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Transcript
VA. Earth Science
SOLs
wps
4/30/2017
1
Meteorology
The study of the earth’s
atmosphere.
4/30/2017
2
Weather describes day
to day changes in
atmosphereic
conditions.
4/30/2017
3
Climate describes the
typical weather patterns
for a given location over a
period of many years.
4/30/2017
4
Areas near the equator receive
more of the sun’s energy per unit
area than nearer the poles.
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5
The conditions necessary for
cloud formation are: air is at or
below dew point; and
condensation nuclei are present.
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6
Cloud droplets can join
together to form
precipitation.

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7
The four major factors
affecting climate are latitude,
elevation, close to water, and
close to mountains.
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8
The Coriolis effect causes
deflections of the atmosphere due
to rotation of the Earth.

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9
The Coriolis effect helps
to create the global wind
pattern.

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10
A Tornado is a narrow,
violent funnel-shaped
column of spiral winds.

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11
A Hurricane is a tropical cyclone
spinning counterclockwise with
sustained winds of 120 km per hour
or greater.

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12
Global wind patterns
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13
Weather instruments
thermometer,
barometer, and a
psychrometer.

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14
Read a weather map.

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15
Identify clouds

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16
Cirrus

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17
Cumulus

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18
Stratus

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19
Cumulonimbus

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20
Convection Is a Current that is set
up when hot less dense material
rises, cools, becomes denser and
sinks.

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Hot stuff rises cold stuff sinks
21
Convection runs oceans,
atmosphere and Earths
interior.Plate tectonics is driven by
convection in the Earth’s
mantle.Some ocean currents are
convection currents
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22
The earth is the third
planet from the sun.

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23
The early atmosphere contained
little oxygen and more carbon
dioxide than the modern
atmosphere.

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24
Early photosynthetic life (blue
green algae) generated oxygen and
consumed carbon dioxide. It was
only after early photosynthetic life
generated oxygen that animal life
become possible.

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25
Earth’s atmosphere is
21% oxygen, 78%
nitrogen and 1% trace
gases.

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26
The atmosphere of
Venus is mostly carbon
dioxide and very dense.

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27
The Martian atmosphere
is very thin and mostly
Carbon Dioxide.
4/30/2017
28
Oceanography The
study of the ocean.
4/30/2017
29
The tides are the daily, periodic
rise and fall of water level caused
by the gravitational pull of the sun
and moon.
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30
Most waves on the ocean
surface are generated by the
wind.

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31
There are large current systems in
the oceans in the oceans that
carry warm water towards the
poles and cold water towards the
equator.

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32
Sea level falls when glacial ice
caps grow and rises when the ice
caps melt.

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33
Upwellings bring cold, nutrient-rich
water from the deep ocean to the
surface and are areas of rich
biological activity.

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34
Estuaries, like the Chesapeake Bay,
are areas where fresh and salt
water mix, producing variations in
salinity and high biological activity.

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35
Algae in the oceans are an
important source of
atmospheric oxygen.

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36
The oceans are an important
source of food and raw
materials.

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37
Pollution and over-fishing can
harm or deplete valuable
resources.

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38
The stored heat in the ocean
drives much of the Earth’s
weather.

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39
The stored heat in the ocean
causes climate near the ocean to
be milder than climate in the
interior of continents.

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40
Features of the seafloor that are
related to plate tectonic processes
include mid-ocean ridges and
trenches.

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41
Other major topographic features
of the oceans are continental
shelves, continental slopes,
abyssal plains, and seamounts.

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42
Astronomy the study of the
heavens

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43
The sun consists largely of
hydrogen gas. Its energy comes
from nuclear fusion of hydrogen to
helium.

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44
There are essentially
two types of planets in
our solar system.

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45
Four inner (terrestrial) planets
made mostly of solid rock.

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46
Four outer planets are gas giants,
consisting of thick outer layers of
gaseous materials, perhaps with a
small rocky core.

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47
The fifth outer planet Pluto has an
unknown composition, and
appears solid.

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48
Moons are natural satellites of
planets that vary widely in
composition

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49
The Big Bang Theory states that
the universe began as a dense
sphere that expanded and
eventually condense into galaxies.

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50
The solar nebular theory explains
that the planets formed through
condensing of the solar nebula.

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51
Stars form by
condensation of
interstellar gas.

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52
Galaxies are collections of large
numbers ( billions) of stars. The
sun is in the Milky Way Galaxy.

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53
The basic types of galaxies are
spiral, elliptical, and irregular.

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54
A light year is the distance light
travels in one year and is the most
commonly used measurement for
distance in astronomy.
Today many astronomers use the
Parsec.

