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Transcript
Unit 4: The Periodic Table and Periodicity
Name: _________KEY____________
Text Questions from Wilbraham, et. al.
6.1
1. How were the elements grouped in Dobereiner’s classification system?
in triads (i.e., groups of three)
2. List two reasons why Mendeleev is given more credit than Meyer for creating the periodic table.
he published his table first and was better able to explain its usefulness
3. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements in his table?
increasing atomic mass
4. List two things Mendeleev predicted using his periodic table.
the existence of undiscovered elements and some of their properties
5. The problem Mendeleev ran into was not with atomic masses themselves, but rather with using the
atomic masses to…
organize the periodic table
6. How did Moseley arrange the elements, in what became the modern periodic table?
in order of increasing atomic number
7. What is the periodic law?
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of
their physical and chemical properties.
8. What are the three broad classes of elements?
metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
9. About what percentage of the elements are metals?
80%
10. Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table?
in the upper-right corner
11. Relative to the metals and nonmetals, where are the metalloids located?
between them, in a stair-like pattern
6.2
12. Why is the symbol for sodium printed in black?
sodium is a solid at room temperature
13. List the chemical symbols of all of the…
…alkaline earth metals.
…noble gases.
Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
14. For the noble gases, what is unique about the s and p sublevels?
they are completely filled with electrons
15. Transition metals are characterized by the presence of electrons in…
d orbitals
16. The inner transition metals are characterized by…
f orbitals that contain electrons
17. Each period on the periodic table corresponds to what?
a principal energy level
6.3
18. Why can the radius of an atom NOT be measured directly?
because an atom doesn’t have a sharply defined boundary
19. How do we define the atomic radius?
½ of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
20. How does atomic size change in going from left to right across a period?
it decreases
21. Why is an atom electrically neutral?
it has equal numbers of protons and electrons
22. When are ions formed?
when electrons are transferred between atoms
23. What is a cation?
an ion with a positive charge
24. What do nonmetals tend to do to form ions?
gain one or more electrons
25. What is an anion?
an ion with a negative charge
26. What is ionization energy?
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
27. What do first ionization energies tend to do as we go down a group from top to bottom?
decrease
28. Why do the Group 1A metals tend to form ions with a 1+ charge?
it is easy to remove one electron from these atoms, but difficult to remove a second electron
29. As we go across a period, what happens to…
…nuclear charge?
increases
…shielding effect?
remains constant
30. Cations are always _smaller_ than the atoms from which they form; anions are always _larger_.
31. Why are the electrons drawn closer to the nucleus when a sodium atom loses an electron?
the attraction between the remaining electrons and the nucleus is increased
32. As the number of electrons _increases_, the attraction of the nucleus for any one electron decreases.
33. What is electronegativity?
the ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
34. What is the unit for values of electronegativity?
Paulings
35. Which elements have low electronegativities?
Which elements have high electronegativities?
metals on the left side of the Table
nonmetals (but not noble gases) on the right
36. The most electronegative element is _fluorine_, with a value of _4.0_. The least electronegative
element is _cesium_, with a value of _0.7_.
37. How do we explain the trends that exist among elements’ properties?
by variations in atomic structure
Unit 4: The Periodic Table and Periodicity
Name: ________________________
Text Questions from Wilbraham, et. al.
6.1
1. How were the elements grouped in Dobereiner’s classification system?
2. List two reasons why Mendeleev is given more credit than Meyer for creating the periodic table.
3. By what property did Mendeleev arrange the elements in his table?
4. List two things Mendeleev predicted using his periodic table.
5. The problem Mendeleev ran into was not with atomic masses themselves, but rather with using the
atomic masses to…
6. How did Moseley arrange the elements, in what became the modern periodic table?
7. What is the periodic law?
8. What are the three broad classes of elements?
9. About what percentage of the elements are metals?
10. Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table?
11. Relative to the metals and nonmetals, where are the metalloids located?
6.2
12. Why is the symbol for sodium printed in black?
13. List the chemical symbols of all of the…
…alkaline earth metals.
…noble gases.
14. For the noble gases, what is unique about the s and p sublevels?
15. Transition metals are characterized by the presence of electrons in…
16. The inner transition metals are characterized by…
17. Each period on the periodic table corresponds to what?
6.3
18. Why can the radius of an atom NOT be measured directly?
19. How do we define the atomic radius?
20. How does atomic size change in going from left to right across a period?
21. Why is an atom electrically neutral?
22. When are ions formed?
23. What is a cation?
24. What do nonmetals tend to do to form ions?
25. What is an anion?
26. What is ionization energy?
27. What do first ionization energies tend to do as we go down a group from top to bottom?
28. Why do the Group 1A metals tend to form ions with a 1+ charge?
29. As we go across a period, what happens to…
…nuclear charge?
…shielding effect?
30. Cations are always __________ than the atoms from which they form; anions are always _________.
31. Why are the electrons drawn closer to the nucleus when a sodium atom loses an electron?
32. As the number of electrons ___________, the attraction of the nucleus for any one electron decreases.
33. What is electronegativity?
34. What is the unit for values of electronegativity?
35. Which elements have low electronegativities?
Which elements have high electronegativities?
36. The most electronegative element is ____________, with a value of ____. The least electronegative
element is __________, with a value of ____.
37. How do we explain the trends that exist among elements’ properties?