ORIGINS OF CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATON GEOGRAPHY OF MAINLAND GREECE ___________________________________ made up 3/4 of the Greek mainland. • These mountains protected the Greeks from foreign invasions. • But, the mountains also _______________ the Greeks, limiting travel and communication between communities. Therefore, Greece never ___________________________________________, even though the Greeks _______________________________________________________________. EARLY AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS By around 2000 BC, two main civilizations populated the Aegean Sea region: The ____________________ and the ________________________. • Minoan civilization was centered on ________________________________________ __________________________________________________ • The Mycenaeans populated _______________________________________________. The Minoans flourished from around 3000 to 1400 BC on Crete and the islands of the Aegean. • They were wealthy, artistic seafaring traders whose ships dominated the sea and traded with the Greek mainland, Europe, Egypt, and the Middle East. • They built palaces across the island of Crete and, and their art and architecture suggest ____________________________________________________________. Minoan civilization went into steep decline around 1450 BC • This happened due to _____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ • The eruption and its related earthquakes, tsunamis, and ash clouds ______________ ________________________________________________________________________ By 1400 BC, ________________ had overrun Crete and conquered the weakened Minoans. The ____________________ dominated the Aegean region after the decline of the Minoans. • • • They were not a united nation, but rather a cultural group consisting of many __________________________. Each kingdom was centered upon and built around ___________________________. The Mycenaeans were heavily influenced by the _______________ and, like them, exhibited ______________________________________. The Mycenaean civilization flourished from 1600 BC until around 1100 BC. • • Around 1100 BC, they began to decline after what archaeologists believe was a prolonged period of ________________. This left them as easy prey for the _____________, a new group of invaders from the north, who swept in and _______________________________. THE GREEK ‘DARK AGE’ The Dorian conquest of Greece ushered in a 300 year period of Greek history referred to as the ______________________. But why is it called the Dark Age? • The Dorians were illiterate, as they had no _________________. Thus, there is no ____________________ of events and culture from this time. • • They left little evidence of material culture, trade, skilled craftsmanship, or advanced architecture. Almost all semblance of ____________________________________ seems to have vanished. On top of that, the remaining Mycenaean Greeks, who did possess culture and learning, _______________________________________________________________. A NEW GREECE EMERGES By around 750 BC however, the _________________________________________________. • Their return reintroduced _________ and _________, as well as the ______________ _______________ which they learned while living in Ionia. • Once again, the Greeks began to _________________________. The new civilization that developed out of these changes was called the _________________ _____________ and would last from 700 BC to 336 BC. ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREECE: LITERATURE Greek tradition states that during the 700’s BC a blind poet named ‘__________’ wrote two epic poems that are today considered to be some of the greatest works of literature in all of history: ______________ and _______________. Both stories revolve around the mythic _________________ • The Iliad tells of the ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ • The Odyssey describes ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREECE: RELIGION The Greeks were ________________, and in their religion, the activities of the gods and goddesses explained many human behaviors as well as the events of the physical world. • But unlike the part human part animal deities of Egypt, the Greeks saw their gods as __________________. • They also believed that the gods behaved _____________________________. • The Greeks believed that their 12 most important deities lived on _______________. • The Greeks celebrated many festivals to honor their deities. • They used _____________ to honor the god Dionysus, giving birth to modern _______________ • Every four years a festival was held at Olympia to honor Zeus with various athletic contests. This festival was called the ____________. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: GEOGRAPHY: How did Greece’s geography impact the development of Greek society? EARLY AEGEAN CIVILIATIONS: What two early civilizations populated the Aegean Sea region prior to the classical age of Greece? What happened to each of these civilizations? THE DARK AGE: What was the Greek Dark Age? What brought on this period of Greek history, and why did it eventually end? CLASSICAL GREECE: What are the Iliad and Odyssey? What are basic characteristics of Classical Greek Religion?