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Renaissance and Reformation Warm Up: Define Renaissance ( Use the information on page 382 for the definition) Renaissance – Rebirth of classical ideas. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areas – political, social, economic and cultural. Emphasis placed on the achievements of individual human beings. The Renaissance Began in Italy • Renewed interest in Roman literature and life. • Ruins of Roman empire dotted the Italian countryside. • Crusades and trade with the Middle East Brought Italians into contact with Byzantine civilization. • Increased trade brought wealth and wealth brought the leisure time to pursue other interests. • Byzantine scholars had preserved much learning from classical Greece and Rome. • The Pope made Rome the capitol of the Catholic Church in the West. Humanism • Define “humanism” • Humanism – intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. • Humanists were usually Christians who believed that the individual in the here and now had an important role to play. • Secularism- less emphasis on religion. • Emphasis on individual achievement. • Emphasis on classical Greek and Roman texts. The Printing Revolution • Printing Press – allowed new ideas to spread more easily. Spread from China to Middle East to Europe. • Gutenberg: invented a new type of printing press. Used movable type. • Books suddenly within reach of ordinary person. Gutenberg Reading Renaissance- Artistic • The following people should be on the left side of your C-Notes; Leonardo Da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Donatello Machiavelli Music Dante Thomas More Shakespeare Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art – Leonardo • Leonardo da Vinci (1452) – artist (Mona Lisa, The Last Supper), inventor ( helicopter, weapons, music box, many more), architect, botanist, musician, anatomy, optics, engineering. Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art – Leonardo La Giaconda: The Mona Lisa – Louvre Museum, Paris Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art – Leonardo Helicopter Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art – Leonardo Trebuchet Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo • Michelangelo – Italian painter and sculptor. Total realism in art. Pieta and David. Murals on the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo The Pieta Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Donatello The David – Florence, Italy Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo Italian Genius of Renaissance Writing - Machiavelli • Machiavelli published a book in 1513, The Prince. Theorized about how a perfect ruler would govern. • Stressed that the end justifies the means. Urged rulers to use whatever means necessary to achieve their goals. Music The Northern Renaissance • Renaissance moved to France, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. • Erasmus – Dutch priest and Humanist. Called for a translation of the Bible from Latin into the vernacular of each nation, so that common people could read it. He was disturbed by the corruption in the Catholic Church and called for reform. Dante Thomas More Genius Writers of the Northern Renaissance • William Shakespeare – England. Playwright between 1590-1613. Wrote about the actual human condition of his time. • Cervantes – Spain. Novelist. Wrote Don Quixote. Collage: Leonardo da Vinci • Read pages 386 and 388, then access the two websites below and then create a collage of Leonardo da Vinci using the information you find there. Include his paintings and sculpture, medical drawing, inventions and writings. Be sure to label all of the pictures, give the collage a title and include your name. http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/LeoHomePage.ht ml • http://www.mos.org/leonardo/ Renaissance- Politics • Exploration • Nation-states Portugal Sails •Eastward Established a school for improving sailing and navigational techniques. • Goal: reach India and intercept the spice trade before it traveled through Muslim territory. • Designed new ships - the caravel - prepared maps, and trained sailors in new navigational tools such as the astrolabe. (page 409) England and France • New France – territory stretched along the Mississippi River from Quebec in the North to Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico. • English built their first colony at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 • By late 1700s, the English had established 13 colonies • Dutch and Portuguese also established colonies in the New World Renaissance-Economics • Mercantilism • Merchant Class • Medici family Renaissance- Religion • Erasmus, More, Rabelias improvements in society through Christian motives but with less emphasis on ceremony. • Corruption in the Catholic Church, sale of indulgences, and worldly lifestyle of the clergy. • Relationships strained • Cathloic Church weakened. Selling indulgences • The Church taught that most Christians after death went to purgatory to suffer a time of punishment for their sins before going to heaven. Indulgences were intended to remit a part of that time. They were granted previous to death by the Church for various good works that came to include monetary offerings. This last became very controversial because it appeared that the Church was selling the right to avoid all or part of an individual’s time in purgatory. The Reformation Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther – Catholic priest in Germany who Protested the corruption in the church and proposed reform. • Published 95 Theses. • Was excommunicated • Began his own church – Lutheran Church • Translated Bible into German. Protestant Reformation • Anglican Church (textbook, page 351) – Protestant Church in England. • Begun by Henry VIII in 1534. Protestant Reformation • Anglican Church (textbook, page 351) – Protestant Church in England. • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Protestant Reformation • Anglican Church– Protestant Church in England. • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. • Henry married Anne Boleyn, whom he had beheaded only a few years later. The Church of England • Between 1536 and 1540, Henry had monasteries and convents closed. • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son Edward became king. He “ruled” only 5 years. • Henry’s Catholic daughter Mary I came to the throne. Tried to return England to Catholicism. Burned dissenters at the stake. “Bloody Mary” The Church of England • Between 1536 and 1540, Henry had monasteries and convents closed. • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son Edward became king. He “ruled” only 5 years. • Henry’s Catholic daughter Mary came to the throne. Tried to return England to Catholicism. Burned dissenters at the stake. “Bloody Mary” • When Mary died in 1558, Henry’s Protestant daughter Elizabeth took the throne. She returned England to Protestantism. Martin Luther • Read pages 391-393. Design a commemorative plaque for Martin Luther from the perspective of the newly created Lutheran church. Then, design a “Wanted” poster for him from the perspective of the Catholic church which excommunicated him. Be sure to include: • the reasons for Luther’s protest of particular Catholic church practices (in particular “indulgences”), • the 95 Theses, • the Catholic church’s response to Luther • Martin Luther • the outcome, such as at least two other churches created by the Reformation and the Peasants’ Revolt • the creation of the Lutheran church. Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution • Copernicus – heliocentric theory. Scientific Revolution • Copernicus – heliocentric theory. • Kepler – mathematically proved Copernicus’ theory of planetary motion. • Galileo – suffered at hands of Catholic Church for preaching the theory. Scientific Revolution • Copernicus – heliocentric theory. • Kepler – mathematically proved Copernicus’ theory of planetary motion. • Galileo – suffered at hands of Catholic Church for preaching the theory. • Leeuwenhoek – Microscope/ discovered bacteria • Hooke – cell theory • Boyle – Father of Modern Chemistry. • Priestly – discovered oxygen as an element Scientific Revolution • Copernicus – heliocentric theory. (page 357) • Kepler – mathematically proved Copernicus’ theory of planetary motion. • Galileo – suffered at hands of Catholic Church for preaching the theory. • Leeuwenhoek – Microscope/ discovered bacteria • Hooke – cell theory • Boyle – Father of Modern Chemistry. • Priestly – discovered oxygen as an element • Newton – laws of physics and gravity.