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TYPES OF ROCKS NOTES Performance Indicator: 8.E.5A.2 Use the rock cycle model to describe the relationship between the processes and forces that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. ROCKS • _________________ are naturally occurring combinations of minerals. • Most consist of two or more different ________________________. • Rocks are classified according to how they were ______________________. Physical Properties of Rocks: 1. _________________ (may have a distinctive color for identification) 2. ___________________ (is the color of the mineral in powered form- shows the true color of the mineral) 3. ___________________ (is a measure of the mineral’s resistance to scratching) 4. _________________ (property of minerals that indicates how much the surface of a mineral reflects light or if it is SHINY.) • ________________________________________________________________________________ There are three large classifications of rocks – igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Each type of rock is __________________________ differently and can change from one type to another over time. The way rocks are formed determines how we classify them. 3 TYPES OF ROCKS 1. __________________________ EXAMPLES: Granite, Obsidian, Pumice 2. ___________________________ EXAMPLES: Sandstone, Limestone, Shale 3. ___________________________ EXAMPLES: Slate, Marble, Gneiss IGNEOUS ROCKS (VOLCANOES) IGNEOUS ROCKS: Forms when molten rock (_______________ or ______________) cools and hardens Igneous Rocks forms near or around _____________________________. 2 types of Igneous Rocks Extrusive Igneous Rock Intrusive Igneous Rock . _____________________________ – Igneous rock that formed when _______________ hardened beneath or _____________ a volcano. (interior – inside) _____________________________ – Igneous rock formed from ________________ that erupted from a volcano. (exterior – exit) Rocks cools __________________on the Earth’s surface Rocks cools __________________. Because rocks cool quickly or rapidly on the Earth’s surface the extrusive igneous rock mineral crystals are ______________ or _______ crystals are formed Examples: Basalt, Obsidian Because rocks cool slowly, the intrusive igneous rock mineral crystals are that form are ___________________ Example: Granite RECAP: Extrusive: Small or no crystals – Cools Quickly RECAP: Intrusive: Large crystals – Cools Slowly IGENOUS ROCKS PROCESSES: Igneous Rocks goes mainly through processes: 1. ___________________________________ 2. ___________________________________ 3. ___________________________________ Sedimentary Rocks (FORM Near Bodies of Water) Forms _________________________________________________ or where bodies of water use to be Sedimentary rocks are made up of ______________________________. Sediment are small, solid pieces of rock, mineral grains, or shell fragments. Sediments are formed through the processes of _________________________________________ of rocks exposed at Earth’s surface. Sedimentary rocks can also form from the chemical depositing of materials that were once dissolved in water. (____________________________) THEREFORE, SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Forms from the compaction and/or cementation of rock pieces, mineral grains, or shell fragments called ______________________________. Two Processes that make Sedimentary Rocks 1. _____________________________- process that _____________________ sediments together. At first, the sediment fits together loosely. Over long periods of time the layers build up. The layers are heavy and press down on each other. 2. _____________________________ – process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and _____________ sediment together. Sedimentary rocks usually have ____________________________ within them. Sedimentary rocks are also known for having __________________ as well. Metamorphic Rocks (Underneath the Earth’s Surface) Metamorphic rocks form ________________________________________________________. Forms when ____________ are ____________________________________________________________ by great heat and/or pressure Metamorphic rocks are heated, squeezed, folded, or ________________________ changed by contact with _______________________. (THIS ROCK GOES THROUGH CHEMICAL CHANGES) When heat and pressure reach the rock’s __________________________, it melts into ______________. Metamorphic Rocks Processes Metamorphic goes through 2 processes: 1. __________________________ 2. __________________________ Metamorphic Rocks Classification ____________________________ Rocks – Have obvious ______________________. ____________________________ Rocks – Have no visible layers. ALL ROCKS: WHAT PROCESS CAN ALL ROCKS GO THROUGH? _____________________________ THE ROCK CYCLE: The rock cycle is an ongoing process. The sample diagram illustrates the series of natural processes that can ________________________________________________________________________. The rock cycle is an example of how ____________________________________________________________.