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Transcript
10.2 Beginnings of Islam
MUHAMMAD AND THE BIRTH OF ISLAM
DO NOW:
1.
Is Islam a monotheistic or polytheistic
religion?
2.
Has it grown or waned in popularity since its
beginnings?
3.
What section of the world do many Islamic
countries comprise?
1 MECCA & THE KAABA

By the Middle of the 500s, three major oasis cities
developed on the Arabian Peninsula. They were
Yathrib, which is today Medina, Ta’if, and Mecca.
Of the three, Mecca was the largest and the richest.

Mecca was supported by trade and religion.

1
Traders stopped there on their way north to
Constantinople.
 Arab pilgrims, or travelers to a religious shrine,
came there to worship.

 Arabia’s
holiest shrine, the Kaaba stood in the
center of Mecca.
 It was believed that a black stone fell from paradise
and was set in one of its walls.
1

Muslims believe the Kaaba was first built by
Adam.
 Later,
Abraham and his son Ishmael rebuilt it.
 They had it dedicated to the worship of one God.
 Later it was filled with idols that represented the
gods and goddesses of different tribes.
2 MUHAMMAD’S EARLY LIFE

In 570, Muhammad
was born and he was
raised by an uncle who
was a trader.

He mastered the skills
of leading caravans.
Writings say that his
skills caught the eye of
a wealthy widow and
merchant, Khadija.
2 MUHAMMAD’S EARLY LIFE

On her behalf, Muhammad would travel to the
Fertile Crescent to trade goods.

When he returned from his journey, they were
married. Muhammad’s marriage to Khadija
gave him wealth and respect in Mecca.
3 MUHAMMAD’S REVELATION

According to Muslim beliefs, Muhammad
had a revelation or vision in 610 CE.
 It
is said that he heard the voice of the Angel
Gabriel telling him to preach about God.
 He
concluded that there was only one God,
Allah, the same god as the God of Jews and
Christians.
3

When Muhammad told Khadija what happened
she went to see a holy man hoping he could
explain it to her.

The holy man told her that the angel speaking
to Muhammad was the same one who had
visited Moses and the other prophets.
4 MUHAMMAD’S PERSECUTION

Muhammad’s teaching greatly upset the
leaders of Mecca.
 At
first they laughed at him but they eventually felt
threatened.
 The leaders felt that if people stopped coming to
Mecca, the city’s economy would be ruined and the
leaders would no longer be rich.
 They started to persecute Muhammad and his
followers.
5 THE HIJAR


In 620, Muhammad preached to a group of
pilgrims from Yathrib.

They invited him to come there and be their leader.

During the summer of 622, he and several hundred
followers fled from Mecca to Yathrib.
The year 622 was called the year of the Migration
and the city was renamed for the city of the
prophet, Medina.

He became a successful leader in the city of Medina.
6 ISLAM’S SUCCESS

Muslim scholars say that in 624 Muhammad
led attacks on Meccan caravans, cutting off
Mecca’s source of income.
 In
630, he signed a peace treaty and triumphantly
entered their home city, Mecca.
 Muhammad forgave those who persecuted him.
 Within 2 years all the tribes of Arabia declared their
faith in Islam and their loyalty to Muhammad.
 In 632 Muhammad died.
7 THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

The Five Pillars of Islam are the basic duties of
every Muslim. They are outlined in the Quran.
They are:
 1.
 2.
 3.
 4.
 5.
Believe in one God, Allah and Muhammad is
his prophet.
Pray facing Mecca five times daily.
Give to those in need.
Fast during the holy month of Ramadan.
Make a holy pilgrimage to Mecca at least
once in your life.
MOSQUES

Muslims worship in a mosque. All mosque
builders follow certain standards.
 The
Mosque always faces Mecca. Markings on the
walls show the direction of Mecca.
 From tall towers, called minarets, religious leaders,
called muezzins, call Muslims to prayer.
 Walled in courtyards in the mosque hold hundreds
of worshippers.
AL-MASJID AN-NABAWI, MEDINA
AL-MASJID AN-NABAWI, MEDINA
Ar-Rawdah an-Nabawiyah
Muhammad’s tomb
DOME OF THE ROCK, JERUSALEM

The oldest Muslim monument still standing is
the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
 Built
in 691, this building honors where Muslims
believe Muhammad ascended into heaven.