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Transcript
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
An atom has two main parts, in the middle is a NUCLEUS, and arranged around the
outside are ELECTRONS.
The NUCLEUS contains PROTONS and NEUTRONS.
PROTONS have a positive (+) charge, ELECTRONS have a negative (-) charge and
NEUTRONS have no charge.
The most important fact about an element is the number of PROTONS, which it has in
its nucleus; this is equal to the ATOMIC NUMBER or PROTON NUMBER of the
element
.
Find the element SODIUM (Na), it has the atomic number 11, it has 11 PROTONS in its
nucleus, atoms of sodium always have 11 PROTONS in their nucleus.
Find the element CARBON (C), what is its atomic number ? How many protons does it
have in its nucleus ?
Find the elements which have the following numbers of protons in their nucleus
4, 19, 26, 80, 103.
How many protons are there in the nucleus of the following elements
Al, Br, Zn, Sulphur, Zirconium, Radium
ATOMS have ZERO electrical charge, this means that the number of
POSITIVE charges are equal to the number of NEGATIVE charges.
Which part of the atom has a POSITIVE charge ?
Which part of the atom has a NEGATIVE charge ?
This means that the number of PROTONS is equal to the number of ELECTRONS in an
atom.
How many ELECTRONS are,there in each of the following ATOMS ?
Sodium, Lithium, Ba,O, W, the element with an atomic number 2, the element with 87
protons in its nucleus.
The MASS of an atom is contained in the NUCLEUS, the ATOMIC MASS or
MASS NUMBER of an element is the SUM of the PROTONS and the NEUTRONS.
Find the element SODIUM (Na) its ATOMIC NUMBER is 11, it has 11
PROTONS in its NUCLEUS and 11 ELECTRONS outside the nucleus.
Its MASS NUMBER is 23, this means that the number of PROTONS +
NEUTRONS = 23 , if it has 11 PROTONS, it has 23—11 = 12 NEUTRONS.
Copy and complete the following table
NAME
SYMBOL
ATOMIC
No
Potassium
P
20
Pb
Iron
chlorine
. MASS
No
. PROTONS
NEUTRONS
ELECTRONS