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Matter Unit KUD Full Name: Know: 1. Atoms are the smallest building blocks of matter. 2. Atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons 3. Atoms can be put together to form compounds. Understand: 1. The atomic model is used to describe what an atom is made of and how it acts with other atoms. 2. In the atomic model protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus; electrons are found in a cloud outside the nucleus. 3. Atoms of any element are alike. Atoms of different elements are different. 4. Elements may be represented by chemical symbols. Ex: Cu = copper, Au = gold 5. Two or more atoms may be chemically combined to form a compound. Compounds can be represented by chemical formulas. Ex: NaCl = table salt. 6. Chemical equations can be used to model chemical changes. Ex: HCl + NaHCO → NaCl + H O + CO (g) 3 2 2 7. A limited number of elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere. Do: 1. Determine the number of protons, electrons and neutrons that are found in atoms of different elements. 2. Make a model of an atom. 3. Experiment with chemical changes and with physical changes. Matter Unit Vocabulary atom - the smallest particle that an element can be divided into and still be the same substance. element- a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances compound- a pure substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined molecule- the smallest unit of a compound. They are made of atoms bonded together. proton- the positively charged particles inside the nucleus of atoms. neutron- the particles inside the nucleus of atoms that have no charge. They keep the protons from pushing each other out of the nucleus. electron- the negatively charged particle found in atoms. nucleus- the center of the atom. chemical symbol- the letter or pair of letters that represents an element in the periodic table. It is used as a shortcut. chemical formula- the set of letters that represents one molecule of a compound. It lists the chemical symbols for the elements in the compound. chemical equation- the equation that shows how a chemical reaction works. chemical bond- the connection that holds atoms together in a molecule Words you also need to recognize mass - the amount of matter that is inside an object. Mass determines how much weight an object has. atomic mass - the mass of one atom of an element. The atomic mass can be found on the periodic table of elements. atomic number- The atomic number tells us how many protons are found in one atom of an element. The atomic number can be found on the Periodic Table of Elements. It is always an integer (a counting number).