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TYPES OF ROCKS NOTES
Performance Indicator: 8.E.5A.2 Use the rock cycle model to describe the relationship between the
processes and forces that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
ROCKS
• _________________ are naturally occurring combinations of minerals.
• Most consist of two or more different ________________________.
• Rocks are classified according to how they were ______________________.
Physical Properties of Rocks:
1. _________________ (may have a distinctive color for identification)
2. ___________________ (is the color of the mineral in powered form- shows the true color of the mineral)
3. ___________________ (is a measure of the mineral’s resistance to scratching)
4. _________________ (property of minerals that indicates how much the surface of a mineral reflects light
or if it is SHINY.)
• ________________________________________________________________________________
There are three large classifications of rocks – igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Each type of rock is
__________________________ differently and can change from one type to another over time. The way
rocks are formed determines how we classify them.
3 TYPES OF ROCKS
1. __________________________ EXAMPLES: Granite, Obsidian, Pumice
2. ___________________________ EXAMPLES: Sandstone, Limestone, Shale
3. ___________________________ EXAMPLES: Slate, Marble, Gneiss
IGNEOUS ROCKS (VOLCANOES)
IGNEOUS ROCKS: Forms when molten rock (_______________ or ______________) cools and hardens

Igneous Rocks forms near or around _____________________________.
2 types of Igneous Rocks
Extrusive Igneous Rock

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Intrusive Igneous Rock
.
_____________________________ – Igneous
rock that formed when _______________
hardened beneath or _____________ a
volcano. (interior – inside)
_____________________________ – Igneous
rock formed from ________________ that
erupted from a volcano. (exterior – exit)
Rocks cools __________________on the
Earth’s surface


Rocks cools __________________.
Because rocks cool quickly or rapidly on the
Earth’s surface the extrusive igneous rock
mineral crystals are ______________ or
_______ crystals are formed
Examples: Basalt, Obsidian

Because rocks cool slowly, the intrusive
igneous rock mineral crystals are that form are
___________________
Example: Granite
RECAP: Extrusive: Small or no crystals – Cools
Quickly

RECAP: Intrusive: Large crystals – Cools Slowly
IGENOUS ROCKS PROCESSES: Igneous Rocks goes mainly through processes:
1. ___________________________________
2. ___________________________________
3. ___________________________________
Sedimentary Rocks (FORM Near Bodies of Water)



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
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Forms _________________________________________________ or where bodies of water use to be
Sedimentary rocks are made up of ______________________________.
Sediment are small, solid pieces of rock, mineral grains, or shell fragments.
Sediments are formed through the processes of _________________________________________ of
rocks exposed at Earth’s surface.
Sedimentary rocks can also form from the chemical depositing of materials that were once dissolved in
water. (____________________________)
THEREFORE, SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Forms from the compaction and/or cementation of rock
pieces, mineral grains, or shell fragments called ______________________________.
Two Processes that make Sedimentary Rocks



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1. _____________________________- process that _____________________ sediments together.
At first, the sediment fits together loosely. Over long periods of time the layers build up.
The layers are heavy and press down on each other.
2. _____________________________ – process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and
_____________ sediment together.
Sedimentary rocks usually have ____________________________ within them.
Sedimentary rocks are also known for having __________________ as well.
Metamorphic Rocks (Underneath the Earth’s Surface)


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Metamorphic rocks form ________________________________________________________.
Forms when ____________ are ____________________________________________________________
by great heat and/or pressure
Metamorphic rocks are heated, squeezed, folded, or ________________________ changed by contact
with _______________________. (THIS ROCK GOES THROUGH CHEMICAL CHANGES)
When heat and pressure reach the rock’s __________________________, it melts into ______________.
Metamorphic Rocks Processes
Metamorphic goes through 2 processes:
1. __________________________
2. __________________________
Metamorphic Rocks Classification
 ____________________________ Rocks – Have obvious ______________________.
 ____________________________ Rocks – Have no visible layers.
ALL ROCKS: WHAT PROCESS CAN ALL ROCKS GO THROUGH? _____________________________
THE ROCK CYCLE: The rock cycle is an ongoing process. The sample diagram illustrates the series of natural
processes that can ________________________________________________________________________.
The rock cycle is an example of how ____________________________________________________________.