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Geology Winter Final Study Guide
Chapter One Points:
1. Compare and contrast rocks and minerals.
2. Describe the 3 main parts of an atom.
3. Explain how to find the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom.
4. Give the number of protons in: Gold _____
Tin ______
Calcium _____
Give the number of neutrons in: Oxygen ______
Boron ______ Helium ______
Give the number of electrons in: Radon _____
Neon ______
5. What is an element?
6. Describe the following mineral properties and give some examples:
A. luster:
B. color:
C. streak:
D. hardness:
Chapter Two Points:
7. Describe and diagram the rock cycle. Explain how one rock can be used to form
8. Describe how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed.
9. Explain how igneous rock textures are formed. Describe how cooling rates affect
crystal size.
10. Compare and contrast chemical and detrital sedimentary rocks.
11. Describe some characteristics of metamorphic rocks.
Chapter 3 points:
12. Compare and contrast mechanical and chemical weathering. What does each do to
rock? Is one type of weathering more prevalent in some areas than others?
13. Describe how mineral make-up and climate affect weathering rates.
14. What is soil?
15. What is mass wasting? What controls mass wasting?
Chapter 4 points:
16. Diagram the water cycle and briefly describe the different parts of the cycle.
17. Define the following stream characteristics and describe how they affect stream flow
and velocity:
A. Discharge
B. Gradient
18. What are dissolved loads, suspended loads and bed loads? How are they affected by
stream speed and discharge?
19. What are the characteristics of youthful and mature river valleys?
20. What is ground water? How does it move?
Chapter 6 points:
21. Compare and contrast P, S and surface waves.
22. How do Richter magnitudes relate to amplitude and energy output?
23. Briefly describe the following zones of the Earth’s Interior:
A. Lithosphere
B. Crust
C. Asthenosphere
D. Outer Core
E. Inner Core
F. Mantle
24. Briefly explain how to find the location of an epicenter using seismograph recordings
and the travel time curve.
25. Use the travel time graph and seismograph data below to determine the distance of
the recording station to the epicenter.
26. Use the travel time graph to determine when the earthquake started.
27. Describe some of the factors that determine how destructive an earthquake is.
28. What is the difference between an epicenter and focus? Why do people want to find
out where the epicenter of a quake is?
Chapter 8 Points:
29. Describe Aa, pahoehoe and andesitic lava.
30. Describe the general characteristics of cinder cones, shield volcanoes and
stratovolcanoes (composites) and give an example of each.
31. What is viscosity? What determines the viscosity of a material and how does
viscosity relate to lava flow?
32. What is the difference between magma and lava?
33. What does it mean when the magma flow is intrusive or extrusive?
34. Give an example of an intrusive igneous feature.
35. Give an example of an extrusive igneous feature.
36. Would you expect to find a glassy texture or holes in an intrusive or extrusive rock?