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Renewable or Non-Renewable Resources Non-renewable resources were formed billions of years ago by geological forces. The events that occurred to create such resources are impossible to recreate. Kyonite Rhodolite (Garnet) Slate Virginia continues to get most of its energy from non-renewable energy sources because the state has very large coal and natural gas deposits. Coal is the most valuable of Virginia's mineral resources and is used primarily to generate electricity. In Virginia the dollar value of all mineral resources produced has risen almost threefold in the past 25 years, from $540,595,000 in 1973 to $1,702,576,00 in 1997. Yet this figure tells only a small part of the story of the importance of the state's geologic resources. In Virginia the dollar value of coal produced has risen almost fivefold in the past 35 years, from $250,000,000 in 1970 to $1,201,200,000 in 2004 while production actually decreased. The graph on the next slide tells more What Is This Graph Showing? The X axis shows years (1970-2004) the Y axis shows money values (millions). Our nonrenewable resources are important to Virginia’s economy. Can we replace or replenish these resources? Can we do without these resources? Discussion Time !! What nonrenewable resource adds the most money to Virginia’s economy? COAL Where does coal come from? Virginia’s Coal • Coal originated from ancient plants that flourished in swamp-like environments millions of years ago. In Virginia, coal was formed mainly during the Carboniferous period of the Earth's history, 280 to 360 million years ago. There are also coal beds in Virginia that were formed during the Triassic period, 205 to 245 million years ago. • By comparison, most of the coals in the western U.S. were formed during the Cretaceous period, 70 to 140 million years ago, and the Tertiary period, 2 to 70 million years ago. Are all minerals and rocks formed in the same manner? The three types of rocks are igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rocks form when molten rock, or magma, cools and hardens. Sedimentary rocks result from erosion of any rock type, followed by depositing the resulting sediment into a natural basin, and finally cementing the sediment into stone. Metamorphic rocks form when any rock is subjected to great heat and pressure, but not enough heat to melt the rock. For example, when magma crystallizes, it may form the igneous rock, granite. If the granite is then eroded, it may become sand. Later, the sand may harden to form sandstone, a sedimentary rock. If the sandstone is heated and pressurized, it might turn into quartzite, a metamorphic rock. It is possible (although rare) for that quartzite to melt and then crystallize, turning it back into an igneous rock. This process can change any rock type into any other. It is called the Rock Cycle. What type of rock is formed here? Are these rocks a renewable or non-renewable resource? Are any of Virginia’s resources formed this way? Explain. Name three of Virginia’s nonrenewable resources that are formed by a rock cycle? How are these resources used? Answer the following? • Do you believe the state of Virginia is too depended on its non-renewable resources? Explain. • Devise a conservation or a reduce dependency plan for Virginia non-renewable resources and write a paragraph. • Do you believe Virginia will use all of its non-renewable resources?