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55
Much of our information about our
galaxy and the universe comes
from ground-based observations.

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56
The Hubble Space telescope has
greatly improved our
understanding of the Universe.
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57
Measure mass and
volume of materials in
the lab.
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58
Calculate density.
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59
Interpret data from a graph or table
that show change in mass, density,
or temperature with time.

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60
Interpret data from a graph or table
that shows changes with
temperature or pressure with depth.

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61
Compare topographic
maps of different scales.

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62
Construct a graph, table, chart,
and/or diagram from data.
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63
Interpret graphs and diagrams.

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64
Use the scientific method to design
and test a Hypothesis.

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65
Make predictions using scientific
data and data analysis.

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66
Use data to support or
reject a hypothesis.

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67
Explain how the scientific method
is used to validate scientific
theories.
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68
Read and interpret maps, with
legends and lines ( contour or
isobar) used on maps.

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69
Locate points and directions on
maps and globes using latitude
and longitude.

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70
Construct profiles from
topographic contours.

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71
Determine distance and
elevation on a map.

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72
Identify a hilltop, stream, and
valley on a topographic map.
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73
The Earth consists of a solid, mostly
iron inner core; a rocky, plastic
mantle; and a rock brittle crust.

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74
The lithosphere is the solid outer
shell of the earth.

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75
Relative plate motions and plate
boundaries are convergent,
divergent or transform.

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76
Earthquake activity is
associated with all plate
boundaries.
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77
Convergent boundaries
include collision zones
and subduction zones.

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78
Major features of divergent
boundaries include mid-ocean
ridges, rift valleys, and volcanoes.

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Major features of
transform boundaries
include strike-slip faults.

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80
Ocean crust is relatively thin,
young and dense.

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81
Continental crust is
relatively thick old and
less dense.

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82
Continental Drift is a
consequence of plate
tectonics.

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83
Hot spot volcanic activity is
exceptional in that it is not related
to plate boundaries.
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84
A fault is a break or crack in the
Earth’s crust along which
movement has occurred.

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85
Most active faults are located at or
near plate boundaries.
Earthquakes result when
movement occurs along a fault.

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When rocks are compressed
horizontally, their layers may be
deformed into wave-like forms
called folds. This commonly occurs
during continental collisions.

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87
A volcano is an opening where
magma is erupted onto the Earth’s
surface. Most volcanic activity is
associated with subduction, rifting
or sea-floor spreading.

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88
Weathering is the process by
which rocks are broken down by
the action of water, air, and
organisms.

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89
Erosion is the process by which
earth materials are transported by
moving water, ice, or wind.

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Deposition is the process by which
Earth materials carried by wind,
water, or ice settle out and are
deposited.

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91
Weathering accelerates erosion
and thus increases the rate of
deposition.

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The potential for erosion is
greatest in areas of high relief.

