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The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, Tenth Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger Clicker Question Presentation Slides Chapter 2 Critical Thinking Questions created by Sara Harris, Illinois State University Norms are: A. B. C. D. neutral stimuli. theories. averages. facts. One of Sigmund Freud’s most influential ideas was that each stage of development includes: A. B. C. D. rewards or punishments. its own struggles. cognitive restructuring. a specific hierarchy of needs. A key component of operant conditioning is: A. B. C. D. learning through association. reinforcement. modeling. unconscious thoughts. According to Piaget, when a new experience does not fit current understanding, a person tends to experience a confusing state called: A. B. C. D. cognitive disequilibrium. adaptation. preoperational thought. assimilation. Which theorist maintained that all learning is social, whether people are learning a manual skill, a social custom, or a language? A. Freud B. Piaget C. Vygotsky D. Maslow Critical Thinking Questions Every time Maggie takes her 3-year-old daughter Ava to the store, Ava has a tantrum. To make her stop, Maggie lets her pick out a toy. Thus, Maggie is reinforcing the tantrums by giving in and buying toys. Which theory does this example illustrate? A. B. C. D. psychoanalytic behaviorism sociocultural information processing You are working on a research team that investigates which brain structures and circuits function abnormally in children with ADHD. Which theory would likely guide this research study? A. B. C. D. psychoanalytic conditioning evolutionary information processing As a human being, you have a need for respect by the wider community, as well as by yourself. According to Maslow, you have a(n): A. physiological need. B. evolved need. C. need for popularity. D. need for esteem.