Download reduced size

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Brain wikipedia, lookup

Brain morphometry wikipedia, lookup

Brain size wikipedia, lookup

Neuroscience of sex differences wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Two overall views of brain-mind relationship:
1) Dualist: _________________________________________
________________________________________
2) Monist: _________________________________________
_____________
Two versions of monism:
1) Materialism: _____________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
2) George Berkeley, Irish Bishop (1685 -1753)_____________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
Most neuroscientists assume a _____________ brain -mind
relation.
Why?
Francis Crick (is famous for _______________________ )
He wrote “The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search
of the Soul”
Are you monist or dualist?
1
Historic Overview of Mind-Brain Relationship
Early clues of brain function:
- As early as _____________, hominids bore holes into each
other’s skulls (process called ____________).
- Signs of healing: ____________________________________
___________________.
- Goal not clear:
- However, writing from physicians of ancient Egypt (5000
years ago) suggests they believed that _____, not brain, was
the seat of the soul and contained memory.
2
1
Views of the Brain in Ancient Greece
- Most influential Greek scholar of 4th century B.C was
______________ (460-379), _______________________________.
- Based on crude observations and dissections, ___________ not on ly
believed that brain was an organ of sensation, but was also th e seat
of intelligence:
- ____________ view disputed by __________ (384 -322 B.C. ).
- _________ suggested that the heart was the center of intellect; he
proposed that the brain was ________________________________
________________________________________
Views of the Brain during the Roman Empire
- Most influential figure in Roman medicine was the Greco-Roman
physician _______ (A.D. 130-200), who embraced Hippocrate’s view.
- He treated the injuries of gladiators and performed numerous
animal dissections, especially sheep.
- To him, sensations were registered and movements initiated by the
movement of _______ to or from the brain ventricles via the nerves,
which were believed to be hollow tubes, like the blood vessels.
This was based on the prevailing theory that the body functioned
according to a balance of four vital fluids, or _______.
3
Views of the Brain from the Renaissance to the XIXth Century
- Galen’s view of the brain remained unopposed for nearly
1500 years
- Emphasis is still on the ventricular localization of brain function by
the great anatomist ___________________ (1514-1564).
- Note the emphasis in his drawing of the __________ (large shape in
the middle of the head).
4
2
- ____________ (1596-1650) proposed what theory of brain function?
______________________________
- According to his view, the brain functions on an _________
principle, such that environmental stimuli (sensations) can
__________ produce motor responses. (defined differently today!)
- Reflex comes from Latin reflectere “to bend back upon itself”.
- He explained reflexes as ___________________________________
_____________________________________________________
- Note that he has only one nerve to and from the brain; there we re
no distinction between __________________________.
- Thus, the brain of humans, like that of animals, were mechanical
devices according to __________.
5
- To Descartes, what made humans different from animals?
- According to Descartes, the soul controlled the body via the _____
_____ , a gland centrally located just above the _______, covered by
the _________.
- The _____________, through its movements like a ______, could
influence the muscles of the body, and receive external information
via the sensory systems associated with the ventricular system
(brain).
This brain-mind relationship view is one of the best example of
___________.
6
3
Descartes’ view began to be refuted, in part because his model o f
brain function was so _________________.
- The discovery and experimentation with electricity in the late
1700’s allowed the Italian scientist ____________ and the German
biologist ______________________ to discover that muscle tissu e
twitches in response to electrically stimulated nerves (even in
decapitated frogs).
- These discoveries finally displaced the notion that: ___________
__________________________________________________.
7
The lack of distinction between sensory and motor functions was
also refuted by the Scottish physican ____________ and the French
physiologist ___________________ around 1810.
- They took advantage of the observation that nerve fibers divide just
before joining the spinal cord (see below).
- Remember the dorsal vs. ventral roots of the 31 pairs of spinal
nerves?
