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Renaissance and
Reformation
Warm Up: Define Renaissance ( Use the
information on page 382 for the definition)
Renaissance – Rebirth of classical ideas.
The Renaissance was a time of creativity
and change in many areas – political, social,
economic and cultural. Emphasis placed on
the achievements of individual human
beings.
The Renaissance Began in Italy
• Renewed interest in Roman
literature and life.
• Ruins of Roman empire dotted
the Italian countryside.
• Crusades and trade with the
Middle East Brought Italians
into contact with Byzantine
civilization.
• Increased trade brought wealth
and wealth brought the leisure
time to pursue other interests.
• Byzantine scholars had
preserved much learning from
classical Greece and Rome.
• The Pope made Rome the
capitol of the Catholic Church in
the West.
Humanism
• Define “humanism”
• Humanism – intellectual movement at the
heart of the Italian Renaissance that
focused on worldly subjects rather than
on religious issues.
• Humanists were usually Christians who
believed that the individual in the here and
now had an important role to play.
• Secularism- less emphasis on religion.
• Emphasis on individual achievement.
• Emphasis on classical Greek and Roman
texts.
The Printing Revolution
• Printing Press –
allowed new ideas to
spread more easily.
Spread from China to
Middle East to Europe.
• Gutenberg: invented a
new type of printing
press. Used movable
type.
• Books suddenly within
reach of ordinary
person.
Gutenberg Reading
Renaissance- Artistic
• The following people
should be on the left side
of your C-Notes;
Leonardo Da Vinci
Michelangelo
Raphael
Donatello
Machiavelli
Music
Dante
Thomas More
Shakespeare
Italian Geniuses of
Renaissance Art – Leonardo
• Leonardo da Vinci
(1452) – artist (Mona
Lisa, The Last
Supper), inventor
( helicopter, weapons,
music box, many
more), architect,
botanist, musician,
anatomy, optics,
engineering.
Italian Geniuses of
Renaissance Art – Leonardo
La Giaconda: The
Mona Lisa – Louvre
Museum, Paris
Italian Geniuses of
Renaissance Art – Leonardo
Helicopter
Italian Geniuses of
Renaissance Art – Leonardo
Trebuchet
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance
Art - Michelangelo
• Michelangelo –
Italian painter and
sculptor. Total
realism in art. Pieta
and David. Murals
on the ceilings of
the Sistine Chapel
in the Vatican.
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance
Art - Michelangelo
The Pieta
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance
Art - Donatello
The David –
Florence, Italy
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance
Art - Michelangelo
Italian Genius of Renaissance
Writing - Machiavelli
• Machiavelli published a book in 1513,
The Prince. Theorized about how a
perfect ruler would govern.
• Stressed that the end justifies the
means. Urged rulers to use whatever
means necessary to achieve their
goals.
Music
The Northern Renaissance
• Renaissance moved to France, Belgium,
Germany and the Netherlands.
• Erasmus – Dutch priest and Humanist.
Called for a translation of the Bible from
Latin into the vernacular of each nation, so
that common people could read it. He was
disturbed by the corruption in the Catholic
Church and called for reform.
Dante
Thomas More
Genius Writers of the Northern
Renaissance
• William Shakespeare
– England.
Playwright between
1590-1613. Wrote
about the actual
human condition of
his time.
• Cervantes – Spain.
Novelist. Wrote Don
Quixote.
Collage: Leonardo da Vinci
• Read pages 386 and 388, then access the two
websites below and then create a collage of
Leonardo da Vinci using the information you find
there. Include his paintings and sculpture, medical
drawing, inventions and writings. Be sure to label all
of the pictures, give the collage a title and include
your name.
http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/LeoHomePage.ht
ml
• http://www.mos.org/leonardo/
Renaissance- Politics
• Exploration
• Nation-states
Portugal Sails •Eastward
Established a school for
improving sailing and
navigational techniques.
• Goal: reach India and
intercept the spice trade
before it traveled through
Muslim territory.
• Designed new ships - the
caravel - prepared maps,
and trained sailors in new
navigational tools such as
the astrolabe. (page 409)
England and France
• New France – territory
stretched along the
Mississippi River from
Quebec in the North to
Louisiana on the Gulf of
Mexico.
