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Oughton 2011
Born 100BCE
Julian family
 Aunt married to Marius
Military service in Asia
 Civic crown for saving life of
fellow citizen
 Quaestor – 68
 Aedile- 65
 Praetor- 62
 Protection of ‘provincia’
Checking the advance
of the Germans
Promotion for Caesar
First triumvirate- 59
 Pompey- land reform for veterans in the East
 Crassus- tax benefits for equestrian interests
 Caesar – consulship in 59, governor of Gaul
Caesar goes to Gaul- 58
The Great Revolt
 Phase V (52): Gallic revolt unified under
Vercingetorix, various conflicts which set the
stage for the Siege of Alesia!!! (Caesar’s greatest
Closing Exchanges
 Phase VI (51-50): Mopping up remaining tribes and
setting up the oncoming conflict with the Senate
Rome and the Gallic tribes had fought one
another since ca. 4th cent. BCE
 Gallic sack of Rome in 390 BCE
By the late 3rd cent., Rome had subdued and
organized the province of Cisalpine Gaul
 Centered in and around the Po Valley (No. Italy), leading to
the establishment of Roman colonies there and further
conflict in this area
Rome expands into Transalpine Gaul to connect
Italy with Spain via land route in late 2nd cent.
Migration of the Helvetii against the Aedui
forces Caesar to defend the Roman allies
 Phase I (58): Campaigns against Orgetorix and Ariovistus
Caesar turns against Belgae
 Phase II (57-56): Defeat of Belgae, Lts. attack maritime
tribes in the West
Crossings and Revolts
 Phase III (55): Crossing the Rhine and the Channel,
interrupted by small revolt
 Phase IV (54): Second Invasion of Britain and Belgic
Revolt, mop up of smaller revolts (53)
55 B.C.
57 B.C.
57 B.C.
Written 52-51BC
Political purpose
Came from East of the Rhine
390 took Rome and burned it
123-118BC- Rome conquers part of Gaul
(transalpine) calls it Provincia
113-102- invasion of a group of Gauls called
Cimbri/Teutones; Marius beats them
Factions in Gaul
 Many small, independent states
 Loose confederations
 No strong governments
Citizen farmer-soldier
Short campaign season
Greek-Influenced Tactics
employed on flat terrain
Group cooperation over
Individual Exploits, but
Timocratic organization
Military service compulsory
on all male citizens of age
Based upon the economic “classes” which were
established by property ownership
 Equites, 5 “infantry” classes, proletarii
Each class subdivided into “centuries”
Early Republican Hoplite Army: Equites as cavalry;
1st 2 Classes as heavy “hoplite” infantry; 3rd/4th
Classes lighter infantry; 5th Class as skirmishers/
supernumeraries; proletarii in support roles
 Ex: Siege of Veii (ca 405-396 BC)
Reserves of Manpower
 Based on conquest and successful organization of
Italian peninsula
 Nearly continuous wars between 6th and 3rd
Centuries BC
 Crushing defeats at Lake Trasimene (25K dead)
and Cannae (50K) and they raise still another army
Inventiveness and Adaptability
Contact with the Hellenistic Kingdoms in the
East forces Rome to restructure and adapt its
Military system yet again
 Long term conflicts abroad complicate and call
into question the “soldier-farmer” ideal
 Gradual movement away from structure based on
economic classes, leads to the eventual removal
of property qualifications
These changes are traditionally credited to Gaius
Marius, but they were more likely a prolonged
series of slight alterations
Property qualifications removed so all citizens
could enlist -> leads to volunteer army, not the
general conscription of the past
Stipendium regularized and equipment provided
to all enlistees
Regularized Equipment:
 All infantry classes carry
two pila (redesigned), a
gladius, and a scutum
slightly more oval in shape
 They usually wore mail
armor and a semi-spherical
bronze helmet
New training emphasized
the use of the gladius
Heavy cloak
Helmet- galea
Coat- lorica
Shield- scutum
Javelin- pilum
Sword- gladius
century [centum, hundred] = 80 men
2 centuries = 1 maniple = 160 men
3 maniples = 1 cohort = 480 men
10 cohorts = 1 legion = 4800 men
Legatus- deputies, assistants
 Caesar introduced putting one legate in charge of
every legion during the battle
Quaestor- financial officer
Praefectus fabrum- chief engineer
Tribunus- each legion had six; some good
military officers, others rich youth
Centurio- commanded centuries; 60 in each
legion; fought in the ranks; must be brave
Aquilifer- carried the eagle; carried by first
centurion of first cohort
Signifer- standard carrier; gathering point
Tubicen- trumpet player
Baggage train (impedimenta)
Auxilia- infantry; not roman; funditores
(slingers); sagitarii (archers)
Cavalry- no Roman cavalry but did employ