Download Music Fundamentals - Danielle C. Marine

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Time signature wikipedia, lookup

Figured bass wikipedia, lookup

Mensural notation wikipedia, lookup

Clef wikipedia, lookup

Index Review 8/21/2013
Music Theory: Chapter 1
Aspects of Sound
 Pitch
 Dynamic
 Timbre
 Articulation
 Duration
Wavelength : the distance between one sound
wave to the next.
Frequency : the rate of vibration measured in
“times per second,” called Hertz [Tune=440]
The higher the frequency…the shorter the
wavelength…the higher the pitch
Dynamics-Amplitude-Wave Height
Amplitude : height or intensity of a sound wave
that determines the loudness of a sound.
In music, Wave Height is referred to as Dynamic.
Timbre-Tone Color-Waveform
Waveform : the shape and form of the sound
wave as it moves in distance and frequency.
 Timbre : made up of more than one frequency,
usually involving harmonics or overtones.
 Basic frequency and its overtones determine the timbre
of a sound.
EX. The difference in the sound between and
oboe and a flute playing the same note at the
same volume is the Color, or Timbre, of the note.
Envelope : a sound’s attack, sustain and release
Articulation : the manner in which we begin the
note, sustain it and end the note.
 Band: Staccato, Accent, Legato [air]
 Orchestra: Detache, Martele, Marcato [bow]
 Chorus: Syllables, Consonants, Vowels [mouth & air]
Duration : the length of time sound and silence
Sound has a proportional relationship between
note lengths as well as note pitch.
The Staff and Clefs
Staff [plural staves] : 5 lines and 4 spaces where
music is written on.
 The names of the lines and spaces are
determined by the Clef used.
 You need to know 4 different clefs:
 Treble Clef
 Bass Clef
 Alto Clef
 Tenor Clef
C Clef
Indicates where C4 [middle C] is located
 “Movable C” clef
Alto Clef
Tenor Clef
Bassoon, Cello, Trombone
G Clef
Indicates where G4 [G above middle C] is
 Began as a fancy G
Treble Clef
Flute, Soprano, Violin, Trumpet
F Clef
Indicates where F3 [F below middle C] is
 Began as a fancy F
Bass Clef
String Bass, Baritone, Trombone, Tuba, Timpani
The Grand Staff
Grand Staff : combines both
 treble and bass clefs.
 Piano
 Chorale/Hymn
System : a bracket, or brace, that connects
multiple staves together.
Octave Designation
There are 8 C’s on the piano; each C begins a
new octave
 C1 – C6
Guess That Note!
Ledger Lines
Performance Considerations
8 attached to a Clef
Neutral Clef
Half Step : the smallest space or interval between
2 notes
 Whole Step : Two half steps
 Sharp # : raises the pitch by one half step
 Double Sharp x : raises the pitch by a whole step
Flat b : lowers the pitch by one half step
 Double Flat bb : lowers the pitch by one whole step
Natural : Cancels out a previous accidental
 Enharmonic Equivalent : a pitch that sound alike
but have two different names
 Ex: E# & F, C# & Db, Name Another?!?
Location of accidentals…How long do they last?
Note Head : Body of the note
 Stem : Part of the note that is common to all note
types smaller in duration than a whole not.
 Flag : Part of the note that is common to all note
types smaller in duration than a quarter note.
 Stem and Flag placement on the staff
Bar Line : vertical line that divides the staff into
 Measure : the unit of space between bar lines
 Double Bar Line : two lines that signal the end of
a section of music
 Final Bar Line : indicates the end of the piece or