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Transcript
Critical Thinking
Lecture 4
Rhetoric
By David Kelsey
Rhetoric
•
Rhetoric:
–
Linguistic devices which are used to
…
•
Rhetorical devices are called
slanters
–
Positive and negative slants
–
Grandmother example
Rhetorical force and Logical force
• The Logical Force of a phrase or sentence is the power of that
phrase or sentence to __________________
• The rhetorical force of a phrase or sentence is the power of
that phrase or sentence to __________________
• Al Gore example
Rhetorical comparisons and definitions
•
A rhetorical comparison is a
comparison used to express or
influence attitudes.
•
A Rhetorical definition:
smuggles prejudice of one sort
or another into the meaning of a
term.
– Short example
– Abortion example
Rhetorical Explanations
•
A Rhetorical Explanation smuggles in prejudice of one sort or another with the
aim of influencing attitudes or behavior.
Example
Euphemisms
•
A Euphemism is a neutral or positive expression as opposed to one
that carries negative associations.
•
Deception:
–
Examples:
• Used cars
• Assassination attempts
• Freedom fighters
• Passing away
Dysphemisms
•
A Dysphemism:
– a negative expression as opposed to one that carries positive or neutral
associations with it.
– Deception:
• Examples:
– The freedom fighter again
Stereotypes
•
A stereotype is a thought or image about a group of people based on little or no
evidence.
Stereotypes #2
•
Denigrate:
–
Most stereotypes denigrate a group of individuals, for example:
– Examples:
•
Favorable impressions:
– Examples:
Innuendo
•
Innuendo: uttering a sentence or phrase with the intention of communicating
what is implied by what one utters.
–
Suggestion
–
Examples
Innuendo #2
•
Innuendo
– insinuating something negative about something or someone without
actually saying it.
– WC Fields example
Loaded Questions
•
A loaded question is a question that implies an unjustified claim.
• Examples:
– “Have you stopped beating her?”
– Police officer
Weaslers
•
A weasler is a word or phrase, which, when inserted into a claim, helps protect
it from criticism by watering it down or by weakening it.
–
A way out
–
Weasling words include:
Weaslers #2
•
An example of a Weasler: “Three out of four dentists surveyed recommend
sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum”.
– This claim contains two Weasling expressions.
• 1.
• 2.
Downplayers
•
Downplayers are words or
phrases used to make someone
or something look less
important or significant.
•
Examples:
Horse Laugh
•
A Horse laugh (i.e. ridicule) is a word or phrase used to get a laugh at the
expense of someone or something.
– A horse laugh is no objection:
– Examples:
• Unrelated jokes
• Laughing at someone or something
• Making fun
Hyperbole
•
Hyperbole is extravagant
overstatement.
• Some examples:
– Hang nail
– …
Proof surrogates
•
A proof surrogate:
– a phrase or expression used to suggest that there is evidence or authority
for a claim without actually citing the evidence or authority.
•
Examples: