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Transcript
A Larger World Opens: Expanded
Influence of Western Civilization
Age of Exploration
1
Motives in the Age of
Exploration
Attracted to East for silks and spices
 Difficult to trade with Islamic empires

• 1453 Byzantine Empire fell to Turks
desire for wealth and adventure
 Tired of Ottoman and Venetian
middlemen getting all the profits
 religious zeal- save souls, converts
 Summary: Gold, Glory and God

2
Improvements in Navigation
Better maps, follow coasts at first, used
compass
 better ships- triangle AND square sails and
new hull design, heavy enough to carry
canon
 use of astrolabe- magnetic compass sail
by stars
 knowledge of wind patterns

3
Better ships
4
De Verga Map 1411
5
Account of the Islands of the Mediterranean.
Martellus, Henricus, Germanus; Florence 1489
6
Better Technology: Compass
7
From the Astrolabe…
8
…to the Sextant
9
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394-1460
 Helped develop caravel
 Began exploring coast
of Africa at 21 following
defeat of Barbary
pirates
 Sponsored explorers,
cartographers

10
Why were the Portuguese first?

Location, location, location!
• At the tip of the Iberian Peninsula, farther
from the Ottoman Empire, and very close
to coast of Africa
11
Portuguese Explorers
Bartolomeo Diaz- made it to Cape of
Good Hope 1488
 Vasco de Gama- 1498 went in search
of Christians and spices- arrived in India
 1510 Portuguese flags in Goa, India
and Macao, China

12
The Spanish
believed had to be a short cut by sailing
west
 Columbus- (Genoan) went west 1492
 arrived in Caribbean thought it was the
Indies thus the west Indies Magellan- around the world
 East and West divided- Pope drew a
line Spain and Portugal

13
Pattern of Contact
Begin by trading
 Armed conflict- Europeans had cannon
 set up trading partners- some stay to
protect partners and Europeans
 made alliances with local leaders
 Dutch and English less apt to become
involved with culture/religion


developed mercantilism- material from
colony- buy finished products from Europe.
14
Slave Trade
Portuguese- trade with Africa- To
Portugal as servants than to Brazil to
work on plantations
 Africans less susceptible to European
diseases that Native Americans
 But death rate was high 13-30% just on
the trip


African middlemen active- depopulate entire areas of
Africa- food from Americas helped increase birthrate
15
Spice Trade-East Indies
Very important to Europeans- made
food palatable
 Portuguese again led the way
 Spain in the Philippines- stayed till 1898
 Dutch East India Company very
aggressive- competed with British East
India Company
 Both dominated the East Indies and
India
16

Impact on World by European
Contact


Purpose was to serve the homeland whether it was
slaves, furs, cotton, fish, spices, tobacco, gold or
silver. Colonies improved the lives of Europeans
greatly.
In the Americas
• More intermarriage by Spanish, Portuguese
and French
• Disease was devastating. Measles,
influenza, smallpox
• Violence common
17
The World Dominated by
Europe(cont)




Africa- completely dominated by Europe- only
one independent country Ethiopia
Southeast and Asia- French in Vietnam,
British in Burma, Spanish in Philippines,
Dutch in Indonesia
India- French and British compete- British win
out, not independent until 1948
South America- Spanish dominated: Others
joined ( French, Dutch, British, and
Portuguese) too
18