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Transcript
The Geography of Greece
Bronze Age Greece
Crete: Minoan Civilization
(Palace at Knossos)
Knossos: Minoan
Civilization
Minoan Civilization
The Mycenaean
Civilization
Homer: The “Heroic Age”
Paris v Menelaus http://youtu.be/eS9kqq6PNnQ
Hector v Ajax
http://youtu.be/7GyDoL7ij3A
Death of Patroclus http://youtu.be/0Cz7u8RPYKo
Achilles v. Hector
http://youtu.be/80SsC_ZNbyI
The Mask of Agamemnon
ATHENS: 700’sbce300’sbce
Piraeus: Athens’ Port City
Early Athenian
Lawgivers
$ Draco First written code created
around 621

“draconian”
Solon(archon in 594 B.C.)
Outlawed selling people into slavery
to pay their debt
Divided citizens into 4 groups based
on wealth: wealthiest 2 could hold
office
$ Cleisthenes
Athenian Society
• 3 class groups
– Citizens: extended to all those born in
Athens, only the men had political rights
– Metics: born outside Athens, free and
had to pay taxes but had no political
rights and could not own land
– Slaves: captured in war, together with
metics made up more than half of
Athenian society
Persian Wars: 499 BCE –
480 BCE
Persian Wars: Famous
Battles
$ Marathon
(490 BCE)
 26 miles from Athens
$ Thermopylae (480 BCE)
 300 Spartans at the
Mountain pass
$ Salamis (480 BCE)
 Athenian navy victorious
Golden “Age of
Pericles”:
460 BCE – 429 BCE
The Delian League
Thasos
Lesbos
Delos
Naxos
Melos
The Age of Pericles
• Not only did Pericles bring
great changes to the
government of Greece, he
also brought great changes
to the nature of art and
progress of his time.
• The great structures of
Greece, The New Temple of
Athena and the Parthenon
among others, were built
during his time. Not only did
Pericles use these
structures to change the
face of Greek art and the
cultural pulse of the nation
but he also used them for
political reasons as well.
$
Great Athenian
Socrates
Philosophers
 Know thyself!
 question everything
 only the pursuit of goodness
brings happiness.
 Plato

The Academy

The world of the FORMS

The Republic  philosopher-king
Great Athenian
Philosophers
$ Aristotle
 The Lyceum
 “Golden Mean” [everything in
moderation].
 Logic.
 Scientific method.
Athens: The Arts &
Sciences
$ DRAMA (tragedians):

Aeschylus

Sophocles

Euripides
THE SCIENCES:

Pythagoras

Democritus  all matter made up of
small atoms.

Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”
Phidias’ Acropolis
The Acropolis Today
The Parthenon
The Agora
The Classical Greek
“Ideal”
Olympia
The Ancient Olympics:
Athletes & Trainers
Olympia: Temple to Hera
The 2004 Olympics
SPARTA
SPARTA
Helots  Messenians enslaved by the
Spartans.
Spartan society
• 3 social groups
– Equals: descended from the invaders,
controlled Sparta
– Half-citizens: free, paid taxes and served in the
army but had no political power, some farmed
but others worked in the city as traders or
artisans
– Helots: slaves, greatly outnumbered the other
groups so Spartans used force to control them,
in large part this is why Sparta became a
military city-state
Spartan Government
• Two kings led Sparta
– 1 king handled military
– 1 king took care of domestic matters
• A council of Elders
– Made up of 28 male citizens over the
age of 60
– Proposed laws and served as a
criminal court
• An assembly
– Included all male citizens over 30
– Elected 5 ephors
• Made sure the kings stayed within the law
Peloponnesian Wars
Macedonia Under Philip II
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great’s
Empire
Alexander the Great in
Persia
The Hellenization of Asia
Pergamum: A Hellenistic
City
The Economy of the Hellenistic
World
Hellenistic
Philosophers
$
$
Cynics  Diogenes

ignore social conventions &
avoid luxuries.

citizens of the world.

live a humble, simple life.
Epicurians  Epicurus

avoid pain & seek pleasure.

all excess leads to pain!

politics should be avoided.
Hellenistic
Philosophers
$
Stoics  Zeno

nature is the expansion of divine
will.

concept of natural law.

get involved in politics, not
for
personal gain, but to
perform virtuous acts for the good
of all.

true happiness is found in
great achievements.
Hellenism: The Arts &
Sciences
$
$
Scientists / Mathematicians:

Aristarchus  heliocentric theory.

Euclid  geometry

Archimedes  pulley
Hellenistic Art:

More realistic; less ideal than
Hellenic art.

Showed individual emotions,
wrinkles, and age!
The Breakup of Alexander’s
Empire