• English built their first
colony at Jamestown,
Virginia in 1607
• By late 1700s, the
English had established
13 colonies
• Dutch and Portuguese
also established colonies
in the New World
Renaissance-Economics
• Mercantilism
• Merchant Class
• Medici family
Renaissance- Religion
• Erasmus, More, Rabelias improvements
in society through Christian motives but
with less emphasis on ceremony.
• Corruption in the Catholic Church, sale
of indulgences, and worldly lifestyle of
the clergy.
• Relationships strained
• Cathloic Church weakened.
Selling indulgences
• The Church taught that most Christians after death went
to purgatory to suffer a time of punishment for their sins
before going to heaven. Indulgences were intended to
remit a part of that time. They were granted previous to
death by the Church for various good works that came to
include monetary offerings. This last became very
controversial because it appeared that the Church was
selling the right to avoid all or part of an individual’s time
in purgatory.
The Reformation
Protestant Reformation
• Martin Luther – Catholic
priest in Germany who
Protested the
corruption in the
church and proposed
reform.
• Published 95 Theses.
• Was excommunicated
• Began his own church
– Lutheran Church
• Translated Bible into
German.
Protestant Reformation
• Anglican Church (textbook,
page 351) – Protestant
Church in England.
• Begun by Henry VIII in 1534.
Protestant Reformation
• Anglican Church (textbook,
page 351) – Protestant
Church in England.
• Begun by Henry VIII so he
could divorce his first wife,
Catherine of Aragon.
Protestant Reformation
• Anglican Church–
Protestant Church in
England.
• Begun by Henry VIII so he
could divorce his first wife,
Catherine of Aragon.
• Henry married Anne Boleyn,
whom he had beheaded only
a few years later.
The Church of England
• Between 1536 and 1540, Henry
had monasteries and convents
closed.
• When Henry died in 1547, his 10
year old son Edward became
king. He “ruled” only 5 years.
• Henry’s Catholic daughter Mary I
came to the throne. Tried to
return England to Catholicism.
Burned dissenters at the stake.
“Bloody Mary”
The Church of England
• Between 1536 and 1540, Henry
had monasteries and convents
closed.
• When Henry died in 1547, his 10
year old son Edward became
king. He “ruled” only 5 years.
• Henry’s Catholic daughter Mary
came to the throne. Tried to
return England to Catholicism.
Burned dissenters at the stake.
“Bloody Mary”
• When Mary died in 1558, Henry’s
Protestant daughter Elizabeth
took the throne. She returned
England to Protestantism.
Martin Luther
• Read pages 391-393. Design a commemorative plaque for
Martin Luther from the perspective of the newly created
Lutheran church. Then, design a “Wanted” poster for him from
the perspective of the Catholic church which excommunicated
him. Be sure to include:
• the reasons for Luther’s protest of particular Catholic church
practices (in particular “indulgences”),
• the 95 Theses,
• the Catholic church’s response to Luther
• Martin Luther
• the outcome, such as at least two other churches created by the
Reformation and the Peasants’ Revolt
• the creation of the Lutheran church.
Scientific Revolution
Scientific Revolution
• Copernicus –
heliocentric theory.
Scientific Revolution
• Copernicus – heliocentric theory.
• Kepler – mathematically proved Copernicus’ theory of
planetary motion.
• Galileo – suffered at hands of Catholic Church for
preaching the theory.
Scientific Revolution
• Copernicus – heliocentric
theory.
• Kepler – mathematically
proved Copernicus’ theory
of planetary motion.
• Galileo – suffered at hands
of Catholic Church for
preaching the theory.
• Leeuwenhoek –
Microscope/ discovered
bacteria
• Hooke – cell theory
• Boyle – Father of Modern
Chemistry.
• Priestly – discovered
oxygen as an element
Scientific Revolution
• Copernicus – heliocentric
theory. (page 357)
• Kepler – mathematically
proved Copernicus’ theory of
planetary motion.
• Galileo – suffered at hands of
Catholic Church for preaching
the theory.
• Leeuwenhoek – Microscope/
discovered bacteria
• Hooke – cell theory
• Boyle – Father of Modern
Chemistry.
• Priestly – discovered oxygen
as an element
• Newton – laws of physics and
gravity.