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Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide. Be identify/ know the importance for each term: Paleolithic – Old stone age Neolithic – New stone age Civilization - all components of a complex society plus writing History – written record Pre History - events before writing Agricultural Revolution – another term for the Neolithic period Fertile Crescent – area of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia – land between two rivers – Tigress and Euphrates modern day Iraq Hominid – walk erect Lucy – oldest hominid discovered 3 million years old Ethiopia Animism - Religion of worshiping nature, sprits of trees, rivers, sun etc. Polytheism – Worshiping several to many deities usually in Idol form. Monotheism - worship of a single god Nomad – hunter gathers Sedentary – living in one area Hominids Paleolithic Age Old Stone Age First use of stone tools 2.5 Million BCE Time Reference BC - Before Christ Homo Sapiens Neolithic Age New Stone Age Rise of Agriculture 120,000 BCE AD -Anno Domini (Year of our Lord) Sumer Mesopotamia Civilization History Begins Writing (Cuneiform) 8,000 BCE BCE - Before the Common Era 4000 -3500 BCE CE Common Era Neolithic Age Quick Answer: 1. Who was Lucy? Oldest known Hominid 2. Where did she live - Ethiopia 3. Why is this country known as the cradle of humanity? This is where the descendants modern Homo sapiens first emerged 4. How many years of evolution has it been since Lucy walked Earth? 3 -2.5 million years 5. How did Anthropologists determine evolution from Lucy to Homo sapiens? The study skull evolution over time. 6. The answer to the above question is an example of what type of evidence? Empirical 7. What technology did the Paleolithic Age produce? simple stone tools, spears, arrow heads, fire, needles, grinding, bowls 8. What was the social order during the Paleolithic Age? Family unit, Kin, tribe 9. What was meant by Hunter Gathers? Nomadic people who followed animals and gathered (forging) fruits, nuts, etc. 10. Why was it asserted that women and men were basically equal during the Paleolithic Age? While both had different responsibilities both were equally needed for survival 11. Why is it a general rule that as a society becomes more complex the amount of equality for women diminishes? due to specialization of jobs women were relegated to the home and family. 12. Know the Gender division of labor for: men warriors, political, religious leaders, artisans, architects. Women: field work, care for children and home 13. What is animism? earliest known form of religion based on: Spirit worship of nature, rivers, grass, trees 14. What religious acts did Paleolithic people do and how do we know? Buried dead, after life, Ceremonies, animism. Cave paintings, artifacts found. (Ice Man) 16. What were the intellectual characteristics of the Paleolithic people or how did they express themselves? Music, Art, Dance 17. What was the major accomplishment of the Paleolithic Age? The spread of people worldwide The Neolithic Age” 1. What does Neolithic mean? New Stone Age 2. What is this age also referred to? Agricultural Revolution 3. 8000 BCE = 3500 BCE what caused the start of the Neolithic Age and caused the end of the Neolithic Age? Farming 4. What technological developments happened during this age and its impact? With the invention of the plow alone the population increases from 5-8 million to 60- 70 Million. Tech Developments: Potter’s wheel plow irrigation copper work gold work Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide. 5. What kind of architecture is the Neolithic age known for? Megalithic . What cities had this architecture? Puma Punka, Catal Hayek and Jericho were examples of Neolithic Megalithic architecture each over 10,000 years old Rise of Civilization Cuneiform - first known writing of Summer 3500 BCE Sumer - First known Civilization Mesopotamia - "Land between two rivers" Known as "Fertile Crescent" Land between Tigress Euphrates Rivers. Epic of Gilgamesh –Sumerian oldest written story (similar to Noah’s Arch and the great flood) Mandate of Heaven –Chinese belief that a ruler gets authority to rule from the gods, but if he abuses power he shall be overthrown Dynasty – Rule based on family and heredity Dynastic Cycle – Rise to power based on mandate of heaven, rule just and fair, expansion of territory, wealth, corruption, loss of mandate of heaven. New rules rise to power Hammurabi's Code – King Hammurabi of Babylon first written code of laws modern day Iraq Bagdad (Similar to Jewish 613 Mitzvahs eye for eye Aryan – Indo Europeans who invaded India and quickly merged cultures Vedas – Early religion the Aryans brought to India, would be the foundation for Hinduism Caste System – rigid social order of India based on birth Elements of Civilization: Writing is the final element needed to create Civilization 1 Agriculture /surplus of food 2 Sedentary 3 Complex city and trade 4 Specialization of jobs 5 distinct social classes 6 Writing River Valley Civilization Quick Questions and Concepts 1. What is Sumer in Mesopotamia famous for? First civilization, beginning of history 2. What modern country would Sumer be located in? Iraq 3. What do all early civilizations have in common? They emerged around rivers valleys 4. What factors led to the individualization of each of the early civilizations? Geography and Location Examples: China = Huanghe/Yellow River mountains, jungle, desert ocean led to Isolation. Feeling of being in the center of the universe thus the term "Middle Kingdom" Mesopotamia: Competing city states (Sumer, Assyria, Hittite, Babylon, etc) populated along Tigress and Euphrates Rivers resulted in almost constant war with each other, yet still crossroads for trade and mix of ideas! Egypt - united along Nile River relative peace India - Ganges River Valley - Aryans invaded from north. Introduced their religious beliefs beginning of Hinduism. and the Caste System. Trade with the know world. Rocky land resulted in the use of terraces in irrigation 5. What ended the River Valley civilizations? They expanded into empires conquered land beyond borders.(Greece, Rome, Etruscan) This begins the Classical Age SPRIITE: Roots of Judaism Location: Modern Israel Jerusalem Capital City Time Period 1000, BCE First kingdom established Social Man begin to dominate over women as civilization and temple life became complex Division of Labor Women look after children and home. men are the priest, warriors, scholars .Artisans, farmers Political 12 Tribes of Israel united by King David Builds first temple Jewish Theocracy Religion and politics the same Babylon conquers Jews kept as slaves Persians would free Slaves Religious *First monotheistic abstract god *Synagogue - Place of Worship *Rabbi - Synagogue Leader * Abraham offers to sacrifice his son Isaac. Leads to a Covent (agreement that Jews are god's chosen people/ Moses receives 10 Commandments intellectual 10 Commandants Torah or Pentaduke – 5 books of Moses law and ethics No images of god in art 613 Mitzvahs Specific if then laws on all aspects of society Interaction Egyptians, Babylonian Roman captivity Diaspora – Jews scattered across the world / Judeo Christian tradition ideals of the west. Technology David and Solomon builds temple complex in Jerusalem King Herod's Stables Temple Mount etc. Economic Small trade, Temple system is the center of commerce and religion. Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide.