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Transcript
ORIGINS OF CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATON
GEOGRAPHY OF MAINLAND GREECE
___________________________________ made up 3/4 of the Greek mainland.
• These mountains protected the Greeks from foreign invasions.
• But, the mountains also _______________ the Greeks, limiting travel and communication between
communities.
Therefore, Greece never ___________________________________________, even though the Greeks
_______________________________________________________________.
EARLY AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS
By around 2000 BC, two main civilizations populated the Aegean Sea region:
The ____________________ and the ________________________.
• Minoan civilization was centered on ________________________________________
__________________________________________________
• The Mycenaeans populated _______________________________________________.
The Minoans flourished from around 3000 to 1400 BC on Crete and the islands of the Aegean.
• They were wealthy, artistic seafaring traders whose ships dominated the sea and traded with the
Greek mainland, Europe, Egypt, and the Middle East.
• They built palaces across the island of Crete and, and their art and architecture suggest
____________________________________________________________.
Minoan civilization went into steep decline around 1450 BC
• This happened due to _____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• The eruption and its related earthquakes, tsunamis, and ash clouds ______________
________________________________________________________________________
By 1400 BC, ________________ had overrun Crete and conquered the weakened Minoans.
The ____________________ dominated the Aegean region after the decline of the Minoans.
•
•
•
They were not a united nation, but rather a cultural group consisting of many
__________________________.
Each kingdom was centered upon and built around ___________________________.
The Mycenaeans were heavily influenced by the _______________ and, like them, exhibited
______________________________________.
The Mycenaean civilization flourished from 1600 BC until around 1100 BC.
•
•
Around 1100 BC, they began to decline after what archaeologists believe was a prolonged period
of ________________.
This left them as easy prey for the _____________, a new group of invaders from the north, who
swept in and _______________________________.
THE GREEK ‘DARK AGE’
The Dorian conquest of Greece ushered in a 300 year period of Greek history referred to as the
______________________.
But why is it called the Dark Age?
• The Dorians were illiterate, as they had no _________________. Thus, there is no
____________________ of events and culture from this time.
•
•
They left little evidence of material culture, trade, skilled craftsmanship, or advanced
architecture. Almost all semblance of ____________________________________ seems to have
vanished.
On top of that, the remaining Mycenaean Greeks, who did possess culture and learning,
_______________________________________________________________.
A NEW GREECE EMERGES
By around 750 BC however, the _________________________________________________.
• Their return reintroduced _________ and _________, as well as the ______________
_______________ which they learned while living in Ionia.
• Once again, the Greeks began to _________________________.
The new civilization that developed out of these changes was called the _________________
_____________ and would last from 700 BC to 336 BC.
ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREECE: LITERATURE
Greek tradition states that during the 700’s BC a blind poet named ‘__________’ wrote two epic poems
that are today considered to be some of the greatest works of literature in all of history: ______________
and _______________.
Both stories revolve around the mythic _________________
• The Iliad tells of the ______________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
• The Odyssey describes ____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREECE: RELIGION
The Greeks were ________________, and in their religion, the activities of the gods and goddesses
explained many human behaviors as well as the events of the physical world.
• But unlike the part human part animal deities of Egypt, the Greeks saw their gods as
__________________.
• They also believed that the gods behaved _____________________________.
• The Greeks believed that their 12 most important deities lived on _______________.
• The Greeks celebrated many festivals to honor their deities.
• They used _____________ to honor the god Dionysus, giving birth to modern _______________
• Every four years a festival was held at Olympia to honor Zeus with various athletic contests.
This festival was called the ____________.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
GEOGRAPHY:
How did Greece’s geography impact the development of Greek society?
EARLY AEGEAN CIVILIATIONS:
What two early civilizations populated the Aegean Sea region prior to the classical age of Greece?
What happened to each of these civilizations?
THE DARK AGE:
What was the Greek Dark Age?
What brought on this period of Greek history, and why did it eventually end?
CLASSICAL GREECE:
What are the Iliad and Odyssey?
What are basic characteristics of Classical Greek Religion?