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Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide.
Be identify/ know the importance for each term:
Paleolithic – Old stone age
Neolithic – New stone age
Civilization - all components of a complex society plus writing
History – written record
Pre History - events before writing
Agricultural Revolution – another term for the Neolithic period
Fertile Crescent – area of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia – land between two rivers – Tigress and Euphrates modern day Iraq
Hominid – walk erect
Lucy – oldest hominid discovered 3 million years old Ethiopia
Animism - Religion of worshiping nature, sprits of trees, rivers, sun etc.
Polytheism – Worshiping several to many deities usually in Idol form.
Monotheism - worship of a single god
Nomad – hunter gathers
Sedentary – living in one area
Hominids Paleolithic Age
Old Stone Age First use
of stone tools
2.5 Million BCE
Time Reference
BC - Before Christ
Homo Sapiens
Neolithic Age
New Stone Age Rise of Agriculture
120,000 BCE
AD -Anno Domini (Year of our Lord)
Sumer Mesopotamia Civilization
History Begins Writing (Cuneiform)
8,000 BCE
BCE - Before the Common Era
4000 -3500 BCE
CE Common Era
Neolithic Age
Quick Answer:
1. Who was Lucy? Oldest known Hominid
2. Where did she live - Ethiopia
3. Why is this country known as the cradle of humanity? This is where the descendants modern Homo sapiens first emerged
4. How many years of evolution has it been since Lucy walked Earth? 3 -2.5 million years
5. How did Anthropologists determine evolution from Lucy to Homo sapiens? The study skull evolution over time.
6. The answer to the above question is an example of what type of evidence? Empirical
7. What technology did the Paleolithic Age produce? simple stone tools, spears, arrow heads, fire, needles, grinding, bowls
8. What was the social order during the Paleolithic Age? Family unit, Kin, tribe
9. What was meant by Hunter Gathers? Nomadic people who followed animals and gathered (forging) fruits, nuts, etc.
10. Why was it asserted that women and men were basically equal during the Paleolithic Age?
While both had different responsibilities both were equally needed for survival
11. Why is it a general rule that as a society becomes more complex the amount of equality for women diminishes?
due to specialization of jobs women were relegated to the home and family.
12. Know the Gender division of labor for: men warriors, political, religious leaders, artisans, architects.
Women: field work, care for children and home
13. What is animism? earliest known form of religion based on: Spirit worship of nature, rivers, grass, trees
14. What religious acts did Paleolithic people do and how do we know? Buried dead, after life, Ceremonies, animism. Cave
paintings, artifacts found. (Ice Man)
16. What were the intellectual characteristics of the Paleolithic people or how did they express themselves? Music, Art, Dance
17. What was the major accomplishment of the Paleolithic Age? The spread of people worldwide
The Neolithic Age”
1. What does Neolithic mean? New Stone Age
2. What is this age also referred to? Agricultural Revolution
3. 8000 BCE = 3500 BCE what caused the start of the Neolithic Age and caused the end of the Neolithic Age? Farming
4. What technological developments happened during this age and its impact?
With the invention of the plow alone the population increases from 5-8 million to 60- 70 Million.
Tech Developments: Potter’s wheel
plow
irrigation
copper work
gold work
Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide.
5. What kind of architecture is the Neolithic age known for? Megalithic . What cities had this architecture?
Puma Punka, Catal Hayek and Jericho were examples of Neolithic Megalithic architecture each over 10,000 years old
Rise of Civilization
Cuneiform - first known writing of Summer 3500 BCE
Sumer - First known Civilization
Mesopotamia - "Land between two rivers" Known as "Fertile Crescent" Land between Tigress Euphrates Rivers.
Epic of Gilgamesh –Sumerian oldest written story (similar to Noah’s Arch and the great flood)
Mandate of Heaven –Chinese belief that a ruler gets authority to rule from the gods, but if he abuses power he shall be overthrown
Dynasty – Rule based on family and heredity
Dynastic Cycle – Rise to power based on mandate of heaven, rule just and fair, expansion of territory, wealth, corruption, loss of mandate of
heaven. New rules rise to power
Hammurabi's Code – King Hammurabi of Babylon first written code of laws modern day Iraq Bagdad (Similar to Jewish 613 Mitzvahs eye for eye
Aryan – Indo Europeans who invaded India and quickly merged cultures
Vedas – Early religion the Aryans brought to India, would be the foundation for Hinduism
Caste System – rigid social order of India based on birth
Elements of Civilization: Writing is the final element needed to create Civilization
1 Agriculture /surplus of food
2 Sedentary
3 Complex city and trade
4 Specialization of jobs
5 distinct social classes
6 Writing
River Valley Civilization Quick Questions and Concepts
1. What is Sumer in Mesopotamia famous for? First civilization, beginning of history
2. What modern country would Sumer be located in? Iraq
3. What do all early civilizations have in common? They emerged around rivers valleys
4. What factors led to the individualization of each of the early civilizations? Geography and Location
Examples:
China = Huanghe/Yellow River mountains, jungle, desert ocean led to Isolation. Feeling of being in the center of the universe thus the term
"Middle Kingdom"
Mesopotamia: Competing city states (Sumer, Assyria, Hittite, Babylon, etc) populated along Tigress and Euphrates Rivers resulted in almost
constant war with each other, yet still crossroads for trade and mix of ideas!
Egypt - united along Nile River relative peace
India - Ganges River Valley - Aryans invaded from north. Introduced their religious beliefs beginning of Hinduism. and the Caste System. Trade
with the know world. Rocky land resulted in the use of terraces in irrigation
5. What ended the River Valley civilizations? They expanded into empires conquered land beyond borders.(Greece, Rome, Etruscan) This
begins the Classical Age
SPRIITE: Roots of Judaism Location: Modern Israel Jerusalem Capital City Time Period 1000, BCE First kingdom established
Social
Man begin to
dominate over
women as
civilization and
temple life became
complex
Division of Labor
Women look after
children and home.
men are the priest,
warriors, scholars
.Artisans, farmers
Political
12 Tribes of Israel
united by King
David
Builds first temple
Jewish Theocracy
Religion and politics
the same
Babylon conquers
Jews kept as slaves
Persians would free
Slaves
Religious
*First monotheistic
abstract god
*Synagogue - Place
of Worship
*Rabbi - Synagogue
Leader
* Abraham offers to
sacrifice his son
Isaac. Leads to a
Covent (agreement
that Jews are god's
chosen people/
Moses receives 10
Commandments
intellectual
10 Commandants
Torah or Pentaduke
– 5 books of Moses
law and ethics
No images of god in
art
613 Mitzvahs
Specific if then laws
on all aspects of
society
Interaction
Egyptians,
Babylonian
Roman captivity
Diaspora – Jews
scattered across
the world / Judeo
Christian tradition
ideals of the west.
Technology
David and
Solomon
builds
temple
complex in
Jerusalem
King
Herod's
Stables
Temple
Mount etc.
Economic
Small trade,
Temple
system is the
center of
commerce
and religion.
Paleolithic/Neolithic/River Valley Civilizations/Roots of Judaism Study Guide.