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93
The potential for deposition is
greatest in areas of low relief,
especially standing water, and
particularly the ocean.
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94
Soil is loose rock fragments and clay
derived from weathered rock mixed
with organic material.
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95
Karst topography forms when
limestone is slowly dissolved away
by slightly acidic groundwater.
4/30/2017
96
Where limestone is abundant in
Valley and ridge province of Virginia,
karst topograhy is common.
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97
Permeability is measure of the ability
of a rock or sediment to transmit
water or other liquids.
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98
Water does not easily pass through
impermeable materials.
4/30/2017
99
Geological processes, such as
erosion, and human activities, such
as waste disposal, can pollute water
supplies.
4/30/2017
100
Interpret a simple groundwater
diagram showing the zone of aeration,
the zone of saturation, the water table
and an aquifer.
4/30/2017
101
Interpret a simple hydrological cycle
diagram, including evaporation,
condensation, precipitation, and
runoff.
4/30/2017
102
A mineral is a naturally-occurring,
inorganic, solid substance with a
definite chemical composition and
structure.
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103
Minerals may be identified by their
physical properties such as hardness,
color, luster, and streak.
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Mineral color
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Mineral luster
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Mineral streak
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107
Most rock are made of one or
more minerals.
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108
Some major rock-forming minerals
are quartz feldspar, calcite and mica.
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109
Ore minerals include pyrite,
magnetite, hematite, galena, halite,
graphite, and sulfur.
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110
Igneous rock forms from molten rock
that cools and hardens either below
or on the Earth’s surface.
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111
Sedimentary rocks form from rock
fragments or organic matter bound
together, or are formed by chemical
precipitation.
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Metamorphic rocks form by the effects
of heat, pressure or chemical action on
other rocks.
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Extrusive igneous rocks have small
crystals and a fine-grained texture.
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Intrusive igneous rocks have larger
crystals and a coarse-grained
texture.
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Extrusive igneous rocks include
pumice, obsidian and basalt.
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Intrusive igneous rocks
include granite.
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Sedimentary rocks are
clastic or nonclastic.
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Clastic sedimentary
rocks are made up of
fragments of other rocks
like sandstone,
conglomerate and shale.
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119
Non-clastic sedimentary
rocks include limestone
and gypsum.
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Metamorphic rocks can
be foliated or unfoliated.
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121
Foliated metamorphic rocks have
fine layers and include slate,schist,
and gneiss.
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122
Interpret the rock cycle diagram.
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123
Classify the following rock types as
igneous, metamorphic or
sedimentary.
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Pumice
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Obsidian
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Basalt
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Granite
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Sandstone
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Conglomerate
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Shale
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Limestone
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Gypsum
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Slate
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Schist
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Gneiss
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Marble
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Quartzite
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Renewable resources can be
replaced by nature at a rate close to
the rate at which it is being used.
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Renewable resources include
vegatation, sunlight, and surface
water.
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Non-renewable resources are
renewed very slowly or not at all.
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Non-renewable resources include
coal, oil, and minerals.
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Fossil fuels are non-renewable and
cause pollution, but the are relatively
cheap and easy to use.
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143
Major Virginia rock and mineral
resources include coal for energy,
gravel and crushed stone for road
construction, and limestone for
making concrete. Virginia also has
newly discovered deposits of
titanium.
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The five physiological provinces are
Coastal plain, Piedmont, Blue ridge,
Valley and Ridge, Appalachian Plateau.
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The Coastal Plain is a flat area underlain
by young, unconsolidated sediments.
These layers of sediment were produced
by erosion of the Appalachain Mountains
and then deposited on the Coastal Plain.
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The Piedmont is an area of rolling hills
underlain by mostly ancient igneous and
metamorphic rocks. The igneous rocks are
the roots of volcanoes formed during an
ancient episode of subduction that
occurred before the formation of the
Appalachian Mountains.
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The Blue Ridge is a high ridge separating
the Piedmont from the Valley and Ridge
Province. The billion-year old igneous
and metamorphic rocks of the Blue Ridge
are the oldest in the state. Some
metamorphism of these rocks occurred
during the formation of the Appalachian
Mountians.
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The Valley and ridge province is an area
with long parallel ridges and valleys
underlain by ancient folded and faulted
sedimentary rocks. The folding and
faulting of the sedimentary rocks occurred
during a collision between Africa and North
America. The collision, which occurred in
the late Paleozoic, produced the
Appalachian Mountains.
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The Appalachian Plateau has rugged
irregular topography and is underlain by
ancient, flat-lying sedimentary rocks. The
area is actually a series of plateaus
separated by faults. Most of Virginia’s
coal resources are found in the plateau
province.
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150
Label a map of the physiographic
provinces of Virginia.
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151
A fossil is the remains, impressions, or
other evidence of the former existence of
life preserved in rock.
4/30/2017
152
Some ways in which fossils can be
preserved are molds, casts, and original
bone or shell.
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153
Almost all fossils are found in
sedimentary rocks.
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In Virginia, fossils are found mainly in
the Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, and
Appalachian Plateau provinces.
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155
Most Virginia Fossils are of marine
organisms. This indicates that large
areas of the state have been periodically
covered by seawater.
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Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic
fossils
are found in Virginia.
4/30/2017
157
Describe how life has changed and
become more complex over geologic
time.
4/30/2017
158
Relative time places events in a
sequence without assigning any
numerical ages.
4/30/2017
159
Fossils superposition, and cross-cutting
relations are used to determine the
relative age of rocks.
4/30/2017
160
Absolute time places a numerical age on
an event.
4/30/2017
161
Radioactive decay is used to
determine the absolute age of rocks.
4/30/2017
162
Interpret a simple geologic history
diagram using superposition and
cross-cutting relations.
4/30/2017
163
Human activities have increased the
carbon dioxide content of the
atmosphere.
4/30/2017
164
Man-made chemicals have decreased the
ozone concentration in the upper
atmosphere.
4/30/2017
165
Volcanic activity and meteorite impacts
can inject large quantities of dust and
gases into the atmosphere.
4/30/2017
166
The ability of the Earth’s atmosphere to
absorb and retain heat is affected by the
presence of gases like water vapor and
carbon dioxide.
4/30/2017
167
Explain how volcanic activity or
meteor impacts could affect the
atmosphere and life on Earth.
4/30/2017
168
The end.
4/30/2017
169
Special thanks is given to the following:
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Produced by CC productions.
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