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Transcript
1.
(a)
(propanone) has a low(er) boiling point
or water has a high(er) boiling point
or water evaporates slow(er)
or (propanone) evaporates fast(er) owtte
1
allow propane / solution / it
allow evaporates at lower temperature or boils quicker
ignore density / reactivity / melting point
(b)
(i)
0.29
1
ignore + or –
ignore units
(ii)
any two sensible suggestions eg:
•
weighing error
accept human error or inaccurate measurements
•
(copper) lost during washing owtte
allow different washing of electrodes
•
(copper) lost during electrolysis / reaction owtte
•
electrodes not completely dry
•
impurities in the electrode
•
copper falling off when removing electrode / copper from cell
2
ignore timing errors
ignore ‘fair test’
ignore sludge
ignore gases produced
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
1
(c)
any four from:
•
impure copper is anode / positive (electrode)
•
pure copper is cathode / negative (electrode)
•
copper sulfate solution or any soluble copper salt in solution
•
copper loses electrons or copper is oxidised(*)
•
copper forms positive ions / particles(*)
(*)as alternative to these two points
Cu  Cu2+ + 2e– = 2 marks
•
copper gains electrons or copper reduced at negative electrode
or Cu2+ + 2e–  Cu at negative electrode
•
copper attracts to / collects at negative electrode
•
sludge / impurities collect at the bottom owtte
allow sludge left behind or sludge left in solution or impurities
separated from copper
•
impurities not attracted to electrode
4
ignore get rid of impurities
[8]
2.
(a)
breakdown / decomposition /
splits into elements /
1
not ions
separates into elements /
produce a chemical reaction
(b)
using electricity
1
lead bromide melted / free ions
1
not electrolyte
(c)
(+) bromine
1
element must be appropriate to electrode
(–) lead
1
element must be appropriate to electrode
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
2
(d)
fume cupboard / protective clothing
1
allow safety glasses
not safety mat
[6]
3.
(a)
2Cl– – 2e– 
Na+ + e– 
Cl2
Na
(allow unaltered LHS to produce ½ Cl2)
(allow x 2 for all terms)
2
(credit candidates who point out that hydrogen / H2 is in fact produced)
for 1 mark each
(b)
for product 1*, idea of
a solid / precipitate or silver bromide
4
gains 1 mark
but
solid / a precipitate of silver bromide
gains 2 marks
for product 2*, idea of
aqueous / a solution / dissolved (in water) / or sodium nitrate
gains 1 mark
(do not allow liquid)
but
aqueous / a solution / dissolved (in water) of sodium nitrate
(*do not credit formulae)
gains 2 marks
[6]
4.
(a)
Gas A = chlorine / Cl2 (not Cl)
Gas B = hydrogen / H2 (not H)
1
both correct for 1 mark
(b)
universal indicator paper / litmus paper (red or blue) / pH paper /
starch iodide paper/or solutions / a named suitable indicator
bleached (owtte) (not discoloured) / starch – iodide turns blue
(a reasoned answer based on the test for hydrogen can gain one mark for
example: test both tubes with a burning splint - the one containing
hydrogen will pop and the one containing chlorine will not)
for 1 mark each
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
2
3
(c)
kills germs (owtte)
1
both correct for 1 mark
(d)
(i)
2H+
+
2e–

H2
1
multiples accepted such as
4 H+ +
4e–

2H2
or
H+
+
e–

1/2 H2
for one mark
(ii)
reduction / need not be circled if it is clearly marked
e.g. underlined
1
for one mark
(e)
(moles of Cl2) = 24 / 24000 = 0.001 (24 / 24000 gains one mark or
0.001/ 1/1000) (1 mole of chlorine) = 2 × 35.5 = 71(g)
(mass of chlorine) = 0.001 × 71 = 0.071g (correct answer = 3)
3
(if they give no units or g this is acceptable but other units -1 mark)
(if they do not get the correct answer we then look for working marks general principle is one mark lost for each mistake)
giving the equation volume / 24000 = mass of gas / Mr (one mark)
answer 0.0355 = 2 marks (without working)
answers based on Mr of chlorine as 35.5 are worth a maximum of 2 marks
for 1 mark each
[9]
5.
copper collects at the negative electrode
copper positive ions
2
each for 1 mark
[2]
6.
(a)
(i)
bulb lights up
1
bubbles / fizz / gas or chlorine given off
1
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
4
(ii)
in solid, ions
1
are not free to move /
(charged) particles cannot move
1
or converse
atoms / electrons cannot move worth 0 marks
(b)
(i)
breakdown / decomposition / splitting up
1
not separation
(ii)
(c)
by using electricity
1
gas A = chlorine / oxygen
1
deposit B = copper
1
any one from:
 manufacturer of chlorine / sodium
hydroxide / hydrogen / sodium
 electroplating of steel / reference to plating
1
not galvanising
 extraction of aluminium / metal reactivity series specified
 purification of copper
not making copper
[9]
7.
(a)
substance brokendown / separates /
splits into elements
by electric current / electricity
ions free to move e.g. when molten / in solution
allow 1 mark for “a substance that conducts electricity”
max 2
(b)
(i)
copper / Cu
1
(ii)
oxygen /O2
1
allow CO2
(c)
tube over electrode
2
full of CuSO4(aq) / water
allow sulphuric acid / sensible electrolyte
not any other liquid / using a syringe
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
5
(d)
Cu2+ ions removed / less Cu2+
2
not copper sulphate removed
allow 1 mark for “copper removed / less copper”
[8]
BARNARD CASTLE SCHOOL
6