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AICE / AP Environmental Management Guided Reading: Lithosphere
Instructions: For each of the questions or prompts below, give a complete answer for all parts. Answer
on a separate piece of paper! Since we do not have a definitive textbook for this course you may need
to do a little research to find your answers. Use your Miller book pages: 329-339, your BZ Workbook
pages: 11-17, the Internet, or other textbooks in my classroom to find your answers. Happy Hunting! PS
if you choose to type your answers, be aware that cutting & pasting from the Internet (or other’s work)
is PLAGARISM, and will be counted as cheating!
Note: LEDC = less economically developed country, MEDC = more economically developed country
1. Define lithosphere.
2. Describe the internal structure of the earth, including the characteristics of the:
a. Core
b. Mantle
c. Asthenosphere.
3. Differentiate between oceanic and continental crust.
4. Describe how seismic wave data provides evidence of earth structure (A sketch might be useful)
5. Plate tectonics:
a. Name the 7 major (primary) plates and the minor plate with the coolest name. How do
convection currents relate to the plate movements?
6. For each of the following plate boundaries, describe the characteristics of the boundary and the
natural hazards / geologic processes that tend to be associated with that boundary:
a. Destructive (Convergent)
b. Constructive (Divergent)
c. Conservative (Transverse)
7. Compare AND contrast magma and lava.
8. Discuss the following types of evidence that exists to support the plate tectonic theory (PostPangea plate movement)
a. paleo-magnetism
b. paleontology
c. geographic fit
9. Earthquakes (e):
a. Describe the process of an earthquake using the following terms; Seismic waves,
epicenter and focus.
b. Differentate s and p waves.
c. Contrast shallow focus and deep focus earthquakes.
d. What is the Richter Scale and how is it used? Be specific.
e. What is seismicity (A.K.A. Frequency or seismic activity) & how is it measured?
f. Discuss how earthquakes have different impacts in LEDCs and MEDCs. Give specific
examples for each.
10. Volcanoes (v):
a. Contrast explosive acid type eruptions with basaltic eruptions.
b. Examples to be chosen from LEDCs (e.g. Pinatubo) and MEDCs (e.g. Etna or Unzun).
c. Describe each of the following hazards and how it relates to volcanic activity:
i. tsunamis
ii. landslides
iii. ground deformation
iv. volcanic ash, lava and hot ash clouds (nuee ardentes).
11. The following are possible strategies that may be employed to limit or prevent loss of life and
property damage in the event of natural geologic disasters. For each describe how it may be
used and discuss how they are used (or not used) differently in LEDC’s versus MEDC’s
a. historic records (e,v)
b. frequency (e,v)
c. seismic evidence (e,v)
d. tilt metres (v)
e. chemical analysis (v)
f. building design (e)
g. and rescue and aid (e,v)