who saw it
Other cities
 Cario
Abbasids 750-1258CE

After religious and political opposition, the Umayyad
caliphate will fall in 750CE to a new powerful group
called the Abbasids.









Key trade routes
Caliph access to trade goods, gold & info about the farflung empire
Strong bureaucracy
Treasury-keep track of $$
Department for army business
Diplomats-sent all over Europe, Africa & Asia to conduct
imperial business
Taxed lands, imports, exports, and non-Muslim wealth
Role of Women
Muslim Culture

Qur’an states that “Men are the managers of the affairs of
women” and “Righteous women are therefore obedient”

The Shari’a gave Muslim women certain rights concerning
marriage, family, and property

Responsibilities
 Varied with the income of the husband
 Poor-often worked in the fields with husband
 Wealthy-supervised household and its servants
 Had access to education
 Raising the children
Early years-participate in public life and gain an
education
Later years-lived more secluded and when in public
expected to be veiled


class-Muslims at birth
class-Converts
class-protected people (Christians, Jews and
Zoroastrians)
 Lowest-slaves
 Second
 Third
Prisoners of war
Non-Muslim
 Performed household work or fought in military
Moved capital to Baghdad in 762CE

 Upper

One prince escaped to Spain, which he set up a Umayyad
caliphate, though the Berber Muslims were already there
Abbasids consolidate power
 Jerusalem
Four Social Classes
They ruthlessly murdered the remaining members of the
Umayyad family.


 Cordoba

Islam Expands



Also states that men and women as believers are equal
More economic and property rights than women in
Europe, India, and China during the same time period
3
10/26/2015
Muslim Scholarship
Knowledge
knowledge
Extends
 Muhammad himself pushed for followers
to gain knowledge
 Developed places for learning
throughout
 Preserved the knowledge from Rome
and Greece
 Also expanded that knowledge
 Umayyads and Abbasids encouraged
scholars to collect and translate scientific
and philosophical texts
 House of Wisdom
 In Baghdad
 Combination of library, academy, and
translation center
 Value

Arts and Science
Flourish
Muslim Art and Architecture


As Muslim Empire expands, entered into
regions rich in artistic traditions
Kept the traditions, but adapted to suit Islamic
life
Many Muslims believe only Allah can create
life, images of living beings was discouragedturned to calligraphy
 Some turned to decorative art-woodwork,
glass, ceramics, and textiles


Architecture is some of the greatest cultural
blending ever seen
To some extent buildings reflect the culture of
the area
Great Mosque of Damascus built on the site of
a Christian church
 Huge dome ceilings of the mosque was a
blending of Byzantine and Muslim ideas
 In Syria, included features of Rome-including
baths using the Roman heating system


 Muslim
Literature
tradition even before
 Strong
Islam
Arts and Science
Flourish
 Poets
wrote about the spirit of
desert life, and celebrating
bravery, love, generosity and
hospitality
 Qur’an is still the standard for all
Arabic literature and poetry
 The Thousand and One Nights
 Collections of fairytales,
parables, and legends
 Linked to India and Persia,
Muslims added stories and
arranged them


Arts and Science
Flourish
Medical Advances
 Comprehensive Book
 Treatise on Small Pox and Measles
Math and Science
 Two ideas stand out
 Scientific observation and experimentation
 Ability to find mathematical solutions to old
problems
 Science
 Used experiments rather than logical
reasoning
 Math
 Believed math was the basis for all knowledge
 Developed algebra
 Advances in math brought on by studying
astronomy
Philosophy &
Religion Blend Views
 Greek
philosophy of Aristotle, Plato
and Islam shared them same views,
to find the truth

Idea not liked by conservatives
 The


“Ideal Man”
Values of many cultures were
recognized by Muslims
East Persian derivation, Arabic in faith,
Iraqi in education, Hebrew in
astuteness, a disciple of Christ in
conduct, a pious as a Greek monk, a
Greek in the individual sciences, Indian
in the interpretation of all mysteries,
and Sufi in his whole spiritual life
4