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Chemical Foundations and the Periodic Table (Chapters 3/11)
Unit Essential Question(s)
How Does the Development and Use of the Periodic Table Serve as a Foundation for the Science of
PA Academic Standards - Science & Technology
3.1.10.C. Apply and assess patterns as repeated processes or recurring elements in science and technology.
3.4.10/12.A. Explain and apply concepts about the structure and properties of matter.
Essential Content and Skills
(“Upon completion of this unit I should understand and/or be able to…”)
YES…I Can!
 Define the following terms: element symbol, Law of constant composition, Dalton’s atomic theory, chemical
formula, proton, neutron, electron, nucleus, isotope, mass number, atomic number, periodic table, groups,
ions, cations, anions, atomic radius, ionization energy, electronegativity..
 Describe, both verbally and in writing, the history of atomic theory beginning with the ancient Greeks to the
present day, and the significance of Dalton’s Atomic Theory.
 Describe the contributions of J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, and James Chadwick to our modern
understanding of the atom,and how the modern model of the atom evolved as new information was
 Describe the general layout of the modern Periodic Table including the location of metals, non-metals and
 Recognize and
MEMORIZE the common groups (families) of the Periodic Table: Alkali metals, Alkaline earth
metals, Transition metals, Halogens, Noble gases.
 Correctly determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of an atom, ion or isotope by using the
atomic number and atomic mass number provided on the Periodic Table, and the charge (if any) of the
 Correctly identify and distinguish between various isotopes of an element based on differences in the
components of the nucleus.
 Recognize and MEMORIZE the “silly seven” (7) elements which exist as diatomic molecules: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2,
Br2 I2.
 Correctly identify an element’s common oxidation state (charge of an ion) based on its position on the
Periodic Table, and explain the difference in the oxidation numbers of metals and nonmetals in terms of
atomic structure and position on the Periodic Table.
 Compare and contrast the terms anion and cation.
 Recognize and describe the specific patterns which exist in the variation of several physical properties
(atomic number and mass, electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic radius) based on an element’s
position on the Periodic Table.