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Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous
Dana Desonie, Ph.D.
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Printed: April 10, 2013
Dana Desonie, Ph.D.
Concept 1. Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Intrusive and Extrusive
Igneous Rocks
• Compare and contrast intrusive and extrusive igneous rock.
Are these both igneous rocks?
These rocks don’t even look like they’re the same type! They are, at least in the same way that fish and mice are
both vertebrates. They both cooled from magma, but the similarities end there. Can you tell what’s different?
Igneous rocks cool from magma. The appearance of the rock is created by the composition of the magma. It is also
determined by the rate that the magma cools. If the magma cools deep underground, it cools slowly. If the magma
cools at or very near the surface, it cools quickly. This results in two different rock types. The rock types can be told
apart by the size of their crystals. The size of the crystals creates the texture of the rock.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks
Intrusive igneous rocks cool underground. Deep in the crust, magma cools slowly. Slow cooling gives crystals a
chance to grow. Intrusive igneous rocks have relatively large crystals that are easy to see. Intrusive igneous rocks
are also called plutonic. A pluton is an igneous rock body that forms within the crust.
Granite is the most common intrusive igneous rock. Pictured below are four types of intrusive rocks (Figure 1.1).
Geological processes have brought some igneous rocks to the surface. Pictured below is a landscape in California’s
Sierra Nevada made of granite that has been raised to create mountains (Figure 1.2).
Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Extrusive igneous rocks form above the surface. The lava cools quickly as it pours out onto the surface (Figure 1.3).
Extrusive igneous rocks cool much more rapidly than intrusive rocks. The rapid cooling time does not allow time
for large crystals to form. So igneous extrusive rocks have smaller crystals than igneous intrusive rocks. Extrusive
igneous rocks are also called volcanic rocks.
Some extrusive igneous rocks cool so rapidly that crystals do not develop at all. These form a glass, such as obsidian.
Others, such as pumice, contain holes where gas bubbles were trapped in the lava. The holes make pumice so light
that it actually floats in water. The most common extrusive igneous rock is basalt. It is the rock that makes up the
ocean floor. Shown below are three types of extrusive igneous rocks (Figure 1.4).
(A) This granite has more plagioclase
feldspar than many granites.
(B) Dior-
ite has more dark-colored minerals than
granite. (C) Gabbro. (D) Peridotite contains olivine and other mafic minerals.
California’s Sierra Nevada is intrusive igneous rock exposed at Earth’s surface.
(A) Lava cools to form extrusive igneous
rock. The rocks here are basalts. (B)
The strange rock formations of Chiricahua
National Monument in Arizona are formed
of the extrusive igneous rock rhyolite.
Concept 1. Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous Rocks
Different cooling rate and gas content resulted in these different textures.
extrusive: Igneous rocks that form at Earth’s surface from rapidly cooling lava.
intrusive: Igneous rocks that form inside the Earth from slowly cooling magma.
pluton: Igneous intrusive rock body that has cooled in the crust.
volcanic rock: Rock that originates in a volcano or volcanic feature.
• Intrusive igneous rocks cool from magma slowly in the crust. They have large crystals.
• Extrusive igneous rocks cool from lava rapidly at the surface. They have small crystals.
• Texture reflects how an igneous rock formed.
Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.
• Igneous Rocks at (5:06)
Click image to the left for more content.
1. How are intrusive rocks formed?
2. What size are the crystals in very coarse rocks?
What are the most common coarse rocks?
How are extrusive rocks formed?
List the three textures for extrusive rocks.
Describe rhyolite.
Describe pumice.
Explain why obsidian appears black.
1. How do intrusive igneous rocks form? What is another name for these rocks?
2. How do extrusive igneous rocks form? What is another name for these rocks?
3. How can you use texture to determine whether an igneous rock is intrusive or extrusive?
1. (A) Image copyright MARGRIT HIRSCH, 2012; (B) Image copyright Tyler Boyes, 2012; (C) Mark A. Wilson
(Department of Geology, The College of Wooster); (D)Image copyright Marcin Sylwia Ciesielski, 2011. . (A,
B, D) Used under licenses from; (C) Public domain
2. Dcrjsr. . CC-BY 3.0
3. (A) Courtesy of J.D. Griggs, US Geological Survey; (B) Image copyright Zack Frank, 2011. . (A) Public
Domain; (B) Used under license from
4. (a) Travis (Flickr: Travis S.); (b) deltalimatrieste; (c) Courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. Textures. (a) CC-BY-NC 2.0; (b) Public Domain; (c) Public Domain