- They discovered that cutting the _______ roots produce sensory
impairments while cutting the ______ roots produce motor deficits.
- Gave rise to the notion that peripheral nerves are bundles of
_____________________ that are either sensory or motor, but are
generally mixed in peripheral nerves (we will see exceptions).
8
4
General Review of the Nervous System
Nervous system
- Central Nervous System (nucleus, nuclei, tracts)
- ______
- ____________
- Peripheral Nervous System (ganglion, ganglia, nerves)
- ___________________________
- ___________________________
- Afferent nerves
- Efferent nerves
- _________________________ (PNS)
- _________________________ (SNS)
9
- 12 pairs of ___________ (most somatic, some autonomic)
Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons
- Example: a multipolar cell
- __________
- ______
- _________
- ___________
Axon hillock
Supporting Glial cells:
- _______________
- ____________
- ___________
- ________
10
5
Neurons communicate with each other at ___________________
Neuron A
impulse
Neuron B
____________
_____
___________________
_____________________
____________
______________________
___________
_______
Directions in the Nervous System:
11
CORTICAL ANATOMY
Some facts about the Human Cerebral Cortex:
Why is cortex referred to as gray matter? (clue, cell bodies vs. fibers)
Surface area of cortex, which is constrained by a limited size s kull,
is maximized by ____________ .
Fissure - _______________________________.
Sulcus - ________________________________
(plural - sulci).
Gyrus - ________________________________
(plural: gyri).
Pattern of cortical folding is fairly uniform from
one person to the next, and is relatively
symmetrical between the two hemispheres (but
we will see some interesting exceptions).
12
6
Main Cortical Landmarks
Fissures:
- Longitudinal fissure: separates the ______________.
- Lateral (Sylvian) fissure: furrow on the inferior surface of
hemisphere, extending laterally between the _________________
lobes. It is separated in a posterior ramus (main part on the lateral
surface), an anterior and ascending ramus, both projecting a short
distance.
- Transverse fissure: space between _______________________
(forebrain).
- _____________: (sulcus of Rolando) Important landmark starts at
superior aspect of hemispheres and descends along lateral surface
at an angle, just short of the lateral fissure.
Transverse
fissure
13
The 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres
Frontal lobe: occupies entire area in front of _______________ and
above the lateral sulcus on the lateral surface.
Parietal lobe: Bounded anteriorly by _______________ and anteroventrally by lateral fissure. Bounded posteriorly by imaginary line
between pre-occipital notch and parietooccipital sulcus.
Temporal lobe: Bounded dorsally by the _______________, and
posteriorly by the imaginary line described above for parietal lobe.
Occipital lobe: mostly on the _____________________________,
and bounded from the parietal and temporal lobes as described above.
Parietooccipital
sulcus
Preoccipital
notch
14
7
Space inside lateral fissure opens to the ______________________.
Lateral view of the brain showing important landmarks:
Frontal lobe:
- superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri, delimited by the
superior and inferior frontal sulci.
- precentral and central sulci delimit the precentral gyrus, forming
the ________________________.
- the anterior and ascending rami of the lateral fissure divide the
inferior frontal gyrus into the opercular (A), the triangular (B), and
the orbital (C) portions.
15
Parietal lobe:
- the central and postcentral sulci delimit the postcentral gyrus,
forming the ___________________________.
- the intraparietal sulcus divides the superior and inferior parietal
lobules.
- the inferior parietal lobule contains, dorsally, the supramarginal
gyrus, and more ventrocaudally, the angular gyrus, two cortical
regions implicated in ___________.
Supramarginal
gyrus
Angular
gyrus
Superior
frontal
sulcus
16
8
Temporal lobe:
- superior and inferior temporal sulci divide the lateral surface of
temporal lobe into superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri.
- superior temporal gyrus dorsocaudally (floor of the lateral fissure)
contains the transverse temporal gyri of Heschl, implicated in
______________________.
- anterior to Heschl’s convolutions is the planum temporale, forming
the ____________________.
17
Mid-sagittal View of Brain
Occipital lobe:
- calcarine and parieto-occipital sulci are readily apparent in midsagittal view, which demarcate the cuneus of the occipital lobe,
containing the _____________________.
- another area of interest in this view is the Cingulate gyrus .
- the white appearing area in the middle of the brain is the ____ __
__________, which is the major fiber tract connecting the two
____________ of the brain.
18
9