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Transcript
Index Review 8/21/2013

QUESTIONS HERE
Music Theory: Chapter 1
Aspects of Sound
 Pitch
 Dynamic
 Timbre
 Articulation
 Duration
Pitch-Frequency-Wavelength

Wavelength : the distance between one sound
wave to the next.

Frequency : the rate of vibration measured in
“times per second,” called Hertz [Tune=440]

The higher the frequency…the shorter the
wavelength…the higher the pitch
Dynamics-Amplitude-Wave Height

Amplitude : height or intensity of a sound wave
that determines the loudness of a sound.

In music, Wave Height is referred to as Dynamic.
Timbre-Tone Color-Waveform
Waveform : the shape and form of the sound
wave as it moves in distance and frequency.
 Timbre : made up of more than one frequency,
usually involving harmonics or overtones.

 Basic frequency and its overtones determine the timbre
of a sound.

EX. The difference in the sound between and
oboe and a flute playing the same note at the
same volume is the Color, or Timbre, of the note.
Articulation-Envelope

Envelope : a sound’s attack, sustain and release

Articulation : the manner in which we begin the
note, sustain it and end the note.
 Band: Staccato, Accent, Legato [air]
 Orchestra: Detache, Martele, Marcato [bow]
 Chorus: Syllables, Consonants, Vowels [mouth & air]
Duration

Duration : the length of time sound and silence
lasts.

Sound has a proportional relationship between
note lengths as well as note pitch.
The Staff and Clefs
Staff [plural staves] : 5 lines and 4 spaces where
music is written on.
 The names of the lines and spaces are
determined by the Clef used.
 You need to know 4 different clefs:

 Treble Clef
 Bass Clef
 Alto Clef
 Tenor Clef
C Clef

Indicates where C4 [middle C] is located
 “Movable C” clef
Alto Clef
Viola
Tenor Clef
Bassoon, Cello, Trombone
G Clef

Indicates where G4 [G above middle C] is
 Began as a fancy G
Treble Clef
Flute, Soprano, Violin, Trumpet
F Clef

Indicates where F3 [F below middle C] is
 Began as a fancy F
Bass Clef
String Bass, Baritone, Trombone, Tuba, Timpani
The Grand Staff
Grand Staff : combines both
 treble and bass clefs.

 Piano
 Chorale/Hymn

System : a bracket, or brace, that connects
multiple staves together.
Octave Designation

There are 8 C’s on the piano; each C begins a
new octave
 C1 – C6
Guess That Note!
Ledger Lines
Performance Considerations
8 attached to a Clef
Neutral Clef
Accidentals
Half Step : the smallest space or interval between
2 notes
 Whole Step : Two half steps
 Sharp # : raises the pitch by one half step

 Double Sharp x : raises the pitch by a whole step

Flat b : lowers the pitch by one half step
 Double Flat bb : lowers the pitch by one whole step
Natural : Cancels out a previous accidental
 Enharmonic Equivalent : a pitch that sound alike
but have two different names

 Ex: E# & F, C# & Db, Name Another?!?

Location of accidentals…How long do they last?
Notation
Note Head : Body of the note
 Stem : Part of the note that is common to all note
types smaller in duration than a whole not.
 Flag : Part of the note that is common to all note
types smaller in duration than a quarter note.
 Stem and Flag placement on the staff

Notation
Bar Line : vertical line that divides the staff into
measure
 Measure : the unit of space between bar lines
 Double Bar Line : two lines that signal the end of
a section of music
 Final Bar Line : indicates the end of the piece or
composition
