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Transcript
Forces of Imperialism
Motives:
• Economic competition for markets & raw
materials
• National pride
• Racism
• Missionaries' desire to Christianize &
“civilize” non-European peoples
Forces of Imperialism
Technological Advantages over Africa:
• Superior weapons
• Railroads, cables, steamships
• Quinine (drug) to protect from malaria
Forces of Imperialism
Factors Making Africa Vulnerable:
• Africans’ great
diversity of
languages and
cultures
• Ethnic rivalries
• Lower level of
technology,
including weapons
Division of Africa
Berlin Conference of 1884 & 1885:
• Agreement among 14 European nations
about how to divide Africa among
European countries
• Outcomes:
– Random distribution of African ethnic &
linguistic groups among European nations
– Transformation of the way of life of Africans
“From
Cairo
to Cape
Town”
Division of Africa
Clash in South Africa:
• Zulus
– Shaka – created large centralized state
– Successors unable to keep together against British
superior arms – British invaded 1879
– Fell to British control in 1887
• Boers (Dutch) – a.k.a. Afrikaners
– 1st Europeans to settle in S. Africa
• British
– Took over Cape Colony in early 1800s – clashed with
Boers over British policy regarding land & slaves
Division of Africa
Boer War (1899-1910):
• Diamonds/gold discovered in 1860s & 1880s
• Boers launched commando raids & used guerilla
tactics
• British burned farms & imprisoned women &
children
• Britain finally won
• Outcome:
– Creation of self-governing Union of South Africa
controlled by British
French Control of Indochina
How Brought Under Control:
• Missionaries were
killed
• French army
invaded Vietnam
• Combined it with
Laos and
Cambodia
French Control of Indochina
Method of Control:
• Direct control
– French themselves filled all important
positions in gov’t
French Control of Indochina
Economic Policies:
• Discouraged local industry
• Rice became major export crop
French Control of Indochina
Colonial Impact:
• Imposed French culture
• All schools, courts, & businesses followed
French models
• ↓ of local industries
• Less food for peasants
Japanese in Asia
War with China (Sino-Japanese
War) (1894-1895):
• How it started:
– Rebellion broke out against Korea’s king, who asked
China for military help
– Chinese troops marched into Korea
– Japan protested violation of agreement & sent its
troops to fight the Chinese
• Consequences:
–
–
–
–
Destruction of Chinese navy
Beginning of Japanese colonial empire
Change to world’s balance of power
Emergence of Russia & Japan as major powers (&
enemies) in Asia
Japanese in Asia
Occupation of Korea:
• Annexed Korea – brought under control
• Ruled Korea harshly
• Established very repressive gov’t that
denied rights to Korea
• Inspired Korean nationalist movement
Interaction with Westerners
Opium War (China):
• Setting the Stage:
– China self-sufficient, little
trade w/ west  favorable
balance of trade
– Europeans wanted to find
product Chinese would buy
in large quantities  found
it in opium
– Many Chinese became
addicted
Interaction with Westerners
Opium War (China):
• Causes:
– Chinese emperor wanted trade stopped 
Britain refused to stop
Interaction with Westerners
Opium War (China):
• Results & Effects:
– Chinese defeat & humiliation
– Cession of Hong Kong to Britain
– Continuation of opium trade
– Extraterritorial rights for foreign citizens
– Chinese resentment against foreigners
Interaction with Westerners
Taiping Rebellion (China):
• Setting the Stage:
– Population provided major challenge growing
30% in only 60 years
Interaction with Westerners
Taiping Rebellion (China):
• Causes:
– Hunger/starvation caused by inability to feed
enormous population
– Increasing opium addiction
– Poverty
Interaction with Westerners
Taiping Rebellion (China):
• Results & Effects:
– Rebellion put down
– Restoration of Qing to power (with help of
British and French forces)
– 20 million people died
Interaction with Westerners
Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):
• Perry Arrives in Tokyo:
– Arrives with letter from U.S.
President Fillmore
– Letter politely asked shogun to allow
free trade
– Perry gave threat that he would
return with larger fleet in one year to
get Japanese reply
– Purpose: shock & frighten Japanese
into accepting trade with U.S.
Interaction with Westerners
Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):
• Treaty of Kanagawa (1854):
– Japan opened two ports where ships could
take supplies
Interaction with Westerners
Commodore Matthew Perry (Japan):
• Benefits to U.S.A.:
– Gained rights to trade at those two ports
– Opened door for other W powers
Effects of Imperialism
Colonization:
• Europeans control land and people in
areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Effects of Imperialism
Colonial Economics:
• Europeans control trade in the colonies
and set up dependent cash-crop
economies
Effects of Imperialism
Christianization:
• Christianity is spread to Africa, India, and
Asia