Download Animals – Invertebrates Part 1

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Anatomy wikipedia, lookup

Zoopharmacognosy wikipedia, lookup

Regeneration in humans wikipedia, lookup

Human embryogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Precambrian body plans wikipedia, lookup

Drosophila embryogenesis wikipedia, lookup

Animal coloration wikipedia, lookup

Deception in animals wikipedia, lookup

History of zoology (through 1859) wikipedia, lookup

History of zoology since 1859 wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Animals – Invertebrates Part 1
 Animals are the most 
o Animals range in size from 
o Animals are found nearly 
o All animals share a unique set of derived characters:
 Animal cells are 
 Three-stranded protein
 Found in 
 Animals are 
 Diploid parents produce 
 Do not have 
o Most animals have 
 Hox genes are 
 Hox genes 
 A hox gene mutation leads to the development of 
 Each animal phylum has a 
o Vertebrates have an 
o Invertebrates do not have 
o Invertebrates encompass 
o Differences in body plan results from 


Hox genes tell embryonic cells 
Mutations in hox genes lead to 
 Animals are grouped using three criteria:
1) Body plan symmetry
2) Tissue layers
3) Developmental patterns
o There are 2 types of body plan symmetry:
 Bilateral symmetry 
 Radial symmetry 
o Bilateral animals have 
1) Ectoderm 
2) Endoderm 
3) Mesoderm 
o Radial animals have 
1) Ectoderm
2) Endoderm
 Animals are divided into 2 major groups:
o Protostomes 
 Protosomes include 
o Deuterostomes 
 Deuterostomes include 
o Gut cavity formation:
 In protostomes 
 In deuterostomes 
o Cleavage pattern:
 In most protostomes early cell division leads to an eight-celled embryo
twisted in arrangement called 
 In deuterostomes, cells divide into eight-celled embryos with cells that are
lined up atop the other in an arrangement called 
 Phylum Porifera: Sponges have 
o Sponges are the most 
 570 million year old fossils
 Closely related to a 
o Sponges share common characteristics:
 Sessile 
 Reproduce both 
 They are 
o Sponges have several types of specialized cells:
 Pinacocytes 
 Choanocytes 
 Cells have flagella surrounded by a collar of tiny hairlike structures
called 


These cells pull water through the sponge by beating their flagella 
Ameobocytes 


They 
Transport 
 Phylum Cnidaria: Cnidarians are the 
o Cnidarians have 2 body forms:
 Polyps 

Medusas 
o Cnidarians reproduce both 
 Polyps reproduce asexually by 

Medusa reproduce sexually by 
 Fertilized egg develops into a free-swimming larva called a 
 The planula then develops into the 
 Many cnidarian species 
o Cnidarians are made up of 

Outer tissue layer has 3 cell types:
 Contracting cells 

Nerve cells 

Cnidocytes 
o Found all over a cnidarian’s body but 
o A nematocyst is a stinging structure found in both sea
anemones & jellyfish 

Gastrovascular cavity 
 Secretes 
 Also moves 
o The four major cnidarian classes are defined by 
1) Anthozoans 
2) Hydrozoans 
3) Scyphozoans 
4) Cubozoans 
 Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms are 
o Flatworms have a 
o Flatworm’s shape is the direct result of having 
o They can only move oxygen to their cells by 
o There are three classes of flatworms:
1) Planarians 
 Have a 

Mouth is on ventral surface instead of on its 

A muscular tube called 
2) Flukes 
 Have a mouth with a pharynx that opens into 
 They are found in both 
 Tapeworms 
 They have a small head with 

Have no gut, instead they absorb nutrients from 

Adult tapeworm’s body is made up of segments containing 

When segments fill with fertilized eggs 
 Phylum Mollusca: Mollusks are 
o A complete digestive tract has two openings 
o Mollusks share at least one of three features:
1) Radula 
2) Mantle 
3) Ctenidia 
 In water mollusks it is 

In land mollusks 
o Mollusks have a heart and an open circulatory system 

Mollusks have a hemocoel 
o There are 7 classes of mollusks, but the majority of species are found in within
these 3 classes:.
1) Gastropods 
 Includes over 
 Live in both 
 Can be 
2) Pelecypods (aka bivalves) 
 Have a 
 Most are 
3) Cephalopods 
 Have a well developed 
 They are 
o Mollusks use a variety of 
 Most strategies involve 
 Some are hermaphrodites 

Reproduction involves 
 Phylum Annelida: Annelids have 
o Segmentation refers to the 
o Annelids have a closed circulatory system 
o The coelom is a 
 It is divided by partitions called 
 Fluid inside the coelom acts as a 
o Annelid Diet:
 Most eat 
 Some feed on 
o Annelid Reproduction:
 Asexual reproduction 

Sexual reproduction 
 Some species are hermaphrodites
 Some species have separate male & females
o There are three groups of annelids:
 Earthworms
 Marine worms
 Leeches
 Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms (nematodes) 
o They are protostomes with bilateral symmetry
o They are 
o Roundworms have a tough outer skeleton called a 
 Made of 
 Must be shed to 
o Roundworms have a 
o They reproduce 
 Some give 
 In most 
o Many roundworms are 
 Hookworms 

Pinworms 

Guinea worms 